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Lymes disease

Annukka Pietikäinen, Mikael Maksimow, Tommi Kauko, Saija Hurme, Marko Salmi, Jukka Hytönen
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is one of the manifestations of Lyme disease. Although it is known that immune reaction of LNB patients is dominated by Th1 and Th2 responses and patients have elevated numbers of B cells in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), not all the cells involved in inflammation and cytokine secretion have been characterized. The current diagnostics of LNB is based on intrathecal production of antibodies. In recent years, the measurement of chemokine CXCL13 concentration from the CSF has been introduced as a new promising diagnostic tool for LNB to complement the antibody-based diagnostic methods...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Elizabeth L Maloney
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 300 000 new cases of Lyme disease occur each year in the United States and that 10% to 20% of these patients will remain symptomatic despite receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. Many elements of the disease are poorly understood and have generated considerable controversy. This paper discusses the medical controversies related to posttreatment manifestations and their potential impact on infusion nurses.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
Tessa M LeWitt
A wide range of etiologies can cause hemifacial spasm (HFS), including infection. In this case report, a 44-year-old woman developed HFS and was explored surgically 7 years later. No abnormalities were found. Afterward, treatment of a surgical wound infection with an oral cephalosporin resulted in a temporary HFS remission that had never occurred previously. This antibiotic experience prompted further workup for an underlying infection, which ultimately led to diagnosis of Lyme disease. Presentation of HFS due to Lyme disease has not been reported...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Xenia Naj, Stefan Linder
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease, a multisystemic disorder affecting primarily skin, nervous system, and joints. If an infection with Borrelia proceeds unchecked, the disease can also enter a chronic stage, leading to the development of neuroborreliosis or cardiac arrhythmia. Successful elimination of B. burgdorferi by the host immune system is thus decisive for the positive outcome of a respective infection. Accordingly, host immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells have to be able to efficiently internalize and degrade infecting spirochetes...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Diane G Edmondson, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Steven J Norris, Amy J Ullmann, Joe Piesman, Marc Dolan, Christian Probst, Christiane Radzimski, Winfried Stöcker, Lars Komorowski
Lyme borreliosis is caused by tick-transmitted spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group and is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Europe. Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a 23 kDa outer surface lipoprotein expressed during spirochete transmission from the tick to the vertebrate host. In a previous study, we found that immunization with a recombinant disulfide-bridged dimeric form of OspC (D-OspC) stimulates increased antibody responses relative to immunization with commonly employed monomeric OspC...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Qi Wang, Elise E Drouin, Chunxiang Yao, Jiyang Zhang, Yu Huang, Deborah R Leon, Allen C Steere, Catherine E Costello
HLA-DR-molecules are highly expressed in synovial tissue (ST), the target of the immune response in chronic inflammatory forms of arthritis. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to identify HLA-DR-presented self-peptides in cells taken directly from clinical samples: ST, synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMC), or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from five patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and eight with Lyme arthritis (LA). We identified 1,593 non-redundant HLA-DR-presented peptides, derived from 870 source proteins...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Peter Kraiczy
Overcoming the first line of the innate immune system is a general hallmark of pathogenic microbes to avoid recognition and to enter the human host. In particular, spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have developed various means to counter the immune response and to successfully survive in diverse host environments for a prolonged period of time. In regard to complement resistance, Borrelia utilize a plethora of immune evasion strategies involves capturing of host-derived complement regulators, terminating complement activation as well as shedding of cell-destroying complement complexes to manipulate and to expeditiously inhibit human complement...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Samiksha Nayak, Archana Sridhara, Rita Melo, Luciana Richer, Natalie H Chee, Jiyoon Kim, Vincent Linder, David Steinmiller, Samuel K Sia, Maria Gomes-Solecki
Currently, diagnostic testing for Lyme disease is done by determination of the serologic responses to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens, with the exception of the early localized phase of disease where diagnosis must be done clinically. Here, we describe the use of microfluidics technology to develop a multiplexed rapid lab-on-a-chip point of care (POC) assay for the serologic diagnosis of human Lyme disease. Following ELISA screening of 12 candidate antigens, we tested 8 on a microfluidic diagnostic system, called mChip-Ld, using a set of 60 serological samples...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katherine Sayler, Jessica Rowland, Carisa Boyce, Emma Weeks
Tick-borne diseases are an emerging public health threat in the United States. In Florida, there has been public attention directed towards the possibility of locally acquired Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease, in association with the lone star tick. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ticks and the pathogens they carry and potentially transmit, such as B. burgdorferi, in a highly utilized teaching and research forest in North Central Florida. Ticks were collected by dragging and flagging methods over a four month period in early 2014, identified, and tested by PCR for multiple pathogens including Anaplasma, Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species...
