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Lymes disease

Geeta Shroff, Petra Hopf-Seidel
Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NFS), which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position) and directional (moves in direction bad to good) scoring system that assesses the patient's condition...
January 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Kurtesh Sherifi, Agim Rexhepi, Kristaq Berxholi, Blerta Mehmedi, Rreze M Gecaj, Zamira Hoxha, Anja Joachim, Georg G Duscher
Tick-borne diseases pose a serious threat to human health in South-Eastern Europe, including Kosovo. While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a well-known emerging infection in this area, there are no accurate data on Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Therefore, we sampled and tested 795 ticks. Ixodes ricinus ( n  = 218), Dermacentor marginatus ( n  = 98), and Haemaphysalis spp. ( n  = 24) were collected from the environment by flagging (all from Kosovo), while Hyalomma marginatum ( n  = 199 from Kosovo, all from Kosovo) and Rhipicephalus bursa ( n  = 130, 126 from Albania) could be collected only by removal from animal pasture and domestic ruminants...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Paweł Penza, Piotr Czupryna, Olga Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz, Renata Świerzbińska, Justyna Dunaj, Joanna Zajkowska
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine HMGB-1 concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and neuroborreliosis (NB). We focused on HMGB-1 measurement in CSF or sera in order to establish whether it could help to differentiate between NB and TBE. METHODS: 80 patients with meningitis and meningoencephalitis were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I - patients with NB (n=40) and Group II - patients with TBE (n=40)...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Brian H Herrin, Melissa J Beall, Xiao Feng, Monica Papeş, Susan E Little
BACKGROUND: Autochthonous transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the primary agent of Lyme disease in dogs and people in North America, commonly occurs in the northeastern United States, including the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a large human and pet population and broadly diverse demographics and habitats. METHODS: We evaluated results from a specific, C6-based serologic assay performed on 234,633 canine samples to compare evidence of past or current infection with B...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Gary P Wormser, Claudia R Molins, Andrew Levin, Susan C Lipsett, Lise E Nigrovic, Martin E Schriefer, John A Branda
To diagnose Lyme disease, a two-tier testing algorithm is used in which supplemental IgM and IgG immunoblots to detect antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi are reflexively performed if a first-tier assay, such as a whole-cell sonicate-based enzyme immunoassay (WCS EIA), is reactive. Recent data suggest that equal specificity is found by substituting the C6 peptide EIA for immunoblots. In this study using 3956 control sera, we demonstrated that although this two-tier testing algorithm does significantly improve diagnostic specificity compared with each of the EIAs individually, the WCS EIA and the C6 peptide EIA are not independent tests...
February 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Susan Kane Patton, Bailey Phillips
Evidence-based strategies for nurses. ABSTRACT: Lyme disease is recognized as the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Surveillance data indicate both increasing numbers of Lyme disease cases and geographic expansion of areas where the causative spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, can be found. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the acute stage, most patients will recover fully. Without treatment, however, the infecting pathogen remains within the body, often producing long-term complications, including musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiovascular effects...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Luisa Z Moreno, Fabiana Miraglia, Ana P Loureiro, Frederico S Kremer, Marcus R Eslabao, Odir A Dellagostin, Walter Lilenbaum, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Andrea M Moreno
Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation...
March 12, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Xiao-Xia Ma, Peng Ma, Qiu-Yan Chang, Zhen-Bin Liu, Derong Zhang, Xiao-Kai Zhou, Zhong-Ren Ma, Xin Cao
Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a focally endemic tick-transmitted zoonotic infection. In this study, the major factors underlying synonymous codon-related amino acid usage in the B. burgdorferi genome and bias in synonymous codon usage of the translation initiation region of coding sequences were analyzed. Additionally, adaptation of B. burgdorferi to several of its hosts was analyzed in the context of synonymous codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that nucleotide content at the third synonymous position of a codon influenced the synonymous codon usage pattern, but the strand-specific factor did not influence the synonymous codon usage pattern of B...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Marion Ripoche, Salima Gasmi, Ariane Adam-Poupart, Jules K Koffi, L Robbin Lindsay, Antoinette Ludwig, François Milord, Nicholas H Ogden, Karine Thivierge, Patrick A Leighton
Lyme disease is an emerging public health threat in Canada. In this context, rapid detection of new risk areas is essential for timely application of prevention and control measures. In Canada, information on Lyme disease risk is collected through three surveillance activities: active tick surveillance, passive tick surveillance, and reported human cases. However, each method has shortcomings that limit its ability to rapidly and reliably identify new risk areas. We investigated the relationships between risk signals provided by human cases, passive and active tick surveillance to assess the performance of tick surveillance for early detection of emerging risk areas...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Klaudia Sowula, Jacek Składzień, Joanna Szaleniec, Jolanta Gawlik
infections are borreliosis (Lyme disease) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Lately there is growing incidence of Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma and Brucella co-infections. The similarity between the symptoms of tick-borne diseases and other pathologies causes serious diagnostic issues. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 216 patients aged 18-55, who presented to the outpatient clinic for tick-borne diseases in the years 2014-2016, were enrolled in the study. The patients had been diagnosed with Lyme disease and co-infections...
