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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816644/cyp2b6-haplotype-predicts-efavirenz-plasma-concentration-in-black-south-african-hiv-1-infected-children-a-longitudinal-pediatric-pharmacogenomic-study
#1
Riaan Reay, Collet Dandara, Michelle Viljoen, Malie Rheeders
South Africa has the highest burden of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection globally. Efavirenz (EFV), a frequently used drug against HIV infection, displays a relationship between drug concentration and pharmacodynamics effects clinically. However, haplotype-based genetic variation in drug metabolism in a pediatric sample has been little considered in a longitudinal long-term context. CYP2B6 plays a key role in variation of EFV plasma concentration through altered drug metabolism. We report here on a prospective clinical pharmacogenomics/pharmacokinetic study of Bantu-speaking children, importantly, over a period of 24 months post-initiation of EFV-based treatment in South Africa...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799920/3-year-efficacy-and-durability-of-simplification-to-single-tablet-regimens-a-comparison-between-co-formulated-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-and-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir
#2
Roberta Gagliardini, Alessandra Bandera, Mauro Zaccarelli, Gaetana Sterrantino, Alessandra Latini, Alessandro D'Avino, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Antinori, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Andrea Gori, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Massimiliano Fabbiani
BACKGROUND: Few data are available about efficacy and durability of simplification from multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens to co-formulated efavirenz(EFV)/emtricitabine(FTC)/tenofovir(TDF) versus rilpivirine(RPV)/emtricitabine/tenofovir in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL switching to co-formulated EFV/FTC/TDF or RPV/FTC/TDF at 5 Italian centers. Patients were followed from time of switch until regimen discontinuation or a maximum of 3-years follow-up...
August 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797289/insulin-resistance-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-cross-sectional-study-from-cameroon
#3
Steve Raoul Ngongang Noumegni, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Vicky Jocelyne Moor Ama, Jean Joel Bigna, Felix Kembe Assah, Magellan Guewo-Fokeng, Steve Leumi, Jean-Claude Katte, Mesmin Dehayem, Andre Pascal Kengne, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: Little is known on the magnitude and correlates of insulin resistance in HIV-infected people in Africa. We determined the prevalence of insulin resistance and investigated associated factors in HIV-infected adult Cameroonians. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon; during which we enrolled HIV-infected people aged 30 to 74 years with no previous history of cardiovascular disease. An homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) like index served to assess insulin sensitivity with insulin resistance defined by values of 2...
August 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795954/the-first-characterization-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-drug-resistance-mutations-among-antiretrovirally-treated-patients-in-kermanshah-iran
#4
Reza Golmohammadi, Kazem Baesi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Molood Farrokhi, Willi McFarland, Shahryar Parsamajd
BACKGROUND: Insufficient therapy during HIV-1 replication can promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains, reduce the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and increase the likelihood of the onward transmission of drug-resistant viruses. We characterized, for the first time, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations in a western region of Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted among 122 patients on ART at a major referral center in Kermanshah, Iran...
August 10, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795354/drug-resistance-mutation-profiles-of-the-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-first-line-regimen-treated-hiv-1-infected-population-of-suzhou-china
#5
Tingting Li, Feng Qian, Ting Yuan, Weilu Xu, Li Zhu, Jinlong Huang, Haiyan Wang, Yueping Zhu, Yinling Wang, Xiaohong Li, Saihong Gu, Zhuqing Tan, Hui Chen, Xiangrong Luo, Wei Zhu, Wenjuan Lu, Ping Xu, Ming Li, Yuying Chen, Yong Gao, Rongge Yang, Chuanwu Zhu, Binlian Sun
Little is known about the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1-positive individuals in Suzhou, China. To elucidate the transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance mutation (ADR) profiles, we collected blood specimens from 127 drug-naïve and 117 first-line drug-treated HIV-1-infected individuals sampled from 2014 to 2016 in Suzhou. We successfully amplified pol fragments from 100 drug-naïve and 20 drug-treated samples. We then determined the drug-resistant mutations to protease (PR) and reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitors according to the Stanford drug resistance database...
August 7, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#6
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783374/hiv-and-cognitive-impairment-in-clinical-practice-the-evaluation-of-a-stepwise-screening-protocol-in-relation-to-clinical-outcomes-and-management
#7
Charlotte S Hakkers, Jordan M Kraaijenhof, Esther B van Oers-Hazelzet, Anne J M A Visser-Meily, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends, Roos E Barth
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is an increasingly important comorbidity in an ageing HIV+ population. Despite the lack of available treatment modalities, screening for NCI is recommended. In the UMC Utrecht, yearly NCI screening is done using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool and the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate this screening protocol in relation to clinical outcomes and management. A retrospective cohort study was performed in suppressed adult HIV+ patients...
