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Retinal ganglion cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904478/neuro-rejuvenation-for-neuronal-function
#1
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Richard K Lee
Neurodegenerative eye diseases, such as glaucoma, cause irreversible vision loss in millions of patients worldwide, creating serious medical, economic and social issues. Like other mammalian central nervous system tracts, optic nerve intrinsically lacks the capacity for axonal growth and its surrounding environment is also non-permissive to regeneration. Any axonal damage also triggers a vicious cycle of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Exploring methods that can enhance RGCs survival and promote axonal regeneration will not only enable vision restoration for millions of patients, but also shed light on the treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904477/axon-injury-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-neurodegeneration
#2
REVIEW
Yang Hu
Injury to central nervous system axons is a common early characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Depending on its location and the type of neuron, axon injury often leads to axon degeneration, retrograde neuronal cell death and progressive permanent loss of vital neuronal functions. Although these sequential events are clearly connected, ample evidence indicates that neuronal soma and axon degenerations are active autonomous processes with distinct molecular mechanisms. By exploiting the anatomical and technical advantages of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC)/optic nerve (ON) system, we demonstrated that inhibition of the PERK-eIF2α-CHOP pathway and activation of the X-box binding protein 1 pathway synergistically protect RGC soma and axon, and preserve visual function, in both acute ON traumatic injury and chronic glaucomatous neuropathy...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903729/joint-encoding-of-object-motion-and-motion-direction-in-the-salamander-retina
#3
Norma Krystyna Kühn, Tim Gollisch
: The processing of motion in visual scenes is important for detecting and tracking moving objects as well as for monitoring self-motion through the induced optic flow. Specialized neural circuits have been identified in the vertebrate retina for detecting motion direction or for distinguishing between object motion and self-motion, although little is known about how information about these distinct features of visual motion is combined. The salamander retina, which is a widely used model system for analyzing retinal function, contains object-motion-sensitive (OMS) ganglion cells, which strongly respond to local motion signals but are suppressed by global image motion...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903703/retinal-and-non-retinal-contributions-to-extraclassical-surround-suppression-in-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#4
Tucker G Fisher, Henry J Alitto, W Martin Usrey
: Extraclassical surround suppression is a prominent receptive field property of neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the dorsal thalamus, influencing stimulus size tuning, response gain control, and temporal features of visual responses. Despite evidence for the involvement of both retinal and non-retinal circuits in the generation of extraclassical suppression, we lack an understanding of the relative roles played by these pathways and how they interact during visual stimulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898981/macular-features-in-retinitis-pigmentosa-correlations-among-ganglion-cell-complex-thickness-capillary-density-and-macular-function
#5
Lisa Toto, Enrico Borrelli, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Alfonso Senatore, Luca Di Antonio, Marta Di Nicola, Paolo Carpineto, Leonardo Mastropasqua
Purpose: To investigate correlations among macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) layer thickness, macular capillary density, and macular function in patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Fourteen patients (28 eyes) with previous diagnosis of RP were enrolled. The diagnosis of these conditions was made based on both clinical features and electrophysiological examination. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG)...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897119/glaucoma-hot-topics-in-pharmacology
#6
Shiama I Balendra, Parth Arvind Shah, Mishank Jain, Andrzej Grzybowski, Francesca M Cordeiro
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma comprises a group of neurodegenerative diseases resulting in retinal ganglion cell death within the optic nerve head. It is projected to affect almost 80 million people worldwide by 2020. The condition's asymptomatic nature translates to over half of glaucoma sufferers being unaware of their condition. By the time of diagnosis, irreversible blindness is likely to have occurred. Prime areas of glaucoma research therefore include identification and optimization of risk factors for the disease, accurate and early diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic methods...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895937/medical-management-of-glaucoma-in-the-21st-century-from-a-canadian-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Paul Harasymowycz, Catherine Birt, Patrick Gooi, Lisa Heckler, Cindy Hutnik, Delan Jinapriya, Lesya Shuba, David Yan, Radmila Day
Glaucoma is a medical term describing a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fibre layer and resulting in changes in the optic nerve head. Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. With the aging population it is expected that the prevalence of glaucoma will continue to increase. Despite recent advances in imaging and visual field testing techniques that allow establishment of earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation, significant numbers of glaucoma patients are undiagnosed and present late in the course of their disease...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894240/sumoylation-regulation-of-retina-development-and-functions
#8
L Zhang, D W-C Li
The structure and developmental mechanisms of vertebrate retina are highly conserved. One of the most distinctive events during retinogenesis is the temporally and spatially generation of seven types of retinal cells from the multipotent retinal progenitor cells. The importance and prevalence of SUMOylation in regulation of this process through modulation of gene expression and protein function diversity have been increasingly appreciated. Here, we review the biological significance of SUMOylation in retina development, examine how SUMOylation balances the proliferation and cell cycle exit of retinal progenitor cells, and finally discuss the molecular mechanisms mediating the specification of different retina neurons and photoreceptors through modulation of various transcription factors...