February 28, 2018: Otolaryngologia Polska
Flore Valerio, Pascal Zufferey
Osteoarticular manifestations of Lyme disease are well known features, although a number of controversies persist. These concern both the diagnosis, in particular the interpretation of serology results and the management, notably the role of antibiotics. In the article, we review a number of issues, and strive to shed light on the current evidence based Swiss and international data.
March 7, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Hein Sprong, Tal Azagi, Dieuwertje Hoornstra, Ard M Nijhof, Sarah Knorr, M Ewoud Baarsma, Joppe W Hovius
Lyme borreliosis (LB) and other Ixodes ricinus-borne diseases (TBDs) are diseases that emerge from interactions of humans and domestic animals with infected ticks in nature. Nature, environmental and health policies at (inter)national and local levels affect the risk, disease burden and costs of TBDs. Knowledge on ticks, their pathogens and the diseases they cause have been increasing, and resulted in the discovery of a diversity of control options, which often are not highly effective on their own. Control strategies involving concerted actions from human and animal health sectors as well as from nature managers have not been formulated, let alone implemented...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Nicholas H Ogden
Marieta AH Braks, Sipke E van Wieren, Willem Takken and Hein Sprong, EditorsEcology and prevention of Lyme borreliosis. In: Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases Volume 4Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2016.462 pages, ISBN 1875-0699.
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
L Bause, A Niemeier, V Krenn
The German Society of Orthopaedic Rheumatology (DGORh) honored Prof. Dr. med. Veit Krenn (MVZ-ZHZMD-Trier) with the Arthur Vick Prize 2017. With this award, scientific results with high impact on the diagnosis, therapy and pathogenetic understanding of rheumatic diseases are honored. In cooperation with pathologists and colleagues from various clinical disciplines Prof. Dr. med. Veit Krenn developed several histopathologic scoring systems which contribute to the diagnosis and pathogenetic understanding of degenerative and rheumatic diseases...
March 5, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Robin K Kuriakose, Lorna W Grant, Eric K Chin, David R P Almeida
Purpose: Conjunctival adherence of a tick is an uncommon event with few reports previously cited in the literature. We report a unique case of tick penetration, specifically a black-legged deer tick ( Ixodes scapularis ), into the conjunctiva. Observations: This patient experienced a 3-week history of unilateral mild ocular pain, decreased vision, and pigmented lesion of her right eye. Slit lamp examination demonstrated a tick attached to the conjunctiva. Pathology confirmed the insect exoskeleton...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Julie Lewis, Corinne R Boudreau, James W Patterson, Jonathan Bradet-Legris, Vett K Lloyd
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe, and on-going surveillance is required to monitor the spread of the tick vectors as their populations expand under the influence of climate change. Active surveillance involves teams of researchers collecting ticks from field locations with the potential to be sites of establishing tick populations. This process is labor- and time-intensive, limiting the number of sites monitored and the frequency of monitoring. Citizen science initiatives are ideally suited to address this logistical problem and generate high-density and complex data from sites of community importance...
March 2, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Katie M Clow, Nicholas H Ogden, L Robbin Lindsay, Curtis B Russell, Pascal Michel, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
The emergence of the vector Ixodes scapularis in Ontario, Canada poses a significant public health risk. Both passive and active surveillance approaches have been employed by public health professionals (i.e., government employees) to monitor for the range expansion of this tick. Field surveillance using drag sampling for questing ticks is a recognized and effective method to identify reproducing tick populations. The degree of effort (i.e., number of visits per site) can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance, but increased effort conflicts with the cost to public health for field surveillance...
2018: PloS One
Francis L O'Donnell, Shauna Stahlman, Michael Fan
This report summarizes available health record information about the occurrence of vector-borne infectious diseases among members of the U.S. Armed Forces during a recent 7-year surveillance period. Information about confirmed, possible, and suspected cases was obtained from electronic reports of reportable medical events (RMEs) and records of diagnoses documented during hospitalizations and outpatient healthcare encounters. Lyme disease and malaria were the most common diagnoses among confirmed and possible cases...
February 2018: MSMR
Alen Sekelj, Davorin Đanić
Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease characterized by three disease stages. In the areas endemic for borreliosis, every acute facial palsy indicates serologic testing and implies specific approach to the disease. Th e aim of the study was to identify and confirm the value of acoustic refl ex and House-Brackman (HB) grading scale as prognostic indicators of facial palsy in neuroborreliosis. Th e study included 176 patients with acute facial palsy divided into three groups based on serologic testing: borreliosis, Bell's palsy, and facial palsy caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
M M G Leeflang, H C P M van Weert, J W R Hovius, C W Ang, H Sprong
There is no such thing as a perfect diagnostic test and the value of a test depends on the situation in which the test is being used. Here, we discuss two options for dealing with the diagnostic process for Lyme borreliosis in general practice. One option is to manage, treat or refer according to clinical signs and symptoms, in accordance with Dutch practice guidelines. The other option is to use laboratory tests to guide further patient management (treatment or referral). The choice depends on currently unknown factors, such as the pre-test probability of Lyme disease in patients presenting to general practitioners...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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