August 7, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770596/high-rates-of-viral-suppression-in-adults-and-children-with-high-cd4-counts-using-a-streamlined-art-delivery-model-in-the-search-trial-in-rural-uganda-and-kenya
#8
Dalsone Kwarisiima, Moses R Kamya, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, Dathan M Byonanebye, James Ayieko, Albert Plenty, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Bridget Nzarubara, Katherine Snyman, Lillian Brown, Elizabeth Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Elvin H Geng, Edwin D Charlebois, Theodore D Ruel, Maya L Petersen, Diane Havlir, Vivek Jain
INTRODUCTION: The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive persons calls for treatment initiation in millions of persons newly eligible with high CD4+ counts. Efficient and effective care models are urgently needed for this population. We evaluated clinical outcomes of asymptomatic HIV-positive adults and children starting ART with high CD4+ counts using a novel streamlined care model in rural Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: In the 16 intervention communities of the HIV test-and-treat Sustainable East Africa Research for Community Health Study (NCT01864603), all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of CD4 were offered ART (efavirenz [EFV]/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine (FTC) or lamivudine (3TC)...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-neurotoxic-effects-of-efavirenz-are-greater-than-those-of-other-common-antiretrovirals
#9
Vincent T Ciavatta, Edyta K Bichler, Iris A Speigel, Courtney C Elder, Shavonne L Teng, William R Tyor, Paul S García
Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced the incidence of severe dementia associated with HIV infection, there has been a rise in milder neurocognitive complaints. Data from HIV patients taking ARVs have shown measurable neurocognitive improvements during drug cessation, suggesting a neurotoxic role of the therapy itself. Mechanisms underlying potential ARV neurotoxicity have not been thoroughly investigated, however pathologic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suspected. Using DIV 16 primary rat cortical neuron culture, we tested eight ARVs from the three most commonly prescribed ARV classes: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) for effects on neuron viability and morphology after 24 h of drug exposure...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770176/inhibition-of-plasmodium-hepatic-infection-by-antiretroviral-compounds
#10
Marta Machado, Margarida Sanches-Vaz, João P Cruz, António M Mendes, Miguel Prudêncio
Recent WHO guidelines on control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) call for the widespread use of antiretroviral (AR) therapy (ART) for people living with HIV. Given the considerable overlap between infections by HIV and Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, it is important to understand the impact of AR compounds and ART regimens on infections by malaria parasites. We undertook a systematic approach to identify AR drugs and ART drug combinations with inhibitory activity against the obligatory hepatic stage of Plasmodium infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763473/efficacy-and-safety-of-switching-from-branded-to-generic-antiretrovirals-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-patients
#11
Nicola Gianotti, Andrea Poli, Laura Galli, Michela Franzin, Patrizia Tadini, Nadia Galizzi, Alessia Carbone, Marco Merli, Camilla Muccini, Chiara Oltolini, Andrea Andolina, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of switching from branded to generic antiretrovirals in patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL. METHODS: Matched-cohort study of patients followed at a single clinical center. Since September 2014, all patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL who were receiving branded lamivudine or zidovudine/lamivudine or efavirenz were switched to the generic compound (switchers) and matched, in a ratio 1:1, for age (±5 years), gender, anti-HCV antibodies, nadir and (±50 cells/μL) baseline CD4+ count (±100 cells/μL), duration of antiretroviral therapy (±1 year), with patients with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL, on treatment with unavailable generic compounds (non-switchers)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759752/efavirenz-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-engineered-for-brain-targeting-through-intranasal-route-in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-and-toxicity-study
#12
Varsha Pokharkar, Arpana Patil-Gadhe, Prathyusha Palla
Intranasal delivery is a potential platform that can be employed in targeting the antiretrovirals (ARVs) to reach HIV that harbors in the central nervous system. The objective of the study was to develop an optimized efavirenz (EFV) loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (ENLC) and deliver it through intranasal route for brain targeting. Factorial design (2(3)) was used to identify the key formulation variables influencing particle size and percent drug encapsulation of efavirenz in the NLC. Optimised ENLC-6 batch exhibited a spherical morphology with a mean particle size of 162nm, high drug encapsulation of 95...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#13
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749824/the-relationship-between-efavirenz-as-initial-antiretroviral-therapy-and-suicidal-thoughts-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-routine-care
#14
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Katie R Mollan, Jessie K Edwards, Richard D Moore, Conall O'Cleirigh, Ellen F Eaton, Joseph J Eron, Mari M Kitahata, W Christopher Mathews, Heidi Crane, Michael J Mugavero
BACKGROUND: Evidence about the effect of initiating efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) as first-line therapy on suicidal thoughts remains conflicting. METHODS: Using data from a cohort of HIV-infected adults enrolled in routine care across 5 sites in the United States, we included participants with a baseline patient-reported outcome measure and detectable viral load who initiated ART between 2011 and 2014. Participants were followed until the earliest of the following: first suicidal thoughts, discontinuation of initial ART regimen, death, loss to care (>12 months with no HIV appointments), or administrative censoring (2014 to 2015)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745207/hiv-drug-resistance-testing-in-a-resource-limited-setting-with-high-viral-diversity-the-first-twenty-eight-months-experience
#15
Elodie Teclaire Ngo-Malabo, Paul Alain Ngoupo, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Emmanuel Akongnwi, Robert Banaï, Laure Ngono, Richard Njouom, Charles Felix Bilong-Bilong, Anfumbom Kfutwah
BACKGROUND: First line antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting consists of nucleotide and non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Protease inhibitors are the hub of second line therapy. The decision to change antiretroviral therapy for a patient is frequently presumptive because of the lack of genotypic resistance tests in routine follow-up. We describe here the resistance profiles observed in patients with varying terms of antiretroviral therapy in Cameroon after implementation of HIV genotypic resistance testing in routine practice...
