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Retinal ganglion cell

Chunxia Peng, Wei Wang, Quangang Xu, Mo Yang, Huangfen Zhou, Shuo Zhao, Shihui Wei
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between macular inner retinal layers and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (pRNFL) thickness in Chinese patients with neuromyelitis spectrum optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) and isolated optic neuritis (ION) with only one episode. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 35 patients (35 eyes) with NMOSD-ON (NMO-IgG seropositive) and 46 patients (46 eyes) with ION after one episode. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to quantify pRNFL, macular RNFL (mRNFL), ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers (GCIPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness using an automated algorithm...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Hsin-Hua Liu, Zheng He, Christine T O Nguyen, Algis J Vingrys, Bang V Bui
PURPOSE: This pilot study considered whether intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering could reverse ganglion cell dysfunction in a rat model of chronic ocular hypertension. METHODS: A circumlimbal suture was applied in one eye to induce ocular hypertension (n = 7) in Long-Evans rats. The contralateral eye served as an untreated control. After 8 weeks of IOP elevation the suture was removed to lower IOP for the remaining 7 weeks. Electroretinogram (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were measured at baseline, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 15 weeks...
October 24, 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Konstantin Huhn, Robert Lämmer, Hanna Zimmermann, Alexandra Lämmer, Anne Waschbisch, Kathrin Utz, René Markus Gieß, Friedemann Paul, Ralf A Linker, De-Hyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS typically affecting younger adults and resulting in neuro-axonal degeneration already at early stages of the disease. Less is known about the effects of a later disease onset (LOMS, onset >50years of age). Analysis of retinal layers by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive method to investigate retinal and neuro-axonal degeneration. We applied OCT to detect differences in retinal damage depending on a later disease manifestation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Abdulkadir Tunç, Belma Doğan Güngen, Ferhat Evliyaoğlu, Yeşim Güzey Aras, Aysel Kaya Tekeşin
The aim of this study was to investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, macular changes (central subfield thickness (CST), cube average thickness (CAT), cube volume (CV) in patients with migraine using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to assess if there was any correlation with white matter lesions (WML). In this prospective case-control study, RNFL, GCL thickness and macular changes of 19 migraine patients with aura (MA), 41 migraine without aura (MO) and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured using OCT device...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
J Matlach, N Pfeiffer, V Prokosch-Willing
Studying the lamina cribrosa (LC) is relevant to understand the mechanisms of retinal ganglion cell degeneration in glaucoma and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. We would like to present some of the emerging trends and hot topics in imaging of the lamina cribrosa in glaucoma from the 2016 ARVO (The Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology) annual meeting, which was held in Seattle, WA, USA. Presentation of the path of ganglion cells through the pores of the lamina cribrosa as well as changes to the shape of the lamina cribrosa with increase of the intraocular and intracerebral pressure have been of great international interest...
October 21, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Haibo Wang, Xiaokun Han, Eric Kunz, M Elizabeth Hartnett
Purpose: This study addresses the hypothesis that age-related stresses upregulate Thy-1 in choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) and contribute to CEC activation and migration, processes important in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: Measurements were made of Thy-1 protein (Western blot) in CECs and Thy-1 mRNA (real time quantitative PCR) in CECs treated with VEGF, CCL11, or PBS or in RPE/choroids from young or old donors or lasered or nonlasered mice. Immunolabeled Thy-1 in ocular sections was compared from young versus old human donor eyes or those with or without neovascular AMD or from lasered versus nonlasered mice...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hung-Ya Tu, Chih-Chun Hsu, Yu-Jiun Chen, Ching-Kang Chen
The mammalian retina is a layered tissue composed of multiple neuronal types. To understand how visual signals are processed within its intricate synaptic network, electrophysiological recordings are frequently used to study connections among individual neurons. We have optimized a flat-mount preparation for patch clamp recording of genetically marked neurons in both GCL (ganglion cell layer) and INL (inner nuclear layer) of mouse retinas. Recording INL neurons in flat-mounts is favored over slices because both vertical and lateral connections are preserved in the former configuration, allowing retinal circuits with large lateral components to be studied...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christian M Felix, Marc H Levin, Alan S Verkman
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is often associated with retinal abnormalities including thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer and microcystic changes. Here, we demonstrate that passive transfer of an anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) produces primary retinal pathology. METHODS: AQP4-IgG was delivered to adult rat retinas by intravitreal injection. Rat retinas and retinal explant cultures were assessed by immunofluorescence...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Felix Ulbrich, Kai B Kaufmann, Alexander Meske, Wolf A Lagrèze, Michael Augustynik, Hartmut Buerkle, Carlos C Ramao, Julia Biermann, Ulrich Goebel
PURPOSE: Ischemia and reperfusion injury may induce apoptosis and lead to sustained tissue damage and loss of function, especially in neuronal organs. While carbon monoxide is known to exert protective effects after various harmful events, the mechanism of carbon monoxide releasing molecules in neuronal tissue has not been investigated yet. We hypothesize that the carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186, administered after neuronal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), counteracts retinal apoptosis and its involved signaling pathways and consecutively reduces neuronal tissue damage...
2016: PloS One
Sang-Yoon Lee, Eun Kyoung Lee, Ki Ho Park, Dong Myung Kim, Jin Wook Jeoung
PURPOSE: To report an asymmetry analysis of macular inner retinal layers using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate the utility for glaucoma diagnosis. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy normal healthy subjects and 62 glaucoma patients. METHODS: Three-dimensional scans were acquired from 70 normal subjects and 62 open angle glaucoma patients by swept-source OCT...
