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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156825/targeting-p-selectin-blocks-neuroblastoma-growth
#1
Riitta Nolo, Shelley Herbrich, Arvind Rao, Patrick Zweidler-McKay, Sankaranarayanan Kannan, Vidya Gopalakrishnan
Selectins and their ligands have been implicated in tumor growth and progression in carcinomas, but their role in neuroblastoma has not been systematically examined. In the current study we evaluated L-, P- and E-selectin binding to neuroblastoma cells and the expression of some of their known ligands, namely CD44, CD24 and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Genetic loss of PSGL-1 or CD24 and pharmacological inhibition of P-selectin reduced P-selectin binding to neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Targeting P-selectin using specific antibodies promoted a significant reduction in the growth of neuroblastoma tumors in vivo...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156493/virtual-reality-for-stroke-rehabilitation
#2
REVIEW
Kate E Laver, Belinda Lange, Stacey George, Judith E Deutsch, Gustavo Saposnik, Maria Crotty
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as recent treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation with commercial gaming consoles in particular, being rapidly adopted in clinical settings. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2011 and then again in 2015. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to determine the efficacy of virtual reality compared with an alternative intervention or no intervention on upper limb function and activity...
November 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156483/-interventions-for-assisting-geriatric-patients-with-frailty-before-surgery
#3
Jörn Kiselev
Frailty is a complex syndrome leading to a higher vulnerability in elderly patients, especially during and after surgery. It is characterized by the simultaneous presence of at least three of five phenotypical symptoms: unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, muscle weakness, slow walking speed, and low activity levels. The presence of two of these symptoms is often labelled as pre-frailty.By identifying these symptoms of frailty, medical teams can plan and perform suitable interventions prior to a planned surgery in order to lower these risk factors and to avoid complications, such as delir, hospital re-admission, loss of independence, and increased mortality...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156480/-frailty-prevalence-in-the-resident-population-of-germany-70%C3%A2-%C3%A2-79-years-of-age-a-population-based-approach
#4
Judith Fuchs, Markus Busch, Christa Scheidt-Nave
In all countries life expectancy is rising, and many older persons spend a longer period in good health. Nevertheless, frailty is present in older people and can be considered as a risk factor for limitations. The "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) 2008 - 2011 comprised interviews, examinations and tests. Data on 1110 community-dwelling people aged 70 to 79 years participating in DEGS1 with full records on frailty were analysed. Physical frailty was defined as exhaustion (SF-36 item), low grip strength, slowness (Timed Up-and-Go test > 15 seconds or unable to perform) and low physical activity (no sports or exertion)...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156393/effect-of-tio2-and-ceo2-nanoparticles-on-the-metabolic-activity-of-surficial-sediment-microbial-communities-based-on-oxygen-microelectrodes-and-high-throughput-sequencing
#5
Lingzhan Miao, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Yu Yao, Jun Liu, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu, Zhilin Liu, Songqi Liu
Environmental concerns regarding the potential ecological risks of metallic oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing; sediment is considered a sink for these MNPs. Although several studies have studied the potential impact of MNPs on microbial communities in freshwater and estuarine sediments, limited information is available regarding the influence of MNPs on the metabolic activity of surficial sediment microbial communities and related biogeochemical conditions. To address these issues, a microcosm approach was established to study the metabolic response of surficial sediment microbial communities to a single addition of TiO2 or CeO2 NPs (5 mg/L) using oxygen microelectrodes, enzyme activity measurements, and high-throughput sequencing...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156382/discovery-of-selective-dengue-virus-inhibitors-using-combination-of-molecular-fingerprint-based-virtual-screening-protocols-structure-based-pharmacophore-model-development-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-in-vitro-studies
#6
Shaher Bano Mirza, Regina Ching Hua Lee, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, Thomas Mavromoustakos, Serdar Durdagi
Dengue virus is a major issue of tropical and sub-tropical regions. The proliferation of virus results in immense number of deaths each year because of unavailability of on-shelf drugs. This issue necessitates the design of novel anti-Dengue drugs. The protease enzyme pathway is the critical target for drug design due to its significance in the replication, survival and other cellular activities of Dengue virus. Keeping in mind the worsening situation regarding Dengue virus, approximately eighteen million drug-like compounds from the ZINC small molecule database have been screened against Nonstructural Protein 3 (NS3) previously by our group...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156357/generation-of-complement-molecular-complex-c5b-9-c5b-9-in-response-to-poly-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock-and-evaluation-of-c5-cleavage-inhibitors-in-non-human-primates
#7
R Madelaine Paredes, Sarah Reyna, Philip Vernon, Douglas K Tadaki, Jurandir J Dallelucca, Forest Sheppard
Severe trauma initiates a systemic inflammatory cascade and that involves early activation of complement and cleavage of C5 into C5a (anaphylatoxin) and C5b (C5b-9 membrane attack complex). We examined activation of C5 in non-human primate (NHP) models of hemorrhagic shock. Blood plasma concentrations of C5b-9 were significantly increased in NHPs in response to hemorrhage alone and were further increased with the addition of tissue trauma. The onset of increased C5 cleavage was accelerated in NHPs that experienced decompensated poly-traumatic hemorrhagic shock...
