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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#1
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937953/the-biological-basis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-following-blast-injury-a-literature-review
#2
Matt Aldag, Regina C Armstrong, Faris Bandak, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Timothy Bentley, Sean Biggerstaff, Katrina Caravelli, Joan Cmarik, Alicia Crowder, Thomas J DeGraba, Travis A Dittmer, Richard G Ellenbogen, Colin Greene, Raj K Gupta, Ramona Hicks, Stuart Hoffman, Robert C Latta, Michael J Leggieri, Donald Marion, Robert Mazzoli, Michael McCrea, John O'Donnell, Mark Packer, James B Petro, Todd E Rasmussen, Wendy Sammons-Jackson, Richard Shoge, Victoria Tepe, Ladd A Tremaine, James Zheng
The United States Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-the-Science meeting to explore links between blast-related head injury and the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Before the meeting, the planning committee examined articles published between 2005 and October 2015 and prepared this literature review, which summarized broadly CTE research and addressed questions about the pathophysiological basis of CTE and its relationship to blast- and nonblast-related head injury...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#3
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936161/oxidative-stress-modifies-the-levels-and-phosphorylation-state-of-tau-protein-in-human-fibroblasts
#4
Alejandro Ibáñez-Salazar, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Ildefonso Rodríguez-Leyva, Erika Chi-Ahumada, Elizabeth Monreal-Escalante, María E Jiménez-Capdeville, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
Since the tau protein is closely involved in the physiopathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), studying its behavior in cellular models might lead to new insights on understanding this devastating disease at molecular levels. In the present study, primary cultures of human fibroblasts were established and used to determine the expression and localization of the tau protein in distinct phosphorylation states in both untransfected and tau gene-transfected cells subjected to oxidative stress. Higher immunopositivity to phospho-tau was observed in cell nuclei in response to oxidative stress, while the levels of total tau in the cytosol remained unchanged...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935837/selective-tau-imaging-der-stand-der-dinge
#5
Victor L Villemagne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935818/increased-mir-124-3p-in-microglial-exosomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury-inhibits-neuronal-inflammation-and-contributes-to-neurite-outgrowth-via-their-transfer-into-neurons
#6
Shan Huang, Xintong Ge, Jinwen Yu, Zhaoli Han, Zhenyu Yin, Ying Li, Fanglian Chen, Haichen Wang, Jianning Zhang, Ping Lei
Neuronal inflammation is the characteristic pathologic change of acute neurologic impairment and chronic traumatic encephalopathy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inhibiting the excessive inflammatory response is essential for improving the neurologic outcome. To clarify the regulatory mechanism of microglial exosomes on neuronal inflammation in TBI, we focused on studying the impact of microglial exosomal miRNAs on injured neurons in this research. We used a repetitive (r)TBI mouse model and harvested the injured brain extracts from the acute to the chronic phase of TBI to treat cultured BV2 microglia in vitro The microglial exosomes were collected for miRNA microarray analysis, which showed that the expression level of miR-124-3p increased most apparently in the miRNAs...
September 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935743/genome-sequence-for-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o26-h11-associated-with-a-cluster-of-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-cases-in-south-africa-2017
#7
Anthony M Smith, Kalule J Bosco, Mark P Nicol, Jackie Kleynhans, Mignon McCulloch, Sanelisiwe T Duze, Arshad Ismail, Mushal Allam, Nomsa P Tau, Karen H Keddy
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are primarily foodborne pathogens that may cause diarrheal outbreaks and are associated with severe complications, specifically hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We report here genome sequence data for STEC O26:H11, which is associated with a cluster of cases of HUS, a rarely described syndrome in South Africa.
September 21, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934963/metabolic-status-of-csf-distinguishes-rats-with-tauopathy-from-controls
#8
Radana Karlíková, Kateřina Mičová, Lukáš Najdekr, Alžběta Gardlo, Tomáš Adam, Petra Majerová, David Friedecký, Andrej Kováč
BACKGROUND: Tauopathies represent heterogeneous groups of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterised by abnormal deposition of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent tauopathy, affecting more than 35 million people worldwide. In this study we investigated changes in metabolic pathways associated with tau-induced neurodegeneration. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and brain tissue were collected from a transgenic rat model for tauopathies and from age-matched control animals...
