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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149410/tctp-in-neuronal-circuitry-assembly
#1
Cláudio Gouveia Roque, Christine E Holt
Although tctp expression in many areas of the human brain was reported more than 15 years ago, little was known about how it functions in neurons. The early notion that Tctp is primarily expressed in mitotic cells, together with reports suggesting a relative low abundance in the brain, has perhaps potentiated this almost complete disregard for the study of Tctp in the context of neuron biology. However, recent evidence has challenged this view, as a number of independent genome-wide profiling studies identified tctp mRNA among the most enriched in the axonal compartment across diverse neuronal populations, including embryonic retinal ganglion cells...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144506/soluble-p-selectin-promotes-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-through-activation-of-nrf2-signaling-after-ischemia-injury
#2
Kishan Kapupara, Yao-Tseng Wen, Rong-Kung Tsai, Shun-Ping Huang
Retinal ischemic injuries play an important role in the pathogenesis of several eye disorders. Inflammation and oxidative stress are key players in ischemic injuries. Following retinal ischemia, vascular endothelial cells and leukocytes express several inflammatory adhesion receptors, such as selectins and cell adhesion molecules. P-selectin stimulates leukocyte recruitment to platelet aggregates and has an important role in vascular homeostasis and inflammatory leukocyte extravasation. Soluble P-selectin can be neuroprotective through competitive binding to the receptors of endogenous P-selectin molecules...
November 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143216/self-perception-and-determinants-of-color-vision-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Alexander U Brandt, Hanna G Zimmermann, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Justine Isensee, Thomas Müller, Friedemann Paul
Visual dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of visual dysfunction and especially color vision loss on PD patients, and to identify retinal and disease factors associated with color vision. Thirty PD patients and thirty-four healthy controls were included. Participants performed the Farnsworth-Munsell Hue-100 test (FMT). Patients answered the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) assessment, and underwent optical coherence tomography with measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), and outer nuclear and photoreceptor layer...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#4
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139167/the-zinc-finger-gene-nolz1-regulates-the-formation-of-retinal-progenitor-cells-and-suppresses-the-lim3-lhx3-phenotype-of-retinal-bipolar-cells-in-chicken-retina
#5
Maria K E Blixt, Dardan Konjusha, Henrik Ring, Finn Hallböök
BACKGROUND: The zinc-finger transcription factor Nolz1 regulates spinal cord neuron development by interacting with the transcription factors Isl1, Lim1 and Lim3, which are also important for photoreceptors, horizontal and bipolar cells during retinal development. We therefore studied Nolz1 during retinal development. RESULTS: Nolz1 expression was seen in two waves during development: one early (peak at embryonic day 3-4.5) in retinal progenitors and one late (embryonic day 8) in newly differentiated cells in the inner nuclear layer...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139045/electroretinography-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-comparison-of-the-pattern-erg-and-the-photopic-negative-response
#6
Jason C Park, Heather E Moss, J Jason McAnany
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between electrophysiological measures of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function in patients who have idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: The pattern electroretinogram (pERG) and photopic negative response (PhNR) were recorded from 11 IIH patients and 11 age-similar controls. The pERG was elicited by a contrast-reversing checkerboard. The PhNR, a slow negative component following the flash ERG b-wave, was recorded in response to a long-wavelength flash presented against a short-wavelength adapting field...