November 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156327/asiatic-acid-and-maslinic-acid-attenuated-kainic-acid-induced-seizure-through-decreasing-hippocampal-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Zhi-Hong Wang, Mei-Chin Mong, Ya-Chen Yang, Mei-Chin Yin
Seizure is a neurological disorder including hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress, and glutamate toxicity. Thus, any agent(s) that mitigate(s) these events in hippocampus might attenuate seizure severity. The effects of asiatic acid (AA) or maslinic acid (MA) pre-administration at 20 or 40mg/kg body weight/day upon inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic injury in hippocampus of kainic acid (KA)-treated mice were examined. KA induced seizure-like behavioral patterns, which was attenuated by AA or MA pre-administration...
November 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156272/a-quantitative-assessment-of-distributions-and-sources-of-tropospheric-halocarbons-measured-in-singapore
#9
Sayantan Sarkar, Wei Hong Fan, Shiguo Jia, Donald R Blake, Jeffrey S Reid, Puji Lestari, Liya E Yu
This work reports the first ground-based atmospheric measurements of 26 halocarbons in Singapore, an urban-industrial city-state in Southeast (SE) Asia. A total of 166 whole air canister samples collected during two intensive 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) campaigns (August-October 2011 and 2012) were analyzed for C1-C2 halocarbons using gas chromatography-electron capture/mass spectrometric detection. The halocarbon dataset was supplemented with measurements of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, sulfur gases and carbon monoxide to better understand sources and atmospheric processes...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156002/specific-g-quadruplex-ligands-modulate-the-alternative-splicing-of-bcl-x
#10
Carika Weldon, Justine G Dacanay, Vijay Gokhale, Peda Venkat L Boddupally, Isabelle Behm-Ansmant, Glenn A Burley, Christiane Branlant, Laurence H Hurley, Cyril Dominguez, Ian C Eperon
Sequences with the potential to form RNA G-quadruplexes (G4s) are common in mammalian introns, especially in the proximity of the 5' splice site (5'SS). However, the difficulty of demonstrating that G4s form in pre-mRNA in functional conditions has meant that little is known about their effects or mechanisms of action. We have shown previously that two G4s form in Bcl-X pre-mRNA, one close to each of the two alternative 5'SS. If these G4s affect splicing but are in competition with other RNA structures or RNA binding proteins, then ligands that stabilize them would increase the proportion of Bcl-X pre-mRNA molecules in which either or both G4s had formed, shifting Bcl-X splicing...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155973/tapering-versus-steady-state-methotrexate-in-combination-with-tocilizumab-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-randomized-double-blind-trial
#11
Christopher J Edwards, Andrew J K Östör, Barbara Naisbett-Groet, Patrick Kiely
Objective: To explore whether tocilizumab + tapering MTX has comparable efficacy and safety vs tocilizumab + stable MTX in adult RA patients with inadequate response to MTX. Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled non-inferiority study involved patients with severe active RA [28-joint DAS (DAS28) >5.1] who had initiated tocilizumab + MTX at the study start. Patients received open-label tocilizumab (8 mg/kg i.v. every 4 weeks) and open-label MTX. At week 24, patients achieving good/moderate EULAR response were randomized to group A (double-blind MTX taper) or group B (double-blind MTX maintenance); both arms continued open-label tocilizumab...
October 9, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155888/correction-potentiated-virucidal-activity-of-pomegranate-rind-extract-pre-and-punicalagin-against-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-when-co-administered-with-zinc-ii-ions-and-antiviral-activity-of-pre-against-hsv-and-aciclovir-resistant-hsv
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155837/reduced-order-modeling-and-analysis-of-the-human-complement-system
#13
Adithya Sagar, Wei Dai, Mason Minot, Rachel LeCover, Jeffrey D Varner
Complement is an important pathway in innate immunity, inflammation, and many disease processes. However, despite its importance, there are few validated mathematical models of complement activation. In this study, we developed an ensemble of experimentally validated reduced order complement models. We combined ordinary differential equations with logical rules to produce a compact yet predictive model of complement activation. The model, which described the lectin and alternative pathways, was an order of magnitude smaller than comparable models in the literature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155690/cryo-em-structure-of-a-late-pre-40s-ribosomal-subunit-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#14
André Heuer, Emma Thomson, Christian Schmidt, Otto Berninghausen, Thomas Becker, Ed Hurt, Roland Beckmann
Mechanistic understanding of eukaryotic ribosome formation requires a detailed structural knowledge of the numerous assembly intermediates, generated along a complex pathway. Here, we present the structure of a late pre-40S particle at 3.6 Å resolution, revealing in molecular detail how assembly factors regulate the timely folding of pre-18S rRNA. The structure shows that, rather than sterically blocking 40S translational active sites, the associated assembly factors Tsr1, Enp1, Rio2 and Pno1 collectively preclude their final maturation, thereby preventing untimely tRNA and mRNA binding and error prone translation...