September 21, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934780/efficacy-of-cannabis-based-medicines-for-pain-management-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
J Aviram, G Samuelly-Leichtag
BACKGROUND: The management of chronic pain is a complex challenge worldwide. Cannabis-based medicines (CBMs) have proven to be efficient in reducing chronic pain, although the topic remains highly controversial in this field. OBJECTIVES: This study's aim is to conduct a conclusive review and meta-analysis, which incorporates all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to update clinicians' and researchers' knowledge regarding the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of CBMs for chronic and postoperative pain treatment...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931441/tracking-progressive-pathological-and-functional-decline-in-the-rtg4510-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#10
Thomas Blackmore, Soraya Meftah, Tracey Karen Murray, Peter James Craig, Anthony Blockeel, Keith Phillips, Brian Eastwood, Michael J O'Neill, Hugh Marston, Zeshan Ahmed, Gary Gilmour, Francois Gastambide
BACKGROUND: The choice and appropriate use of animal models in drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pivotal to successful clinical translation of novel therapeutics, yet true alignment of research is challenging. Current models do not fully recapitulate the human disease, and even exhibit various degrees of regional pathological burden and diverse functional alterations. Given this, relevant pathological and functional endpoints must be determined on a model-by-model basis. The present work explores the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy as a case study to define best practices for the selection and validation of cognitive and functional endpoints for the purposes of pre-clinical AD drug discovery...
September 20, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927263/molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Sangyun Jeong
The most common form of senile dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the cerebral cortex. Tau abnormalities are commonly observed in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD, Parkinson's disease, and Pick's disease. Interestingly, tau-mediated formation of NFTs in AD brains shows better correlation with cognitive impairment than Abeta plaque accumulation; pathological tau alone is sufficient to elicit frontotemporal dementia, but it does not cause AD...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926133/synthesis-of-thiophene-based-optical-ligands-that-selectively-detect-tau-pathology-in-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease
#12
Peter Nilsson, Hamid Shirani, Hanna Appelqvist, Marcus Bäck, Therese Klingstedt, Nigel Cairns
The accumulation of protein aggregates is associated with many devastating neurodegenerative diseases and the development of molecular ligands able to detect these pathological hallmarks is essential. Here, we report the synthesis of thiophene based optical ligands, denoted bi-thiophene-vinyl-benzothiazoles (bTVBTs) that can be utilized for selective assignment of tau aggregates in brain tissue with Alzheimer´s disease (AD) pathology. The ability of the ligands to selectively distinguish tau deposits from the other AD associated pathological hallmark, senile plaques consisting of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, were reduced when the chemical composition of the ligands were altered, verifying that specific molecular interactions between the ligands and the aggregates are necessary for the selective detection of tau deposits...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924170/the-tyrosine-phosphatase-ptpn13-fap-1-links-calpain-2-tbi-and-tau-tyrosine-phosphorylation
#13
Yubin Wang, Randy A Hall, Moses Lee, Andysheh Kamgar-Parsi, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calpain activation and tau hyperphosphorylation have been implicated in both TBI and AD. However, the link between calpain and tau phosphorylation has not been fully identified. We recently discovered that the two major calpain isoforms in the brain, calpain-1 and calpain-2, play opposite functions in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival/death, which may be related to their different C-terminal PDZ binding motifs. Here, we identify the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13 as a key PDZ binding partner of calpain-2...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924002/variations-in-infant-and-childhood-vitamin-d-supplementation-programs-across-europe-and-factors-influencing-adherence
#14
Suma Uday, Ardita Kongjonaj, Magda Aguiar, Ted Tulchinsky, Wolfgang Hoegler
BACKGROUND: Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programs and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence. METHODS: European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Bone and Growth Plate Working Group members and other specialists completed a questionnaire on country-specific vitamin D supplementation policy and child healthcare programs, socioeconomic factors, policy implementation strategies, and adherence...
