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Rosa M Paragliola, Salvatore M Corsello
Central adrenal insufficiency represents a life-threatening disorder that results from a reduced cortisol production due to an impairment production of adrenocorticotropic hormone. In particular, secondary AI results from pituitary disease that impedes the release of ACTH, while tertiary adrenal insufficiency is caused from an impaired synthesis of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Central adrenal insufficiency has an estimated prevalence of 150-280 per million, resulting more common than primary AI. Prompt diagnosis and management of this condition is crucial, but the diagnostic investigation can often be challenging, in particular in cases of recent onset of secondary adrenal insufficiency...
July 27, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
Ka-Ming Wai, Edward Y Y Ng, Charles M S Wong, Tanya Z Tan, Tang-Huang Lin, Wei-Hung Lien, Peter A Tanner, Carlo S H Wang, Kevin K L Lau, Neon M H He, Jhoon Kim
Aerosols affect the insolation at ground and thus the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, a measure of aerosol pollution) plays an important role on the variation of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) at locations with different aerosol climatology. The aerosol effects upon PET were studied for the first time at four East Asian cities by coupling a radiative transfer model and a human thermal comfort model which were previously well evaluated. Evident with the MODIS and AERONET AOD observations, the aerosol pollution at Beijing and Seoul was higher than at Chiayi (Taiwan) and Hong Kong...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Research
Nan Li, Weifei Zhang, Mashooq Khan, Ling Lin, Jin-Ming Lin
Stimuli-responsive carriers have extensively attracted attention in recent years. However, long-term and real-time tracking ability with stimuli-responsive carrier is still in its infant stage due to the limitations such as, low efficacy, instability and cytotoxicity in a bio-environment. In this work, we developed a reduction-sensitive carrier composed of lipoic acid-modified low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (LA-PEI) and large surface ratio MoS2 nanosheet integrated via disulfide bond to mimic a high molecular weight PEI...
July 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Chun-Gang Min, Paulo J O Ferreira, Luís Pinto da Silva
Coelenterazine is a widespread bioluminescent substrate for a diverse set of marine species. Moreover, its imidazopyrazinone core is present in eight phyla of bioluminescent organisms. Given their very attractive intrinsic properties, these bioluminescent systems have been used in bioimaging, photodynamic therapy of cancer, as gene reporter and in sensing applications, among others. While it is known that bioluminescence results from the thermolysis of high-energy dioxetanones, the mechanism and dioxetanone species responsible for the singlet chemiexcitation of Coelenterazine are not fully understood...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Daniel K Macharia, Qiyun Tian, Liang Chen, Yingqi Sun, Nuo Yu, Chuanglong He, Han Wang, Zhigang Chen
The simultaneous imaging and photothermal therapy of tumors have attracted much attention, and a prerequisite is to obtain multifunctional nanomaterials. Ideally, one kind of nanoparticles with single component can be used as both imaging agent and photothermal agent. Herein, we have developed the PEGylated (NH4)xWO3 (denoted as (NH4)xWO3-PEG) nanorods as multifunctional nanoparticles with single semiconductor component. (NH4)xWO3-PEG nanorods with about 30nm diameter and length of several hundred nanometers have been obtained through a solvothermal synthesis-PEGylation two-step route...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Mohamed Teleb, Bhimanna Kuppast, Katerina Spyridaki, George Liapakis, Hesham Fahmy
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important neuropeptide hormone which controls the body's overall response to stress. It plays a crucial role in regulating the behavioral, cardiovascular, immune and gastrointestinal systems. Over-activation of the CRF system has been implicated in many disorders including anxiety, depression, drug addiction, hypertension, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), peptic ulcers, inflammation and others. Thus, binding of CRF to its receptors is an attractive target to develop new medications which aim at treating ailments associated with chronic stress...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Timothy Nj Bullock
Cancer vaccines have offered unrequited hope as a mechanism for rapidly and potently eliciting a patient's immune system to counter tumors. Initial results from preclinical mouse models have not translated to substantial benefit to patients, suggesting that either the targets or the vaccination approach were inadequate. Recent innovations in antigen identification have spiked renewed interest vaccination technologies. This has coincided with a detailed molecular understanding of the coordinated steps in postactivation support of T cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, leading to the development of novel targets and combinations that are substantially more effective than first and second generation cancer vaccines in preclinical models...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
