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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343304/geometry-calibration-between-x-ray-source-and-detector-for-tomosynthesis-with-a-portable-x-ray-system
#1
Kohei Sato, Takashi Ohnishi, Masashi Sekine, Hideaki Haneishi
PURPOSE: Tomosynthesis is attracting attention as a low-dose tomography technology compared with X-ray CT. However, conventional tomosynthesis imaging devices are large and stationary. Furthermore, there is a limitation in the working range of the X-ray source during image acquisition. We have previously proposed the use of a portable X-ray device for tomosynthesis that can be used for ward rounds and emergency medicine. The weight of this device can be reduced by using a flat panel detector (FPD), and flexibility is realized by the free placement of the X-ray source and FPD...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342964/establishing-a-novel-biosynthetic-pathway-for-the-production-of-3-4-dihydroxybutyric-acid-from-xylose-in-escherichia-coli
#2
Jia Wang, Xiaolin Shen, Rachit Jain, Jian Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
3-Hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) is an attractive building block owing to its broad applications in pharmaceutical industry. Currently, 3HBL is commercially produced by chemical routes using petro-derived carbohydrates, which involves hazardous materials and harsh processing conditions. Only one biosynthetic pathway has been reported for synthesis of 3HBL and its hydrolyzed form 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) using glucose and glycolic acid as the substrates and coenzyme A as the activator, which involves multiple steps (>10 steps) and suffers from low productivity and yield...
March 23, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342963/new-insights-into-cellular-cholesterol-acquisition-promoter-analysis-of-human-hmgcr-and-sqle-two-key-control-enzymes-in-cholesterol-synthesis
#3
Vicky Howe, Laura J Sharpe, Anika V Prabhu, Andrew J Brown
BACKGROUND: The two control points of cholesterol synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) are known targets of the transcription factor sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2). Yet the location of the sterol-regulatory elements (SREs) and cofactor binding sites, nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1), have not been satisfactorily mapped in the human SQLE promoter, or at all in the human HMGCR promoter...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342941/is-there-any-crosstalk-between-the-chemotaxis-and-virulence-induction-signaling-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#4
REVIEW
Minliang Guo, Zhiwei Huang, Jing Yang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil-born phytopathogenic bacterium, is well known as a nature's engineer due to its ability to genetically transform the host by transferring a DNA fragment (called T-DNA) from its Ti plasmid to host-cell genome. To combat the harsh soil environment and seek the appropriate host, A. tumefaciens can sense and be attracted by a large number of chemical compounds released by wounded host. As a member of α-proteobacterium, A. tumefaciens has a chemotaxis system different from that found in Escherichia coli, since many chemoattractants for A...
March 23, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342898/temperature-induces-significant-changes-in-both-glycolytic-reserve-and-mitochondrial-spare-respiratory-capacity-in-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#5
Mihail I Mitov, Jennifer W Harris, Michael C Alstott, Yekaterina Y Zaytseva, B Mark Evers, D Allan Butterfield
Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, in a microplate, label-free detection approach. This study investigate how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342814/tear-cytokine-profile-of-glaucoma-patients-treated-with-preservative-free-or-preserved-latanoprost
#6
Jose M Martinez-de-la-Casa, Francisco Perez-Bartolome, Elena Urcelay, Jose L Santiago, Javier Moreno-Montañes, Pedro Arriola-Villalobos, Jose M Benitez-Del-Castillo, Julian Garcia-Feijoo
PURPOSE: To determine variations in cytokine levels of glaucoma patients treated either with preservative-free latanoprost or preserved latanoprost, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: Tear samples were collected from 39 healthy subjects, 20 glaucoma patients treated with preserved latanoprost, and 20 patients treated with preservative-free latanoprost. A set of 27 inflammatory cytokines was analyzed in each group, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL9, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) basic, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ, interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemo attractant protein (MCP)-1MCAF, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
March 22, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342583/affinity-chromatographic-methodologies-based-on-immobilized-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-isoform-1-and-application-in-protein-ligand-interaction-analysis-and-bioactive-compounds-screening-from-traditional-medicine
#7
Qian Li, Pan Qiao, Xiu Chen, Jing Wang, Liujiao Bian, Xiaohui Zheng
Voltage dependent anion channel isoform 1 (VDAC-1) serves as an attractive target of anti-cancer drugs by mediating the entry and exit of metabolites between cytoplasm and mitochondria. This work reports on the preparation of a VDAC-1-based bioaffinity chromatographic stationary phase by linking the protein on lecithin modified microspheres. An assay of chromatographic methods including frontal analysis, zonal elution, injection dependent analysis and nonlinear chromatography were utilized to investigate the bindings of ATP, NADH and NADPH to VDAC-1...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342572/exploring-the-atomic-structure-of-1-8nm-monolayer-protected-gold-clusters-with-aberration-corrected-stem
#8
Jian Liu, Nan Jian, Isabel Ornelas, Alexander J Pattison, Tanja Lahtinen, Kirsi Salorinne, Hannu Häkkinen, Richard E Palmer
Monolayer-protected (MP) Au clusters present attractive quantum systems with a range of potential applications e.g. in catalysis. Knowledge of the atomic structure is needed to obtain a full understanding of their intriguing physical and chemical properties. Here we employed aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (ac-STEM), combined with multislice simulations, to make a round-robin investigation of the atomic structure of chemically synthesised clusters with nominal composition Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 provided by two different research groups...
