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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327351/parkinson-s-patients-can-rely-on-perspective-cues-to-perceive-3d-space
#1
Alexandra Séverac Cauquil, Fabienne Ory-Magne, Vincent Jardiné, Monique Galitzky, Maxime Rosito, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Simona Celebrini
3D perception, which is necessary for an optimal navigation in our environment, relies on 2 complementary kinds of cues; binocular cues allowing precise depth localization near the point of visual interest and monocular ones that are necessary for correct global perception of visual space. Recent studies described deficient binocular 3D vision in PD patients; here we tested 3D vision in PD patients when based on monocular cues (m3D). Sixteen PD patients and 16 controls had to categorize visual stimuli as perceived in 2D (flat) or 3D (with depth)...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325153/ultra-micronized-palmitoylethanolamide-an-efficacious-adjuvant-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Stefania Brotini, Carlo Schievano, Leonello Guidi
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the subject of intense efforts to develop strategies that slow down or stop disease progression and disability. Substantial evidence points to a prominent role for neuroinflammation in the underlying dopaminergic cell death. Ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) is well-known for its ability to promote the resolution of neuroinflammation and exert neuroprotection. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of um-PEA as adjuvant therapy in patients with advanced PD...
March 21, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#3
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322896/pharmacokinetics-of-opicapone-a-third-generation-comt-inhibitor-after-single-and-multiple-oral-administration-a-comparative-study-in-the-rat
#4
Daniela Gonçalves, Gilberto Alves, Ana Fortuna, Patrício Soares-da-Silva, Amílcar Falcão
Opicapone is a novel potent, reversible and purely peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor that has been developed to be used as an adjunct to levodopa/aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor therapy for Parkinson's disease. Thus, this study aimed to compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of opicapone and its active metabolite (BIA 9-1079) after the administration of single and multiple oral doses to rats. Wistar rats (n=8 per group) were orally treated with single (30, 60 or 90mg/kg) or multiple (30mg/kg once-daily for seven consecutive days) oral doses of opicapone...
March 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320278/cooperative-synthesis-of-dopamine-in-rat-mediobasal-hypothalamus-as-a-compensatory-mechanism-in-hyperprolactinemia
#5
A U Kurina, T S Pronina, L K Dilmukhametova, G V Maleev, M V Ugrumov
Dopamine (DA), synthesized in the mediobasal hypothalamus by dopaminergic neurons containing two enzymes of DA synthesis - tyrosine hydroxylase and decarboxylase of aromatic L-amino acids, or by monoenzymatic non-dopaminergic neurons containing one DA synthesis enzyme in cooperation, is known to have an inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion. Deterioration of this inhibitory control leads to an increase in prolactin concentration in the blood and to the development of hyperprolactinemia syndrome. In a rat model of hyperprolactinemia induced by administration of a neurotoxin causing degeneration of dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons, the level of DA first decreases, leading to an increase in prolactin level (decompensation stage), while later both levels are restored to normal (compensation stage)...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315624/extrapontine-myelinolysis-manifested-selectively-by-acute-severe-parkinsonian-syndrome-case-report
#6
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODMS) is a rare and serious neurologic disorder with acute myelin disintegration, usually in the pontine area (central pontine myelinolysis) and to a lesser extent, even in other areas of the central nervous system (extrapontine myelinolysis). The main underlying mechanism is the change of serum osmolality with quick correction of low mineral levels, mainly hyponatraemia. Clinical manifestation is various and depends on the localization. DESIGN: We describe an acute isolated extrapontine myelinolysis causing acute onset of parkinsonism in a 61-year-old man who developed quickly progressing parkinsonian syndrome after the rapid correction of hyponatraemia...