November 28, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893888/potential-neuroprotective-effects-of-an-lsd1-inhibitor-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-via-p38-mapk-activity
#9
Takayuki Tsutsumi, Keiichiro Iwao, Hideki Hayashi, Tomoko Kirihara, Takahiro Kawaji, Toshihiro Inoue, Shinjiro Hino, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Hidenobu Tanihara
Purpose: The epigenetic mechanisms associated with ocular neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine the role of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), which represses transcription by removing the methyl group from methylated lysine 4 of histone H3, in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival, and to investigate the details of the neuroprotective mechanism of tranylcypromine, a major LSD1 inhibitor. Methods: The authors evaluated whether tranylcypromine contributes to neuronal survival following stress-induced damage using primary cultured rat RGCs and in vivo N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893100/do-intense-perimetric-stimuli-saturate-the-healthy-visual-system
#10
Andrew J Anderson, Allison M McKendrick, Andrew Turpin
Purpose: A recent proposal for why glaucomatous perimetric sensitivities of approximately 15 to 19 dB or less are unreliable involves the idea that the neural response of normal retinal ganglion cells saturates for intense perimetric stimuli. A predicted consequence of this saturation is that the neural response for two different high intensity stimuli will be the same, leading to an inability to discriminate between them. We test that prediction. Methods: We used a two-interval forced-choice method of constant stimuli (7 steps, 40 presentations/step) to measure the ability of four healthy observers to discriminate between different intensity Size III perimetric stimuli at 0°, 9°, and 21° eccentricity...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893096/chemogenetic-activation-of-iprgcs-drives-changes-in-dark-adapted-scotopic-electroretinogram
#11
Nina Milosavljevic, Annette E Allen, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Robert J Lucas
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of activating melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) on dark-adapted (scotopic) electroretinograms (ERG). Methods: We used mice (Opn4Cre/+) expressing cre recombinase in melanopsin-expressing cells for a targeted gene delivery of a chemogenetic Gq-coupled receptor, hM3Dq, to ipRGCs. Intraperitoneal injection of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) at 5 mg/kg was used for acute activation of hM3Dq and thus excitation of ipRGCs in darkness...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891197/the-oscillation-like-activity-in-bullfrog-on-off-retinal-ganglion-cell
#12
Xiao-Wei Qiu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pu-Ming Zhang, Pei-Ji Liang
Oscillatory activity of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) has been observed in various species. It was reported such oscillatory activity is raised within large neural network and involved in retinal information coding. In the present research, we found an oscillation-like activity in ON-OFF RGC of bullfrog retina, and studied the mechanisms underlying the ON and OFF activities respectively. Pharmacological experiments revealed that the oscillation-like activity patterns in both ON and OFF pathways were abolished by GABA receptor antagonists, indicating GABAergic inhibition is essential for generating them...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890826/relevant-variations-and-neuroprotecive-effect-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-a-rat-glaucoma-model
#13
Shouyue Huang, Ping Huang, Xiaohong Liu, Zhongjing Lin, Jing Wang, Shuo Xu, Lei Guo, Christopher Kai-Shun Leung, Yisheng Zhong
Glaucoma is an irreversible and blinding neurodegenerative disease of the eye, and is characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Since endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was reported to be involved in neurodegeneration in the central nervous system, the authors aimed to develop a chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model simulating glaucoma and therein test the H2S level together with the retinal protein expressions of related synthases, and further investigated the effect of exogenous H2S supplement on RGC survival...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890822/visual-light-effects-on-mitochondria-the-potential-implications-in-relation-to-glaucoma
#14
Neville N Osborne, Claudia Núñez-Álvarez, Susana Del Olmo-Aguado, Jesús Merrayo-Lloves
Light of different wave-lengths have the potential to interact with four major mitochondrial protein complexes that are involved in the generation of ATP. Neurones of the central nervous system have an absolute dependence on mitochondrial generated ATP. Laboratory studies show that short-wave or blue light (400-480nm) that impinges on the retina affect flavin and cytochrome constituents associated with mitochondria to decrease the rate of ATP formation, stimulate ROS and results in cell death. This suggests that blue light could potentially have a negative influence on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) mitochondria that are abundant and not shielded by macular pigments as occurs for photoreceptor mitochondria...