November 22, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342383/own-attractiveness-and-perceived-relationship-quality-shape-sensitivity-in-women-s-memory-for-other-men-on-the-attractiveness-dimension
#9
Christopher D Watkins, Mike J Nicholls, Carlota Batres, Dengke Xiao, Sean Talamas, David I Perrett
Although recent work suggests that opposite-sex facial attractiveness is less salient in memory when individuals are in a committed romantic relationship, romantic relationship quality can vary over time. In light of this, we tested whether activating concerns about romantic relationship quality strengthens memory for attractive faces. Partnered women were exposed briefly to faces manipulated in shape cues to attractiveness before either being asked to think about a moment of emotional closeness or distance in their current relationship...
March 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#10
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340417/interfacial-interactions-between-skeletonema-costatum-extracellular-organic-matter-and-metal-oxides-implications-for-ceramic-membrane-filtration
#11
Noor Zaouri, Leonardo Gutierrez, Laure Dramas, Daniel Garces, Jean-Philippe Croue
In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms...
March 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340413/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-coumarin-based-benzamides-as-potent-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-and-anticancer-agents
#12
Tooba Abdizadeh, Mohammad Reza Kalani, Khalil Abnous, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Bibi Zahra Khashyarmanesh, Rahman Abdizadeh, Razieh Ghodsi, Farzin Hadizadeh
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. It has four classes (I-IV), among them especially class I isozyme are involved in promoting tumor cells proliferation, angiogenesis, differentiation, invasion and metastasis and also viable targets for cancer therapeutics. A novel series of coumarin-based benzamides was designed and synthesized as HDAC inhibitors. The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds (8a-u) was evaluated against six human cancer cell lines including HCT116, A2780, MCF7, PC3, HL60 and A549 and a single normal cell line (Huvec)...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340263/myrciaria-dubia-an-amazonian-fruit-population-structure-and-its-implications-for-germplasm-conservation-and-genetic-improvement
#13
C F Nunes, T A Setotaw, M Pasqual, E A Chagas, E G Santos, D N Santos, C G B Lima, G M A Cançado
Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu) is an Amazon tree that produces a tart fruit with high vitamin C content. It is probably the fruit with the highest vitamin C content among all Brazilian fruit crops and it can be used to supplement daily vitamin C dose. This property has attracted the attention of consumers and, consequently, encouraged fruit farmers to produce it. In order to identify and select potential accessions for commercial exploitation and breeding programs, M. dubia has received considerable research attention...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339788/intravenous-dendritic-cell-administration-enhances-suppression-of-lung-metastasis-induced-by-carbon-ion-irradiation
#14
Ken Ando, Hidetoshi Fujita, Akihiro Hosoi, Liqiu Ma, Masaru Wakatsuki, Ken-Ichiro Seino, Kazuhiro Kakimi, Takashi Imai, Takashi Shimokawa, Takashi Nakano
Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is an advanced radiotherapy and has achieved good local control, even in tumors that are resistant to conventional photon beam radiotherapy (PBRT). However, distant metastasis control is an important issue. Recently, the combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy has attracted the attention. In immunotherapy, dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the anti-tumor immune system. However, the mechanisms underlying the combination therapy of DCs and radiotherapy have been unclear...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339669/in-their-own-words-young-adults-menthol-cigarette-initiation-perceptions-experiences-and-regulation-perspectives
#15
Olivia A Wackowski, Kiameesha R Evans, Melissa B Harrell, Alexandra Loukas, M Jane Lewis, Cristine D Delnevo, Cheryl L Perry
Background: Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately used by young people and have been called smoking starter products. However, limited qualitative research exists on young adults' perceptions of and experiences with these products, with much of it based on document reviews of the tobacco industry's research. Methods: We conducted six focus groups with young adult (ages 18-24) menthol smokers in New Jersey (half with black smokers) between December 2014 and March 2015...