September 24, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
David S Younger
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness and the fifth most common disease in the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. If left untreated, infection disseminates to the nervous system. The nonhuman primate model of Lyme disease of the nervous system, or Lyme neuroborreliosis, accurately mimics the aspects of the human illness...
November 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Rebecca J Eisen, Rebecca J Clark, Andrew J Monaghan, Lars Eisen, Mark J Delorey, Charles B Beard
Local knowledge of when humans are at elevated risk for exposure to tick vectors of human disease agents is required both for the effective use of personal protection measures to avoid tick bites and for implementation of control measures to suppress host-seeking ticks. Here, we used previously published data on the seasonal density of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls nymphs, the primary vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western USA, collected across a broad habitat and climate gradient in northwestern California to identify predictors of periods of time within the year when questing nymphal density is elevated...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
William K Arnold, Christina R Savage, Catherine A Brissette, Janakiram Seshu, Jonathan Livny, Brian Stevenson
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, differentially expresses numerous genes and proteins as it cycles between mammalian hosts and tick vectors. Insights on regulatory mechanisms have been provided by earlier studies that examined B. burgdorferi gene expression patterns during cultivation. However, prior studies examined bacteria at only a single time point of cultivation, providing only a snapshot of what is likely a dynamic transcriptional program driving B. burgdorferi adaptations to changes during culture growth phases...
2016: PloS One
Setareh Jahfari, Agnetha Hofhuis, Manoj Fonville, Joke van der Giessen, Wilfrid van Pelt, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. METHODS: Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
A Roome, L Hill, V Al-Feghali, C G Murnock, J A Goodsell, R Spathis, R M Garruto
There is a public perception that the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) is the main reservoir supporting the maintenance and spread of the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. This study examines the pathogen prevalence rate of Borrelia in adult Ixodes scapularis (Ixodida: Ixodidae), the black-legged tick, collected from white-tailed deer and compares it with pathogen prevalence rates in adult ticks gathered by dragging vegetation in two contiguous counties west of the Hudson Valley in upstate New York...
October 4, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Kurni Kurniyati, John F Kelly, Evgeny Vinogradov, Anna Robotham, Youbing Tu, Juyu Wang, Jun Liu, Susan M Logan, Chunhao Li
While protein glycosylation has been reported in several spirochetes including the syphilis bacterium Treponema pallidum and Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the pertinent glycan structures and their roles remain uncharacterized. Herein, we report a novel glycan with an unusual chemical composition and structure in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis. The identified glycan of mass 450.2 Da is composed of a monoacetylated nonulosonic acid (Non) with a novel extended N7 acyl modification, a 2-methoxy-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoyl residue in which the Non has a pseudaminic acid configuration (L-glycero-L-manno) and is β-linked to serine or threonine residues...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Louise K Andersen, Mark D P Davis
Climate change refers to variation in the climate of a specific region or globally over time. A change has been reported in the epidemiology of tick- and mosquito-borne diseases in recent decades. Investigators have postulated that this effect may be associated with climate change. We reviewed the English-language literature describing changes in the epidemiology of specific tick- and mosquito-borne diseases, including the tick-borne diseases of Lyme disease, tularemia, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever and the mosquito-borne diseases of dengue, malaria, West Nile virus infection, Ross River virus disease, and Barmah Forest virus disease...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Ana M Palomar, Aránzazu Portillo, Paula Santibáñez, David Mazuelas, Lidia Roncero, Óscar Gutiérrez, José A Oteo
The genus Borrelia includes species responsible for severe human diseases such as Lyme disease. Birds are involved in their epidemiology as dispersers of infected ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and as reservoirs or amplifiers of the bacterium. Herein, the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner in 336 ticks collected from birds in the north of Spain from 2009 to 2011 was investigated. Nucleic acid extracts from 174 Ixodes frontalis (Panzer), 108 Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini & Fanzango, 34 Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 17 Ixodes ricinus (L...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Deborah A Grosenbaugh, Daniel R Rissi, Paula M Krimer
Lyme disease in dogs can be effectively prevented by vaccination against antigens expressed by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi during transmission by the tick vector Ixodes sp. Lyme vaccine efficacy has traditionally been based on indicators of infection following wild-caught tick challenge whereas most other types of vaccine are required to demonstrate protection from clinical signs of disease. In this vaccination-challenge study we sought to demonstrate the ability of a nonadjuvanted, outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine to protect from infection and to prevent synovial lesions consistent with Borreliosis...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Lars Eisen, Nicole E Breuner, Andrias Hojgaard, J Charles Hoxmeier, Mark A Pilgard, Adam J Replogle, Brad J Biggerstaff, Marc C Dolan
Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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