November 14, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138314/imaging-and-quantifying-ganglion-cells-and-other-transparent-neurons-in-the-living-human-retina
#7
Zhuolin Liu, Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Furu Zhang, John J Lee, Donald T Miller
Ganglion cells (GCs) are fundamental to retinal neural circuitry, processing photoreceptor signals for transmission to the brain via their axons. However, much remains unknown about their role in vision and their vulnerability to disease leading to blindness. A major bottleneck has been our inability to observe GCs and their degeneration in the living human eye. Despite two decades of development of optical technologies to image cells in the living human retina, GCs remain elusive due to their high optical translucency...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137569/the-neuro-ophthalmological-effects-related-to-long-term-occupational-exposure-to-organic-solvents-in-painters
#8
Heba Khodary Allam, Shaimaa Soliman, Tamer Wasfy, Ahmed Ghoneim, Yasser Serag, Grace Simbajwe
PURPOSE: Organic solvents are widely used in many industries, and usually, exposure occurs with mixtures of solvents. Organic solvent mixtures are known for their ability to affect tissues of high lipid content including the myelin sheath in the nervous system. The purpose of this work was to study the evidence that long-term (more than 10 years) exposure to organic solvent mixtures among painters can induce neuro-ophthalmological effects on the function of retinal ganglion cells and the optic tract...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137322/the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-ocular-degenerative-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-suggesting-a-correlation-between-ocular-and-brain-pathologies
#9
Lucia Buccarello, Alessandra Sclip, Matteo Sacchi, Anna Maria Castaldo, Ilaria Bertani, Andrea ReCecconi, Silvia Maestroni, Gianpaolo Zerbini, Paolo Nucci, Tiziana Borsello
Recently a range of ocular manifestations such as retinal and lens amyloid-beta accumulation and retinal nerve fiber layer loss have been proposed as potential biomarkers in Alzheimer disease (AD). The TgCRND8 mouse model of AD exhibits age-dependent amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers accumulation and cognitive defects, amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated Tau deposition and inflammation. We proved the correlation between ocular pathologies and AD, observing increased levels of p-APP and p-Tau, accumulation of Aβ oligomers in the retina, eye, and optic nerve...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136785/obestatin-prevents-h2o2-induced-damage-through-activation-of-trkb-in-rgc-5-cells
#10
Yang Liu, Yue-Xian Xing, Xin-Yuan Gao, Hong-Yu Kuang, Jing Zhang, Rong Liu
BACKGROUD: In the early stage of diabetic retinopathy, the damage of retinal ganglion cells already exists, promoting the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role and the mechanisms of obestatin against H2O2-induced damage in RGC-5 cells. METHODS: RGC-5 cells were incubated with various concentrations of obestatin for 24h before H2O2 added. The survival rates of RGC-5 were measured by MTT assay. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and TrkB pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blot analysis...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135941/the-small-heat-shock-protein-%C3%AE-crystallin-b-shows-neuroprotective-properties-in-a-glaucoma-animal-model
#11
Fabian Anders, Aiwei Liu, Carolina Mann, Julia Teister, Jasmin Lauzi, Solon Thanos, Franz H Grus, Norbert Pfeiffer, Verena Prokosch
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to irreversible retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and is one of the main causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of glaucoma remains unclear, and novel approaches for neuroprotective treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies have revealed significant down-regulation of α-crystallin B as an initial reaction to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), followed by a clear but delayed up-regulation, suggesting that this small heat-shock protein plays a pathophysiological role in the disease...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135604/chemical-burns-of-the-eye-the-role-of-retinal-injury-and-new-therapeutic-possibilities
#12
Claes H Dohlman, Fabiano Cade, Caio V Regatieri, Chengxin Zhou, Fengyang Lei, Alja Crnej, Mona Harissi-Dagher, Marie-Claude Robert, George N Papaliodis, Dongfeng Chen, James V Aquavella, Esen K Akpek, Anthony J Aldave, Kimberly C Sippel, Donald J DʼAmico, Jan G Dohlman, Per Fagerholm, Liqiang Wang, Lucy Q Shen, Miguel González-Andrades, James Chodosh, Kenneth R Kenyon, C Stephen Foster, Roberto Pineda, Samir Melki, Kathryn A Colby, Joseph B Ciolino, Demetrios G Vavvas, Shigeru Kinoshita, Reza Dana, Eleftherios I Paschalis
PURPOSE: To propose a new treatment paradigm for chemical burns to the eye - in the acute and chronic phases. METHODS: Recent laboratory and clinical data on the biology and treatment of chemical burns are analyzed. RESULTS: Corneal blindness from chemical burns can now be successfully treated with a keratoprosthesis, on immediate and intermediate bases. Long term outcomes, however, are hampered by early retinal damage causing glaucoma. New data suggest that rapid diffusion of inflammatory cytokines posteriorly (TNF-α, etc) can severely damage the ganglion cells...
November 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134765/developmental-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-and-retinotopicity-of-the-murine-retinocollicular-projection
#13
Jamie Beros, Jennifer Rodger, Alan R Harvey
During mammalian visual system development, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) undergo extensive apoptotic death. In mouse retina, approximately 50% of RGCs present at birth (postnatal day 0; P0) die by P5, at a time when axons innervate central targets such as the superior colliculus (SC). We examined whether RGCs that make short-range axonal targeting errors within the contralateral SC are more likely to be eliminated during the peak period of RGC death (P1-P5), compared with RGCs initially making more accurate retinotopic connections...