2016: PloS One
J Zhang, X L Xu, B Li, W B Wei
Objective: To analyze features of retinal and scleral infiltration of uveal melanoma. Methods: It was a retrospective case series study. The pathological and clinical data of 102 cases of uveal melanoma were analyzed retrospectively, which were collected between Jun. 2001 and Apr. 2013 in Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University. The tumor shape, size, cell types, retinal and scleral invasion were recorded and analyzed. The relationship between retinal invasion and scleral invasion was analyzed by trend Chi-square test...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Cyril G Eleftheriou, Jonas B Zimmermann, Henrik D Kjeldsen, Moshe David-Pur, Yael Hanein, Evelyne Sernagor
The choice of electrode material is of paramount importance in neural prosthetic devices. Electrodes must be biocompatible yet able to sustain repetitive current injections in a highly corrosive environment. We explored the suitability of carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a mouse model of outer retinal degeneration. We investigated morphological changes at the bio-hybrid interface and changes in RGC responses to electrical stimulation following prolonged in vitro coupling to CNT electrodes...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Snezhina S Kostianeva, Marieta I Konareva-Kostianeva, Marin A Atanassov
AIM: To assess relationships between functional changes in visual field and structural changes in advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG) found using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Thirty-one eyes of 25 patients with OAG were included in this study. Besides the routine ophthalmological exam the patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) (Humphrey Field Analyzer) and SD-OCT (RTVue-100) performed within 6 months. The global perimetric indices in the study group were as follows: mean deviation (MD) 12...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Maesoon Im, Shelley I Fried
The ON-OFF directionally selective cells of the retina respond preferentially to movement in a preferred direction, but under laboratory conditions they are also sensitive to changes in the luminance of the stationary stimulus. If the response of these neurons contains information about both direction and luminance downstream neurons are faced with the challenge of extracting the motion component, a computation that may be difficult under certain viewing conditions. Here, we show that during natural viewing the response to luminance is suppressed, leaving a relatively pure motion signal that gets transmitted to the brain...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yue Xu, Boyu Yang, Yaguang Hu, Lin Lu, Xi Lu, Jiawei Wang, Fan Xu, Shanshan Yu, Jingjing Huang, Xiaoling Liang
Chronic neuro-inflammation is involved in the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. The aim of this study is to determine whether wogonin can suppress inflammatory responses and rescue RGCs death after optic nerve crush (ONC), an ideal animal model of glaucoma. Wogonin was administered intraperitoneally 10 min after establishment of ONC model. In this study, wogonin treatment reduced RGCs loss and inhibited RGCs apoptosis demonstrated by the increased Brn3a labeling RGCs at day 14 and the decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression at day 7 after ONC, respectively...
October 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Shuang Chen, Jie Yan, Hai-Xiao Deng, Ling-Ling Long, Yong-Jun Hu, Mi Wang, Lei Shang, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of calpain on retinal ganglion cell-5 (RGC-5) necroptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). RGC-5 cells were cultured in Dulbecco's-modified essential medium and necroptosis was induced by 8-h OGD. PI staining and flow cytometry were performed to detect RGC-5 necrosis. The calpain expression was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. The calpain activity was tested by activity detection kit. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of calpain on RGC-5 necroptosis following OGD with or without N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) pre-treatment...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Ling Cui, Wen-Jing He, Fan Xu, Li Jiang, Ming-Liang Lv, Hui Huang, Ji-Ping Xu, Yu Wu, Hai-Bin Zhong, Shao-Yang Zhang, Li-Fei Chen, Chao-Lan Shen, Gang Yao, Li Li, Min Li, Si-Ming Zeng
HS-1-associated protein X-1 (Hax-1) has been suggested to be expressed in various rodent and human tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Hax‑1 exerts an anti‑apoptotic effect in neurological diseases. Furthermore, it has also been reported that Hax‑1 interacts with various apoptosis‑associated proteins, including high temperature-regulated A2 (HtrA2) and caspase‑3. Previous studies have indicated that abnormal expression of Hax‑1 may be associated with the development of the nervous system and with the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, including traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhaoxia Mu, Shuqiang Zhang, Chunjiao He, Haitao Hou, Dong Liu, Nan Hu, Hui Xu
The SoxC transcription factors (Sox4, Sox11, and Sox12) play important roles in the development of the vertebrate eye and retina. However, their expression and function during retinal and optic nerve regeneration remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression and possible functions of the SoxC genes after retinal and optic nerve injury in adult zebrafish. We found that among the five SoxC members, Sox11b was strongly induced in BrdU-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) after retinal injury, and morpholino-mediated Sox11b-knockdown significantly reduced the number of proliferating cells in the INL at 4 days post-injury...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ann L Webber
PURPOSE: To report vision recovery in a single case of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) (mtDNA14484/ND6 mutation) with longitudinal documentation of retinal ganglion cell layer by ocular coherence tomography (OCT) that includes the pre-onset, acute, and chronic stages of vision loss. CASE REPORT: We report LHON in a 16-year-old male patient with Type 1 diabetes and known and documented family history of LHON. The patient presented with best-corrected visual acuities of right eye 20/150 and left eye 20/25-...
October 12, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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