September 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923706/specific-interferon-tau-gene-regulation-networks-in-bovine-endometrial-luminal-epithelial-cells
#15
Gan Zhao, Kangfeng Jiang, Tao Zhang, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng
Interferon tau (IFNT) plays a critical role as a pregnancy recognition factor in early pregnancy by regulating uterine epithelial gene expression. Illuminating the relation between IFNT and pregnancy will contribute significantly to early pregnancy research in ruminants. Therefore, in this study, we treated primary bovine endometrial luminal epithelial cells (bELECs) without or with IFNT (200 ng/mL) for 6 or12 h. Subsequently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to evaluate differences in gene expression...
September 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923025/intrafamilial-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-a-taiwanese-family-with-a-mapt-p-r5h-mutation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Hui-Chi Lin, Chin-Hsien Lin, Pei-Lung Chen, Shih-Jung Cheng, Pei-Hao Chen
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in executive function that frequently overlaps with parkinsonism and motor neuron disorders. Several genes have been identified to cause autosomal dominant forms of FTD, including the gene coding for the protein associated with microtubule tau (MAPT). While most reported pathogenic mutations in MAPT occur in exons 9-13, few families have been reported with mutations outside of this region...
September 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922953/high-technology-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-for-individuals-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-and-complex-communication-needs-a-meta-analysis
#17
Jennifer B Ganz, Kristi L Morin, Margaret J Foster, Kimberly J Vannest, Derya Genç Tosun, Emily V Gregori, Stephanie L Gerow
The use of mobile technology is ubiquitous in modern society and is rapidly increasing in novel use. The use of mobile devices and software applications ("apps") as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is rapidly expanding in the community, and this is also reflected in the research literature. This article reports the social-communication outcome results of a meta-analysis of single-case experimental research on the use of high-tech AAC, including mobile devices, by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder...
September 19, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922400/protein-folding-misfolding-and-aggregation-the-importance-of-two-electron-stabilizing-interactions
#18
Andrzej Stanisław Cieplak
Proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases are highly pleiomorphic and may adopt an all-α-helical fold in one environment, assemble into all-β-sheet or collapse into a coil in another, and rapidly polymerize in yet another one via divergent aggregation pathways that yield broad diversity of aggregates' morphology. A thorough understanding of this behaviour may be necessary to develop a treatment for Alzheimer's and related disorders. Unfortunately, our present comprehension of folding and misfolding is limited for want of a physicochemical theory of protein secondary and tertiary structure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922155/phospho-tau-accumulation-and-structural-alterations-of-the-golgi-apparatus-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-p301s%C3%A2-tauopathy-mouse-model
#19
Alejandro Antón-Fernández, Jesús Merchán-Rubira, Jesús Avila, Félix Hernández, Javier DeFelipe, Alberto Muñoz
The Golgi apparatus (GA) is a highly dynamic organelle involved in the processing and sorting of cellular proteins. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), it has been shown to decrease in size and become fragmented in neocortical and hippocampal neuronal subpopulations. This fragmentation and decrease in size of the GA in AD has been related to the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, the involvement of other pathological factors associated with the course of the disease, such as the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates, cannot be ruled out, since both pathologies are present in AD patients...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921979/design-syntheses-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-new-fluorine-18-radiolabeled-tau-labeling-molecular-probes
#20
Luka Rejc, Lojze Šmid, Vladimir Kepe, Črtomir Podlipnik, Amalija Golobič, Mara Bresjanac, Jorge R Barrio, Andrej Petrič, Janez Košmrlj
Deposition of aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a hallmark of tauopathies like Alzheimer and many other neurodegenerative diseases. A sensitive and selective method of in vivo detection of tau-aggregate presence and distribution could provide the means of an early diagnosis of tau-associated diseases. Furthermore, the use of selective molecular probes that enable histochemical differentiation of protein aggregates post mortem would be advantageous for the insight into the properties of tau protein aggregates...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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