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Spider bites

Amir Hadanny, Gregory Fishlev, Yair Bechor, Oshra Meir, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND: Bites by Loxosceles spiders (also known as recluse spiders or brown spiders) can cause necrotic ulcerations of various sizes and dimensions. The current standard of care for brown spider bites includes analgesics, ice, compression, elevation, antihistamines, and surgical debridement. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the treatment of brown spider bites has been administered in the early stage of ulceration, or 2 to 6 days after the bite. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of spider bite-related ulcers is often delayed and weeks or months may elapse before HBOT is considered...
December 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Emily J Ciccone, Robert B Christian, Daniel M Lercher, Kenya McNeal-Trice, Benny L Joyner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Ronelle E Welton, David J Williams, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: This study provides the first contemporary epidemiological insight into venomous injuries based on demographics and geography in Australia in the timeframe 2000-2013. METHODS: Analysis of national hospitalisation and mortality data to examine the incidence of injury and death due to envenoming in Australia. Rates were calculated using the intercensal population for all Australian age groups. RESULTS: Over the study period, deaths were due to an anaphylactic event (0...
October 17, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
I Corral-Corral, C Corral-Corral
INTRODUCTION: Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. AIM: To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. DEVELOPMENT: An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782...
October 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
F Boissiere, R Masson, S Fluieraru, J Vitse, L Dessena, M Lefevre, F Bekara, C Herlin
INTRODUCTION: Loxosceles spiders are ubiquitous and responsible for many cases of envenomation in the world. The kind rufescens is present in the Provence and Occitan regions in France. During the summer 2015, we faced many Loxosceles rufescens cases of bites having led to extensive integumental necrosis whose features and singular evolution seems important to report. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report the cases of nine patients who experienced a spider bite in the summer of 2015 in the Languedoc Roussillon...
December 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Robert Estridge, Shawnelle Contini
This article describes a patient whose intracerebral MRSA may have been caused by a spider bite to the thigh 2 months earlier. The patient's headache, nausea, and vomiting initially were thought to be caused by a high-grade glioma. Most brain abscesses have otogenic sources and are not from distant hematogenous spread. Although systemic antibiotics help with symptomatology, surgical eradication (when feasible) followed by IV antibiotics, provides definitive treatment.
October 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Mario Pezzi, Anna Maria Giglio, Annamaria Scozzafava, Orazio Filippelli, Giuseppe Serafino, Mario Verre
The spider bites are quite frequent and often resolve quickly without leaving outcomes; only some species are capable of causing necrotic and systematic lesions in humans. Among them, we should mention the genus Loxosceles. The venom released from the spider bite of Loxosceles species is composed of proteins, enzymes, and nonenzymatic polypeptides. The phospholipase D family was identified as the active component of the venom. This family of enzymes is responsible for the local and systemic effects observed in loxoscelism...
2016: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Reza Afshari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Nature
Laura de Mattos Milman, Giana Paula Müller, Paulo Ricardo Martins Souza, Aline Barcellos Grill, Deise Louise Bohn Rhoden, Carlos Augusto Mello-da-Silva, Gerson Vettorato
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an acute febrile rash, usually induced by drugs, which recently has been linked to spider bite. We report a case of a male patient, 48 years old, with an erythematous rash accompanied by fever and small non-follicular pustules. He reported previous pain in the buttock with the onset of a necrotic plaque. The lesion was compatible with spider bite of the genus Loxosceles. According to the EuroSCAR group instrument, the patient scored +10 indicating definite diagnosis of AGEP...
