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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933088/comparison-of-ionomic-and-metabolites-response-under-alkali-stress-in-old-and-young-leaves-of-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-seedlings
#1
Rui Guo, LianXuan Shi, ChunWu Yang, ChangRong Yan, XiuLi Zhong, Qi Liu, Xu Xia, HaoRu Li
Soil salinization is an important agriculture-related environmental problem. Alkali stress and salt stress strongly influence the metabolic balance in plants. Salt and alkali stresses exert varied effects on old and young tissues, which display different adaptive strategies. In this study, we used cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants as experimental material to investigate whether alkali stress induces ionic and metabolism changes in old and young leaves of cotton plants exposed to alkali stress. Results showed that alkali stress exerted a considerably stronger growth inhibition on old leaves than on young leaves...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932026/gene-environment-interactions-in-cortical-interneuron-development-and-dysfunction-a-review-of-preclinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
Lydia J Ansen-Wilson, Robert J Lipinski
Cortical interneurons (cINs) are a diverse group of locally projecting neurons essential to the organization and regulation of neural networks. Though they comprise only ∼20% of neurons in the neocortex, their dynamic modulation of cortical activity is requisite for normal cognition and underlies multiple aspects of learning and memory. While displaying significant morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological variability, cINs collectively function to maintain the excitatory-inhibitory balance in the cortex by dampening hyperexcitability and synchronizing activity of projection neurons, primarily through use of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)...
December 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930673/dopamine-neurons-change-the-type-of-excitability-in-response-to-stimuli
#3
Ekaterina O Morozova, Denis Zakharov, Boris S Gutkin, Christopher C Lapish, Alexey Kuznetsov
The dynamics of neuronal excitability determine the neuron's response to stimuli, its synchronization and resonance properties and, ultimately, the computations it performs in the brain. We investigated the dynamical mechanisms underlying the excitability type of dopamine (DA) neurons, using a conductance-based biophysical model, and its regulation by intrinsic and synaptic currents. Calibrating the model to reproduce low frequency tonic firing results in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) excitation balanced by γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition and leads to type I excitable behavior characterized by a continuous decrease in firing frequency in response to hyperpolarizing currents...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929372/stimulus-dependent-recruitment-of-lateral-inhibition-underlies-retinal-direction-selectivity
#4
Qiang Chen, Zhe Pei, David Koren, Wei Wei
The dendrites of starburst amacrine cells (SACs) in the mammalian retina are preferentially activated by motion in the centrifugal direction, a property that is important for generating direction selectivity in direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs). A candidate mechanism underlying the centrifugal direction selectivity of SAC dendrites is synaptic inhibition onto SACs. Here we disrupted this inhibition by perturbing distinct sets of GABAergic inputs onto SACs - removing either GABA release or GABA receptors from SACs...
December 8, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929058/tectal-derived-interneurons-contribute-to-phasic-and-tonic-inhibition-in-the-visual-thalamus
#5
Polona Jager, Zhiwen Ye, Xiao Yu, Laskaro Zagoraiou, Hong-Ting Prekop, Juha Partanen, Thomas M Jessell, William Wisden, Stephen G Brickley, Alessio Delogu
The release of GABA from local interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN-INs) provides inhibitory control during visual processing within the thalamus. It is commonly assumed that this important class of interneurons originates from within the thalamic complex, but we now show that during early postnatal development Sox14/Otx2-expressing precursor cells migrate from the dorsal midbrain to generate dLGN-INs. The unexpected extra-diencephalic origin of dLGN-INs sets them apart from GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928709/the-gabaergic-system-in-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-modulates-context-related-extinction-learning-and-renewal-in-humans
#6
Silke Lissek, Anne Golisch, Benjamin Glaubitz, Martin Tegenthoff
Context-related extinction learning and renewal in humans is mediated by hippocampal and prefrontal regions. Renewal is defined as the reoccurrence of an extinguished response if the contexts present during extinction learning and recall differ. Animal studies implicate hippocampal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors in extinction and renewal. However, human studies on GABAergic mechanisms in extinction learning are lacking. In this fMRI study, we therefore investigated the role of the GABAergic system in context-related extinction learning and renewal...