Hao Huang, Yuhui Weng, Lihao Zheng, Bixia Yao, Wen Weng, Xiuchun Lin
The application of fluorescent nanoparticles to the detection of inorganic ions and organic compounds has been attracted wide attention recently. In this paper, an "off-on" method for highly sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) and l-cysteine (l-Cys) or Hg(2+) and I(-) using home-made nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) as fluorescent probe was reported. The N-CQDs with a fluorescence quantum yield of 42.2% were prepared using tartaric acid, citric acid and ethanediamine as the precursors in the oleic acid media...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Tatyana A Gubin, Hari P Iyer, Shirlene N Liew, Aartik Sarma, Alex Revelos, João Ribas, Babak Movassaghi, Zen M Chu, Ayesha N Khalid, Maulik D Majmudar, Christopher Xiang Lee
MIT Hacking Medicine is a student, academic, and community-led organization that uses systems-oriented "healthcare hacking" to address challenges around innovation in healthcare. The group has organized more than 80 events around the world that attract participants with diverse backgrounds. These participants are trained to address clinical needs from the perspective of multiple stakeholders and emphasize utility and implementation viability of proposed solutions. We describe the MIT Hacking Medicine model as a potential method to integrate collaboration and training in rapid innovation techniques into academic medical centers...
July 26, 2017: Cell Systems
Supratim Dey, Asokan Anbanandam, Ben E Mumford, Roberto N De Guzman
Many pathogens such as Shigella and other bacteria assemble the type III secretion system (T3SS) nanoinjector to inject virulence proteins into their target cells to cause infectious diseases in humans. The rise of drug resistance among pathogens that rely on the T3SS for infectivity, plus the dearth of new antibiotics require alternative strategies in developing new antibiotics. The Shigella T3SS tip protein IpaD is an attractive target for developing anti-infectives because of its essential role in virulence and its exposure on the bacterial surface...
July 27, 2017: ChemMedChem
Yasuzumi Kishimoto, Bisei Ohkawara, Tadahiro Sakai, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Chisa Shukunami, Denitsa Docheva, Kinji Ohno
After tendon injuries, biomechanical properties of the injured tendon are not fully recovered in most cases. Modulation of signaling pathways, which are involved in tendon development and tendon repair, is one of attractive modalities to facilitate proper regeneration of the injured tendon. The roles of TGF-β signaling in tendon homeostasis and tendon development have been elucidated. In contrast, the roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in tendon remain mostly elusive. We found that the number of β-catenin-positive cells was increased at the injured site, suggesting involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in tendon healing...
2017: PloS One
Mahamat Hissene Mahamat, Mallaye Peka, Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse, Kat S Rock, Mahamat Abdelrahim Toko, Justin Darnas, Guihini Mollo Brahim, Ali Bachar Alkatib, Wilfrid Yoni, Inaki Tirados, Fabrice Courtin, Samuel P C Brand, Cyrus Nersy, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Steve J Torr, Mike J Lehane, Philippe Solano
BACKGROUND: Gambian sleeping sickness or HAT (human African trypanosomiasis) is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense transmitted by riverine species of tsetse. A global programme aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 and stop transmission by 2030. In the South of Chad, the Mandoul area is a persistent focus of Gambian sleeping sickness where around 100 HAT cases were still diagnosed and treated annually until 2013. Pre-2014, control of HAT relied solely on case detection and treatment, which lead to a gradual decrease in the number of cases of HAT due to annual screening of the population...
July 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jennifer Lewis, Debi Roberson, Tom Foulsham
Research has demonstrated that how "cute" an infant is perceived to be has consequences for caregiving. Infants with facial abnormalities receive lower ratings of cuteness, but relatively little is known about how different abnormalities and their location affect these aesthetic judgements. The objective of the current study was to compare the impact of different abnormalities on the perception of infant faces, while controlling for infant identity. In two experiments, adult participants gave ratings of cuteness and attractiveness in response to face images that had been edited to introduce common facial abnormalities...