July 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Daniele Chaves-Moreira, Fábio Moraes, Icaro Caruso, Olga Meiri Chaim, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Luciane Sussuchi, Jorge Chahine, Raghuvir Arni, Silvio Sanches Veiga
Loxoscelism refers to the clinical symptoms that develop after the brown spider bite. Brown spider venoms contain several phospholipase-D isoforms, which are the main toxins responsible for both the cutaneous and systemic effects of loxoscelism. Understanding of the phospholipase-D catalytic mechanism is crucial for the development of specific treatment that could reverse the toxic effects caused by the spider bite. Herein, based on enzymatic, biological, structural, and thermodynamic tests, we show some features suitable for designing drugs against loxoscelism...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Arthur Estanislau Dantas, A O Carmo, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Hortênsia Gomes Leal, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Ana Paula Vimieiro Martins, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Evanguedes Kalapothakis
Envenoming resulting from Loxosceles spider bites (loxoscelism) is a recognized public health problem in Brazil. However, the pathophysiology of loxoscelism caused by L. similis bites, which is widespread in Brazil, remains poorly understood. In the present work, the RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq - Next Generation sequencing - NGS) of the L. similis venom gland was performed to identify and analyze the sequences of the key component phospholipase D. The sequences were aligned based on their classical domains, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Monique Cachia, Liam Mercieca, Charles Mallia Azzopardi, Michael J Boffa
Spider poisoning is rare in Europe, with very few reported cases in the literature. Recluse spider (genus Loxosceles) bites may lead to cutaneous and systemic manifestations known as loxoscelism. We report the second known case of spider bite poisoning in Malta caused by Loxosceles rufescens (Mediterranean recluse spider). A young adult female presented with localised erythema and pain on her left thigh after a witnessed spider bite. Over a few days, the area developed features of dermonecrosis together with systemic symptoms, including fever, fatigue and a generalised erythematous eruption...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Mahfouz Ahmad Al-Agroudi, Salwa Abdalla Mohammad Ahmed, Tosson A Morsy
Spider bites are uncommon medical events, since there are limited number of spiders world-wide with fangs strong enough to pierce human skin, and most spiders bite humans only as a final defense when being crushed between skin and another object. Thus, most lesions attributed to spider bites are caused by some other etiology. The spiders that can cause medically significant bites include widow and false widow spiders (worldwide), recluse spiders (mostly North and South America), Australian funnel web spiders (eastern coastal Australia) and Phoneutria spiders (Brazil)...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
John B Hurt, Kristopher R Maday
Venomous spiders and snakes are found throughout the United States, and clinicians often encounter patients with suspected spider or snakebites. Due to the significant morbidity and mortality that can be related to a particular envenomation, clinicians must be able to recognize the species of spiders and snakes that are capable of delivering a venomous bite. Through proper species identification, recognition of the specific signs and symptoms that specific venom produces, and understanding the treatment guidelines for the envenomation, clinicians can properly diagnosis, treat, and manage patients with venomous bites...
July 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Angela R Olerich, Keith Stelter, Susan Laabs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Minnesota Medicine
Elham Valikhanfard-Zanjani, Abbas Zare-Mirakabadi, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Hamid Reza Goodarzi, Mahdise Rajabi
BACKGROUND: Latrodectism, a syndrome caused by Latrodectus genus, is one of the clinical problems that occur predominantly in north east of Iran. Nowadays antivenom therapy has become the most useful treatment for animal bites; however there is still a controversy about route and time of antivenom administration in spider bite. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of specific antivenom in neutralizing hepatic and renal symptoms 24 h after Latrodectus dahli envenomation...
June 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Vanderson Souza Sampaio, André Alexandre Gomes, Iran Mendonça Silva, Jacqueline Sachett, Luiz Carlos Lima Ferreira, Sâmella Oliveira, Meritxell Sabidò, Hipócrates Chalkidis, Maria Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra, Jorge Luis Salinas, Fan Hui Wen, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
BACKGROUND: A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation...
2016: PloS One
Catarina Rapôso, Ulrika Björklund, Evanguedes Kalapothakis, Björn Biber, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Elisabeth Hansson
Bites from genus Phoneutria (Ctenidae, Araneomorpha) are the second most frequent source of spider accidents in Southeast Brazil. Severe envenoming from Phoneutria nigriventer produces vision disturbance, tremor and convulsion, suggesting that the CNS is involved; however, the mechanisms by which P. nigriventer venom (PNV) affects the CNS remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether PNV directly impairs astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes were exposed to PNV, and intracellular Ca(2+) release and signaling were measured (Fura-2/AM), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) involvement were investigated, actin filaments were stained (Alexa™ 488-conjugated phalloidin probe), the G-actin/F-actin ratio was determined, and the expression level of connexin 43 (Cx43) was assessed...
June 2016: Neurochemistry International
Isabella Jiacomini, Sabrina K Silva, Nicolas Aubrey, Julien Muzard, Carlos Chavez-Olortegui, Juliana De Moura, Philippe Billiald, Larissa M Alvarenga
Bites by spiders from Loxosceles genus often lead to a wide variance in envenomation profile of patients and diagnosis is difficult due to the number of diseases that mimic loxoscelism. In such a context, it is of interest to consider the design of standardized recombinant colorimetric antibodies for diagnosis and specific detection of individual circulating toxins in biological fluids of envenomed patients. We have previously prepared a monoclonal murine IgG (LiMab7) that reacts with Loxosceles intermedia venom components of 32-35kDa and neutralizes the dermonecrotic activity of the venom...
May 2016: Immunology Letters
Marielle Stuber, Wolfgang Nentwig
We analyzed the reliability and information content of 134 medical case studies on spider bites, published in 91 journal articles. Overall, we found that only 22% of these studies fulfilled the criteria for a verified spider bite. This means that the majority of such case studies cannot be attributed to a given spider species and usually not even to a spider. Their scientific value is negligible, moreover, such publications are even dangerous because they suggest incorrect conclusions. Secondly, we found that such case studies usually do not follow an obvious structure and many details on the development of symptoms, therapy and healing process are widely lacking...
May 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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