November 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155478/alternative-polyadenylation-is-involved-in-auxin-based-plant-growth-and-development
#15
Liwei Hong, Congting Ye, Juncheng Lin, Haihui Fu, Xiaohui Wu, Qingshun Q Li
Auxin is widely involved in plant growth and development. However, the molecular mechanism on how auxin carries out this work is unclear. In particular, impact of auxin on pre-mRNA posttranscriptional regulation is mostly unknown. By using a poly(A) tag (PAT) sequencing approach, mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA) profiles after auxin treatment were revealed. We showed that hundreds of poly(A) site clusters (PACs) are affected by auxin at the transcriptome level, where auxin reduces PAC distribution in 5'UTR, but increases in 3'UTR...
November 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155426/cd22-targeted-car-t-cells-induce-remission-in-b-all-that-is-naive-or-resistant-to-cd19-targeted-car-immunotherapy
#16
Terry J Fry, Nirali N Shah, Rimas J Orentas, Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson, Constance M Yuan, Sneha Ramakrishna, Pamela Wolters, Staci Martin, Cindy Delbrook, Bonnie Yates, Haneen Shalabi, Thomas J Fountaine, Jack F Shern, Robbie G Majzner, David F Stroncek, Marianna Sabatino, Yang Feng, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Ling Zhang, Sang Nguyen, Haiying Qin, Boro Dropulic, Daniel W Lee, Crystal L Mackall
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting CD19 mediate potent effects in relapsed and/or refractory pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but antigen loss is a frequent cause of resistance to CD19-targeted immunotherapy. CD22 is also expressed in most cases of B-ALL and is usually retained following CD19 loss. We report results from a phase 1 trial testing a new CD22-targeted CAR (CD22-CAR) in 21 children and adults, including 17 who were previously treated with CD19-directed immunotherapy...
November 20, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155255/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-cardiovascular-health-and-aging-a-focus-on-physical-activity-and-nutrition
#17
REVIEW
Robert G Wallace, Laura C Twomey, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Jonathan Turner, Niall Moyna, Philip M Cummins, Ronan P Murphy
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic age is independent of chronological age, constituting a highly reflective snapshot of an individual's overall health. Accelerated vascular aging is of major concern, effectively lowering disease threshold...
November 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155150/enhancement-of-cutaneous-immunity-during-ageing-by-blocking-p38-mapkinase-induced-inflammation
#18
Milica Vukmanovic-Stejic, Emma S Chambers, Mayte Suarez- Farinas, Daisy Sandhu, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Neil Patel, Elaine Agius, Katie E Lacy, Carolin T Turner, Anis Larbi, Veronique Birault, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Neil A Mabbott, Malcolm H A Rustin, James Krueger, Arne N Akbar
BACKGROUND: Immunity declines with age that leads to re-activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). In humans, age associated immune changes are usually measured in blood leukocytes however this may not reflect alterations in tissue-specific immunity. OBJECTIVES: We used a VZV antigen challenge system in the skin to investigate changes in tissue specific mechanisms involved in the decreased response to this virus during ageing. METHODS: We assessed cutaneous immunity by the extent of erythema and induration after intradermal VZV antigen injection...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155135/exercise-induced-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#19
REVIEW
Peter Aldiss, James Betts, Craig Sale, Mark Pope, Michael E Symonds
Global rates of obesity continue to rise and are necessarily the consequence of a long-term imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This is the result of an expansion of adipose tissue due to both the hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and hyperplasia of adipocyte pre-cursors. Exercise elicits numerous physiological benefits on adipose tissue, which are likely to contribute to the associated cardiometabolic benefits. More recently it has been demonstrated that exercise, through a range of mechanisms, induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue from energy storing white adipocytes to thermogenic beige adipocytes...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155130/dibromoacetic-acid-induced-cl-ly1-2-9-t-cell-apoptosis-and-activation-of-mapks-signaling-cascades
#20
Xiao-Rong Zhou, Wen-Bo Jiang, Yang-Ting Zhang, Ting-Ting Gong, Shu-Ying Gao
Dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a haloacetic acid by-product of disinfection of drinking water, can cause many adverse effects in test animals, including immunotoxicity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for the immunomodulatory effects remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to help in defining some potential mechanisms for this type of toxicity. Here, Cl.Ly1+2/-9 T-cells were exposed to varying levels of DBA and then several parameters, including cell survival, apoptosis, changes in mitochondrial potentials, and effects on select kinases (i...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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