November 19, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303202/effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-on-vocal-fold-immobility-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Elsa V Arocho-Quinones, Michael J Hammer, Jonathan M Bock, Peter A Pahapill
BACKGROUND: Vocal fold (VF) immobility is a rare, potentially fatal complication of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous reports suggest that subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) may influence laryngeal function, yet the role of STN-DBS on VF immobility remains unexplored. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a patient with advanced PD and bilateral VF immobility ultimately requiring a tracheostomy. To assess the effects of STN-DBS on vocal cord function and to correlate these effects with peripheral motor symptoms at different stimulation settings, the patient was evaluated before and after initiation of bilateral STN-DBS...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299787/first-clinical-experience-with-levodopa-carbidopa-microtablets-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
M Senek, M Hellström, J Albo, P Svenningsson, D Nyholm
BACKGROUND: Levodopa is the most effective symptomatic treatment throughout the course of Parkinson's disease, but as the disease progresses, there may be a need for individualized, fine-tuned treatments. AIM: To evaluate individualized levodopa/carbidopa dosing using microtablets dispensed with a dose dispenser, with respect to efficacy and usability as perceived by patients. METHODS: Patient records and dose dispenser reports from patients previously or currently treated with microtablets and a dose dispenser were reviewed, and a patient questionnaire concerning effect and usability was sent to patients...
March 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299453/simultaneous-determination-of-mao-a-and-b-activity-following-first-time-intake-of-an-irreversible-mao-b-inhibitor-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Thomas Müller, Peter Riederer, Edna Grünblatt
We determined monoamine oxidase-A (plasma) and -B (platelets) enzyme activity in chronic levodopa treated patients with Parkinson's disease after first time intake of an irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor. One patient received 10 mg selegiline and eleven patients took 1 mg rasagiline. A significant decrease of monoamine oxidase-B activity appeared 2 and 4 h following monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor intake in comparison to baseline. We confirm with this design, that rasagiline and selegiline inhibit monoamine oxidase-B but not monoamine oxidase-A after single dosing...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289795/-pharmacological-treatment-of-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-diseases
#10
W H Jost
Since the 1960s many substance classes have been introduced for treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The most important and effective medication is levodopa (L-dopa) always in combination with a decarboxylase inhibitor. In addition, dopamine agonists, monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors, catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, N‑methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists and very rarely anticholinergics are administered depending on the motor symptoms, age and a multitude of other factors. Fortunately, within the substance classes there are various preparations, which also have different effects...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286180/dysregulation-of-bet-proteins-in-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia
#11
David A Figge, David G Standaert
Levodopa (L-DOPA) remains the most effective pharmacological treatment for Parkinson Disease (PD) but its use is limited by the development of debilitating drug-related side effects, particularly L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). LID is a consequence of long-term L-DOPA use, and in model systems is characterized by a "priming effect", whereby initial administrations of L-DOPA trigger a sensitized biochemical and transcriptional response upon subsequent dopaminergic stimulation. Preliminary studies into the mechanisms underlying this cellular memory have indicated an important role for epigenetic change but many of the downstream mechanisms remain unknown...
March 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282816/my-25-stimulating-years-with-dbs-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Marwan Hariz
The year 2017 marks the 30th anniversary of the birth of modern deep brain stimulation (DBS), which was introduced by Benabid, Pollak et al. in 1987, initially targeting the motor thalamus to treat tremor, and subsequently targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for treatment of symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). STN DBS is undoubtedly "the most important discovery since levodopa", as stated by David Marsden in 1994. In 2014, The Lasker- DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award to "honor two scientists who developed deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus", was bestowed upon Benabid and DeLong...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279773/deep-brain-stimulation-of-pedunculopontine-nucleus-for-postural-instability-and-gait-disorder-after-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#13
Jia-Wei Wang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Yun-Peng Wang, Ji-Ping Li, Yong-Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Postural instability and gait disorder(PIGD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been a great challenge in the clinical practice since PIGD is closely linked to major morbidity and mortality in PD. Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been considered as a potential promising target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of PIGD. Thus, this meta-analysis of individual patient data (IPD) was performed to assess the effects of PPN DBS on PIGD in PD patients and explore the factors predicting good outcome...
March 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279509/-medical-and-surgical-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Luc Defebvre, Caroline Moreau
The treatment of Parkinson's disease is symptomatic with the use of dopaminergic medications: levodopa, dopaminergic agonists and enzymatic inhibitors. At the initial stage, the main goals are to improve the quality of life of patients and delay the onset of motor complications, using a combination of these therapies taking into account both clinical disability and tolerance of different treatments. At the stage of motor and non-motor fluctuations inhibitors of MAO-B and COMT are proposed; amantadine may limit moderate dyskinesias...