July 25, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744306/prevalence-and-clinical-profile-of-drug-eruptions-among-antiretroviral-therapy-exposed-hiv-infected-people-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#16
Emmanuel Armand Kouotou, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Vanessa Nancy Ngono, Sandra A Tatah, Anne Cecile Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap Ndam
BACKGROUND: Prevalence and incidence of drug eruptions vary around the world and are influenced by some key factors including HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to find the peculiarities of drug eruptions in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study including ART-taking PLHIV, aged 15+ years, followed up between January 2010 and December 2014 at the day-care unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, and who presented with drug eruptions after ART initiation...
2017: Dermatology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741965/cost-effectiveness-of-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-in-hiv-1-treatment-naive-tn-patients-in-france
#17
Gilles Pialoux, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Hélène Cawston, Caroline Guilmet, Laurent Finkielsztejn, Audrey Laurisse, Céline Aubin
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an integrase inhibitor (INI), dolutegravir (DTG), in combination with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) in France, in treatment-naive (TN) HIV adult patients. METHODS: The ARAMIS microsimulation Markov model, evaluates costs and effects of DTG vs. first-line ARVs options including INIs (raltegravir, elvitegravir/c), protease inhibitors (PIs) (darunavir/r, atazanavir/r, lopinavir/r), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (efavirenz and rilpivirine)...
July 31, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721059/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-dolutegravir-plus-backbone-compared-with-raltegravir-plus-backbone-darunavir-ritonavir-plus-backbone-and-efavirenz-tenofovir-emtricitabine-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-and-experienced-hiv-positive-patients
#18
Umberto Restelli, Giuliano Rizzardini, Andrea Antinori, Adriano Lazzarin, Marzia Bonfanti, Paolo Bonfanti, Davide Croce
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, the European Medicines Agency issued a marketing authorization for dolutegravir (DTG), a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor for HIV treatment. The study aimed at determining the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the use of DTG+backbone compared with raltegravir (RAL)+backbone, darunavir (DRV)+ritonavir(r)+backbone and efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC) in HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients and compared with RAL+backbone in treatment-experienced patients, from the Italian National Health Service's point of view...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718515/impact-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-plasma-concentrations-of-efavirenz-and-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-chinese-children-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#19
Xia Liu, Qing Ma, Yan Zhao, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Yuewu Cheng, Huiping Zhang, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode the cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been reported to influence antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics. While primarily metabolized by CYP2B6 and -3A, efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are substrates of P-glycoprotein and solute carrier organic (SLCO) anion transporter, respectively OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between SNPs and efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) concentrations in Chinese children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) METHODS: Genotyping was performed on CYP2B6 516G→T, -1459C→T, and -983T→C, ABCB1 3435C→T, and SLCO1B1 521T→C in 229 HIV-infected Chinese pediatric patients with an age range from 4...
July 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710808/the-application-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modelling-to-assess-the-impact-of-antiretroviral-mediated-drug-drug-interactions-on-piperaquine-antimalarial-therapy-during-pregnancy
#20
Olusola Olafuyi, Michael Coleman, Raj K S Badhan
Antimalarial therapy during pregnancy poses important safety concerns due to potential teratogenicity and maternal physiological and biochemical changes during gestation. Piperaquine (PQ) has gained interest for use in pregnancy in response to increasing resistance towards sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in sub-Saharan Africa. Co-infection with HIV is common in many developing countries, however, little is known about the impact of anti-retroviral (ARV) mediated drug-drug interaction (DDI) on PQ pharmacokinetics during pregnancy...
July 14, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
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