February 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339665/an-evaluation-of-a-public-private-partnership-to-reduce-artificial-trans-fatty-acids-in-england-2011-16
#16
C Knai, L James, M Petticrew, E Eastmure, M A Durand, N Mays
The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) is a public-private partnership in England involving voluntary pledges between government, and business and other public organizations to improve public health. One such voluntary pledge refers to the reduction of trans fatty acids (TFAs) in the food supply in England by either pledging not to use artificial TFAs or pledging artificial TFA removal. This paper evaluates the RD's effectiveness at encouraging signatory organizations to remove artificially produced TFAs from their products...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339661/the-effectiveness-of-current-french-health-warnings-displayed-on-alcohol-advertisements-and-alcoholic-beverages
#17
Gloria Dossou, Karine Gallopel-Morvan, Jacques-François Diouf
Many countries use health warnings in an attempt to regulate alcohol consumption. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence in the research on alcohol warnings to support decision-making on effective health policies. This study explores the effectiveness of two mandatory warnings introduced in France in 1991 and 2007: the first (Alcohol abuse is harmful) is displayed on alcohol advertisements; the second (a pictogram) on bottles. Given that advertising content regulations have been implemented in some countries to reduce the attractiveness of alcohol marketing (e...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339649/lgbtq-youth-and-young-adult-perspectives-on-a-culturally-tailored-group-smoking-cessation-program
#18
Neill Bruce Baskerville, Alanna Shuh, Katy Wong-Francq, Darly Dash, Aneta Abramowicz
Introduction: The prevalence of smoking among LGBTQ youth and young adults (YYAs) is much higher than that of non-LGBTQ young people. The current study explored LGBTQ YYA perceptions of a culturally tailored group smoking cessation counselling program, along with how the intervention could be improved. Methods: We conducted focus groups (n = 24) with 204 LGBTQ YYAs in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada. Open-ended questions focused on their feelings, likes and dislikes, concerns and additional ideas for a culturally tailored group cessation counselling intervention...
January 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339645/the-extent-of-root-resorption-and-tooth-movement-following-the-application-of-ascending-and-descending-magnetic-forces-a-prospective-split-mouth-microcomputed-tomography-study
#19
Tiffany Teen Yu Huang, Selma Elekdag-Turk, Oyku Dalci, Mohammed Almuzian, Ersan Ilsay Karadeniz, Selma Elekdag-Turk, Carmen Gonzales, Peter Petocz, Tamer Turk, M Ali Darendeliler
Objective: Various factors have been examined in the literature in an attempt to reduce the incidence and severity of root resorption. The purpose of the present investigation is to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in relation to force level using gradually increasing (ascending) and decreasing (descending) orthodontic force generated by magnets on the severity of Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Iatrogenic Root Resorption (OIIRR) and amount of tooth movement. Methods: Twenty maxillary first premolars from 10 patients were subjected to ascending (25-225 g, magnets in attraction) and descending (225 to 25 g, magnets in repulsion) buccal forces using a split mouth design over an 8-week period...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339596/health-warning-labels-for-smokeless-tobacco-the-impact-of-graphic-images-on-attention-recall-and-craving
#20
Elizabeth G Klein, Amanda J Quisenberry, Abigail B Shoben, Sarah Cooper, Amy K Ferketich, Micah Berman, Ellen Peters, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. Methods: A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall)...
January 28, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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