November 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134137/pattern-electroretinography-and-visual-evoked-potentials-provide-clinical-evidence-of-cns-modulation-of-high-and-low-contrast-vep-latency-in-glaucoma
#14
William E Sponsel, Susan L Johnson, Rick Trevino, Alberto Gonzalez, Sylvia L Groth, Carolyn Majcher, Diane C Fulton, Matthew A Reilly
Purpose: Both pattern electroretinography (PERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) can be performed using low- (15%; Lc) and high- (85%; Hc) contrast gratings that may preferentially stimulate the magno- and parvocellular pathways. We observed that among glaucomatous patients showing only one VEP latency deficit per eye, there appeared to be a very strong tendency for an Hc delay in one eye and an Lc delay in the other. Methods: Diopsys NOVA-LX system was used to measure VEP Hc and Lc latency among a clinical glaucoma population to find all individuals with either a single Hc or Lc latency abnormality in each eye (group 1), or with greater than 0 and less than 4 Hc or Lc VEP latency abnormalities in the two eyes (group 2) to determine whether a significant inverse correlation existed for these values in either group...
2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133846/large-scale-matching-of-function-to-the-genetic-identity-of-retinal-ganglion-cells
#15
Filippo Pisano, Erin Zampaglione, Niall McAlinden, Jennifer Roebber, Martin D Dawson, Keith Mathieson, Alexander Sher
Understanding the role of neurons in encoding and transmitting information is a major goal in neuroscience. This requires insight on the data-rich neuronal spiking patterns combined, ideally, with morphology and genetic identity. Electrophysiologists have long experienced the trade-offs between anatomically-accurate single-cell recording techniques and high-density multi-cellular recording methods with poor anatomical correlations. In this study, we present a novel technique that combines large-scale micro-electrode array recordings with genetic identification and the anatomical location of the retinal ganglion cell soma...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133640/evaluation-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-parameters-in-ocular-hypertension-preperimetric-and-early-glaucoma
#16
Tuğba Aydogan, BetÜl İlkay Sezgin Akçay, Esra Kardeş, Ahmet Ergin
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic ability of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macular, optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in healthy subjects, ocular hypertension (OHT), preperimetric glaucoma (PPG), and early glaucoma (EG) patients, to reveal factors affecting the diagnostic ability of spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) parameters and risk factors for glaucoma. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-six eyes (89 healthy, 77 OHT, 94 PPG, and 66 EG eyes) were analyzed...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133423/gap-junctional-coupling-between-retinal-amacrine-and-ganglion-cells-underlies-coherent-activity-integral-to-global-object-perception
#17
Kaushambi Roy, Sandeep Kumar, Stewart A Bloomfield
Coherent spike activity occurs between widely separated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in response to a large, contiguous object, but not to disjointed objects. Since the large spatial separation between the RGCs precludes common excitatory inputs from bipolar cells, the mechanism underlying this long-range coherence remains unclear. Here, we show that electrical coupling between RGCs and polyaxonal amacrine cells in mouse retina forms the synaptic mechanism responsible for long-range coherent activity in the retina...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131903/slow-reading-in-glaucoma-is-it-due-to-the-shrinking-visual-span-in-central-vision
#18
MiYoung Kwon, Rong Liu, Bhavika N Patel, Christopher Girkin
Purpose: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells. Patients with bilateral glaucoma read slower than normal cohorts. Here we examined the factors that may underlie slow reading in glaucoma and determined the best predictor of reading speed in glaucoma. Methods: A total of 38 subjects participated in this study: 17 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (mean age = 64.71 years) and 21 age-similar normal controls (58...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130191/axon-trap-ribotag-affinity-purification-of-translated-mrnas-from-neuronal-axons-in-mouse-in-vivo
#19
Toshiaki Shigeoka, Jane Jung, Christine E Holt, Hosung Jung
Translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) is a widely used technique to analyze ribosome-bound mRNAs in particular target cells that express a tagged ribosomal protein. We developed axon-TRAP-RiboTag, a TRAP-based method that allows purification and identification of translated mRNAs from distal neuronal axons in mouse, and identified more than 2000 of translated mRNAs in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in vivo. The use of Cre-negative littermate control to filter out false-positive signals allows unbiased detection, and combining TRAP with in vitro ribosome run-off enables identification of actively translated mRNAs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125147/retinal-layers-thickness-changes-following-epiretinal-membrane-surgery
#20
I Hecht, I Yeshurun, E Bartov, A Bar, Z Burgansky-Eliash, A Achiron
PurposeTo evaluate the time course of changes in the thickness of retinal layers after epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal surgery.MethodsA retrospective cohort study of patients following surgery for idiopathic ERM. We used new specialized image analysis software to create a thickness map of each retinal layer and analyzed changes during one year follow-up. Healthy fellow eyes were used as negative controls and the retina prior to surgery as positive control.ResultsTwenty-one patients were included with a mean age of 68±13 years...
November 10, 2017: Eye
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