March 6, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276779/development-of-new-levodopa-treatment-strategies-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-bedside-to-bench-to-bedside
#15
Sten-Magnus Aquilonius, Dag Nyholm
This review will illustrate the process of moving from an idea through preclinical research and Galenic developments into clinical investigations and finally to approval by regulatory agencies within the European Union. The two new treatment strategies described, levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel and levodopa/carbidopa microtablets, for advanced Parkinson's disease, have been developed in collaborative research within departments at Uppsala University. With this historical approach, reference priority is given to reports considered to be of special importance for this more than two decades long process 'from bedside to bench to bedside'...
March 3, 2017: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276260/holothuria-scabra-extracts-exhibit-anti-parkinson-potential-in-c-elegans-a-model-for-anti-parkinson-testing
#16
Pawanrat Chalorak, Prapaporn Jattujan, Saksit Nobsathian, Tanate Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with aggregation of α-synuclein and selective death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, thereby leading to cognitive and motor impairments. Nowadays, the drugs commonly used for PD treatment, such as levodopa, provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, seeking new drugs against PD, especially from plants and marine organisms, is one of the major research areas to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the anti-Parkinson activity of the extracts from the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273839/parkinson-s-disease-from-pathogenesis-to-pharmacogenomics
#17
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most important age-related neurodegenerative disorder in developed societies, after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the fourth decade of life to over 1900 per 100,000 in people over 80 years of age. As a movement disorder, the PD phenotype is characterized by rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Parkinson's disease -related neurodegeneration is likely to occur several decades before the onset of the motor symptoms. Potential risk factors include environmental toxins, drugs, pesticides, brain microtrauma, focal cerebrovascular damage, and genomic defects...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273522/determination-of-catecholamines-and-endogenous-related-compounds-in-rat-brain-tissue-exploring-their-native-fluorescence-and-liquid-chromatography
#18
Beatriz M Fonseca, Márcio Rodrigues, Ana C Cristóvão, Daniela Gonçalves, Ana Fortuna, Liliana Bernardino, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
The profiling analysis of catecholamines and their metabolites in brain tissue offers a crucial key to understand their functions in the body and the opportunity to follow up neural diseases. A rapid and simple liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) method was developed and validated for simultaneously measuring several catecholamines and endogenous related compounds in the rat brain tissue samples. The target analytes measured in this bioanalytical assay were levodopa (L-DOPA), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), 3-O-methyldopa (3-O-MD), and homovanillic acid (HVA), being the 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA) used as internal standard (IS)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271290/arterial-spin-labelling-detects-posterior-cortical-hypoperfusion-in-non-demented-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Zoe Joanna Syrimi, Lubomir Vojtisek, Ilona Eliasova, Jana Viskova, Alena Svatkova, Jiri Vanicek, Irena Rektorova
While previous studies suggested that perfusion abnormalities in Parkinson's disease (PD) are driven by dementia, our study aimed to identify perfusion underpinning of cognitive alteration in non-demented PD patients. Cerebral blood flow was measured using arterial spin labelling (ASL) in 28 PD patients (age 65 years ± 9.9 SD) and 16 age-matched healthy controls (HC) (age 65 years ± 7.8 SD), who also underwent neurological and cognitive testing. The 3D pseudocontinuous ASL and T2-weighted scans from 22 PD patients and 16 HC were analysed in a voxel-wise manner using SPM8 software...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263159/-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update-on-new-neuroimaging-methods-and-treatment-possibilities
#20
Birgitte Liang Chen Thomsen, Damian Marc Herz, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Annemette Løkkegaard
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) represents a severe adverse effect of long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease with levodopa. Neuroimaging studies have contributed to our understanding of LID and may help to identify patients at risk of developing LID. Amantadine can be used for the treatment of LID, and novel drugs are under development. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus alleviates LID, the former indirectly by reducing levodopa intake, the latter through direct effects...
March 6, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
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