November 24, 2016: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888071/cell-type-specific-expression-of-foxp2-in-the-ferret-and-mouse-retina
#15
Chihiro Sato, Lena Iwai-Takekoshi, Yoshie Ichikawa, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Although the anatomical and physiological properties of subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have been extensively investigated, their molecular properties are still unclear. Here, we examined the expression patterns of FoxP2 in the retina of ferrets and mice. We found that FoxP2 was expressed in small subsets of neurons in the adult ferret retina. FoxP2-positive neurons in the ganglion cell layer were divided into two groups. Large FoxP2-positive neurons expressed Brn3a and were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin subunit B injected into the optic nerve, indicating that they are RGCs...
November 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886260/mtor-regulates-neuroprotective-effect-of-immunized-cd4-foxp3-t-cells-in-optic-nerve-ischemia
#16
Guochun Chen, Luosheng Tang, Wei Wei, Zhuo Li, Yunping Li, Xuanchu Duan, Huihui Chen
The therapeutic potential of targeting CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) remains controversial under the condition of neuroinflammation. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective role of Tregs in optic nerve ischemia (ONI) and evaluate the therapeutic strategy of Tregs transfer with a focus on targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Intraocular pressure was transiently increased in adult C57BL/6 mice to induce ONI. Mucosal tolerance of myelin basic protein (MBP) markedly increased retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival after ONI through enhanced Tregs suppression...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886185/hyper-il-6-a-potent-and-efficacious-stimulator-of-rgc-regeneration
#17
D Fischer
Mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) normally fail to regenerate injured axons and die soon after optic nerve injury. Research over the last two decades has demonstrated that application of IL-6-like cytokines or activation of respective downstream signaling pathways promote neuroprotection and optic nerve regeneration. However, the overall beneficial effects of natural cytokines remain usually rather moderate, possibly due to intrinsic signaling pathway inhibitors, such as PTEN or SOCS3, or a limited expression of specific cytokine receptors in RGCs...
November 25, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882947/arginase-2-promotes-neurovascular-degeneration-during-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#18
Esraa Shosha, Zhimin Xu, Harumasa Yokota, Alan Saul, Modesto Rojas, R William Caldwell, Ruth B Caldwell, S Priya Narayanan
Retinal ischemia is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness and is involved in various disorders including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, optic neuropathies and retinopathy of prematurity. Neurovascular degeneration is a common feature of these pathologies. Our lab has previously reported that the ureahydrolase arginase 2 (A2) is involved in ischemic retinopathies. Here, we are introducing A2 as a therapeutic target to prevent neurovascular injury after retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult. Studies were performed with mice lacking both copies of A2 (A2(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) controls (C57BL6J)...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881907/retinal-safety-of-intravitreal-rtpa-in-healthy-rats-and-under-excitotoxic-conditions
#19
Alejandra Daruich, Jérôme Parcq, Kimberley Delaunay, Marie-Christine Naud, Quentin Le Rouzic, Emilie Picard, Patricia Crisanti, Denis Vivien, Marianne Berdugo, Francine Behar-Cohen
PURPOSE: Intravitreal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is used off-label for the surgical management of submacular hemorrhage, a severe complication of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. rtPA is approved for coronary and cerebral thrombolysis. However, in ischemic stroke rtPA is known to increase excitotoxic neural cell death by interacting with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. We therefore investigated the retinal toxicity of rtPA in healthy rats and in a model of NMDA-induced retinal excitotoxicity...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878997/corneal-epithelial-cells-function-as-surrogate-schwann-cells-for-their-sensory-nerves
#20
REVIEW
Mary Ann Stepp, Gauri Tadvalkar, Raymond Hakh, Sonali Pal-Ghosh
The eye is innervated by neurons derived from both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS). While much is known about retinal neurobiology and phototransduction, less attention has been paid to the innervation of the eye by the PNS and the roles it plays in maintaining a functioning visual system. The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion contains somas of neurons that innervate the cornea. These nerves provide sensory functions for the cornea and are referred to as intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs) consisting of subbasal nerves and their associated intraepithelial nerve terminals...
November 23, 2016: Glia
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