2017: PloS One
Hoi Ling Luk, Johannes Feist, J Jussi Toppari, Gerrit Groenhof
When photoactive molecules interact strongly with confined light modes as found in plasmonic structures or optical cavities, new hybrid light-matter states can form, the so-called polaritons. These polaritons are coherent superpositions (in the quantum mechanical sense) of excitations of the molecules and of the cavity photon or surface plasmon. Recent experimental and theoretical works suggest that access to these polaritons in cavities could provide a totally new and attractive paradigm for controlling chemical reactions that falls in between traditional chemical catalysis and coherent laser control...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Luís Pinto da Silva, Rui F J Pereira, Carla M Magalhães, Joaquim C G Esteves da Silva
The bioluminescent reaction of the "sea firefly" Cypridina hilgen-dorfii is a prototypical system for marine bioluminescence, as its substrate possesses an imidazopyrazinone core that is a common link among organisms of eight phyla. The elucidation of the mecha-nism behind Cypridina bioluminescence is essential for future applications in bioimaging, biomedicine and bioanalysis. In this study we have investigated the key step of chemiexcitation with a combined experimental and theoretical approach. The obtained results indicate that neutral dioxetanone is responsible for efficient chemiexcitation, as the thermolysis of this species gives access to a long region of the potential energy surface (PES), where the ground and excited singlet states are degenerated...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Xiaoxing Zhang, Yi Li, Song Xiao, Ju Tang, Shuangshuang Tian, Zaitao Deng
SF6, the most widely used electrical-equipment-insulation gas, has serious greenhouse effects. C5F10O has attracted much attention as an alternative gas in recent two years, but the environmental impact of its decomposition products is unclear. In this work, the decomposition characteristics of C5F10O were studied based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and density functional theory. We found that the amount of decomposition products of C5F10O, namely, CF4, C2F6, C3F6, C3F8, C4F10, and C6F14, increased with increased number of discharges...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xianglong Liu, Zhujin Li, Cheng Deng, Dacheng Tao
Hashing has been proved an attractive technique for fast nearest neighbor search over big data. Compared to the projection based hashing methods, prototype based ones own stronger power to generate discriminative binary codes for the data with complex intrinsic structure. However, existing prototype based methods like Spherical Hashing (SPH) and K-Means Hashing (KMH) still suffer from the ineffective coding that utilizes the complete binary codes in a hypercube. To address this problem, we propose an adaptive binary quantization (ABQ) method that learns a discriminative hash function with prototypes associated with small unique binary codes...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Sonya Rusiyanova Tsibranska, Anela Ivanova, Slavka Tcholakova, Nikolai D Denkov
Escin belongs to a large class of natural bio-surfactants, called saponins, which are present in more than 500 plant species. Saponins are applied in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and beverage industries, due to their variously expressed bioactivity and surface activity. In particular, Escin adsorption layers at the air-water interface exhibit unusually high surface elastic modulus (> 1100 mN/m) and high surface viscosity (ca. 130 N.s/m). The molecular origin of these unusual surface rheological properties is still unclear...
July 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Meera Nair, Sardul Singh Sandhu, Anil Kumar Sharma
BACKGROUND: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (IPSC) Technology is the most advanced research as it offers an attractive alternative for establishing patient-specific IPSCs to recapitulate phenotypes of not only monogenic diseases (viz. Thalassaemia, Sickle cell anemia, Haemophilia, Tay-Sachs disease), but also late-onset polygenic diseases (viz. Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia). Over the hindsight, numerous studies of the past and current scientists have led to the production, maturation and understanding of induced pluripotent stem cell technology and its use in basic and clinical research...
July 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Joana Sousa, Gilberto Alves, Ana Fortuna, Amílcar Falcão
PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential of levofloxacin intranasal administration as a promising alternative approach to treat local infections such as chronic rhinosinusitis, by delivering drug concentrations directly to the site of infection. METHODS: Drug concentrations were measured in plasma, olfactory bulb and nasal mucosa of anterior (ANM) and posterior regions after intranasal (0.24 mg/kg) and intravenous (10 mg/kg) administration to rats, and pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between routes...
July 26, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
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