December 7, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927951/effects-of-the-selective-%C3%AE-5-gabaar-antagonist-s44819-on-excitability-in-the-human-brain-a-tms-emg-and-tms-eeg-phase-i-study
#7
Ghazaleh Darmani, Carl M Zipser, Gabriele M Böhmer, Karine Deschet, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Paolo Belardinelli, Matthias Schwab, Ulf Ziemann
: Alpha-5 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (α5-GABAARs) are located extrasynaptically, regulate neuronal excitability through tonic inhibition, and are fundamentally important for processes such as plasticity and learning. For example, pharmacological blockade of α5-GABAAR in mice with ischemic stroke improved recovery of function by normalizing exaggerated perilesional α5-GABAAR-dependent tonic inhibition. S44819 is a novel competitive selective antagonist of the α5-GABAAR at the GABA-binding site...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927785/dopaminergic-treatment-weakens-medium-spiny-neuron-collateral-inhibition-in-the-parkinsonian-striatum
#8
Wei Wei, Shengyuan Ding, Fu-Ming Zhou
The striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are critical to both motor and cognitive functions. A potential regulator of MSN activity is the GABAergic collateral axonal input from neighboring MSNs. These collateral axon terminals are further under the regulation of presynaptic dopamine (DA) receptors that may become dysfunctional when the intense striatal DA innervation is lost in Parkinson's disease (PD). We show here that DA D1 receptor-expressing MSNs (D1-MSNs) and D2 receptor-expressing MSNs (D2-MSNs) each formed high rate, one-way collateral connections with a homotypic preference in both normal and DA-denervated mouse striatum...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925207/acetate-metabolism-does-not-reflect-astrocytic-activity-contributes-directly-to-gaba-synthesis-and-is-increased-by-silent-information-regulator-1-activation
#9
Benjamin D Rowlands, Matthias Klugmann, Caroline D Rae
[(13) C]acetate is known to label metabolites preferentially in astrocytes rather than neurons and it has consequently been used as a marker for astrocytic activity. Recent discoveries suggest that control of acetate metabolism and its contributions to the synthesis of metabolites in brain is not as simple as first thought. Here, using a Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice model metabolizing [1-(13) C]D-glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate, we investigated control of acetate metabolism and the degree to which it reflects astrocytic activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924875/gabab-receptor-mediates-opposing-adaptations-of-gaba-release-from-two-types-of-prefrontal-interneurons-after-observational-fear
#10
Lei Liu, Wataru Ito, Alexei Morozov
The observational fear (OF) paradigm in rodents, in which the subject is exposed to a distressed conspecific, elicits contextual fear learning and enhances future passive avoidance learning, which may model certain behavioral traits resulting from traumatic experiences in humans. Because these behaviors affected by the OF, require dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), we searched for synaptic adaptations in dmPFC resulting from OF in mice by recording synaptic responses in dmPFC layer V pyramidal neurons elicited by repeated 5 Hz electrical stimulation of dmPFC layer I, or by optogenetic stimulation of specific interneurons ex vivo one day after OF...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923876/stellate-and-pyramidal-neurons-in-goldfish-telencephalon-respond-differently-to-anoxia-and-gaba-receptor-inhibition
#11
Nariman Hossein-Javaheri, Michael P Wilkie, Wudu E Lado, Leslie T Buck
With oxygen deprivation, the mammalian brain undergoes hyper-activity and neuronal death while this does not occur in the anoxia tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). Anoxic survival of the goldfish may rely on neuromodulatory mechanisms to suppress neuronal hyper-excitability. Since γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain, we decided to investigate its potential role in suppressing the electrical activity of goldfish telencephalic neurons. Utilizing whole-cell patch-clamp recording we recorded the electrical activities of both excitatory (pyramidal) and inhibitory (stellate) neurons...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923665/nicotine-enhances-gabaergic-inhibition-of-oxytocin-mrna-expressing-neuron-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-vitro-in-rats
#12
Ke-Min Zhang, Guo-Yan Zhao, Bin-Bin Zhang, Qi Xu, Chun-Ping Chu, Hua Jin, De-Lai Qiu
We recently found that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA-expressing neurons. In this study, we studied the effect of nicotine on PVN oxytocin (OT) mRNA-expressing neuron in vitro in rats, by whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique, immunohistochemistry methods and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) methods Our results showed that 79.3% (73/92) of the 92 PVN putative magnocellular neurons co-expressed GAPDH mRNA and OT mRNA...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923637/hypothalamic-neuronal-origin-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-or-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-fibers-projecting-to-the-tuberomammillary-nucleus-of-the-rat
#13
Eun Y Lee, Young G Hwang, Hyun S Lee
Based on the importance of tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) as a target for feeding/arousal-related functions, we aimed in the present study to investigate hypothalamic neuronal origin of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) fibers projecting to the histaminergic nucleus. In the first series of experiments, we examined NPY (or CART) fiber distribution within the boundary of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-immunoreactive (ir) TMN regions; extensive NPY (or CART)-ir axon terminals were observed in E4 (TMMd), E3 (TMMv), and E2 (TMVr) subdivisions...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923157/adjuvant-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-for-combined-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression
#14
Tanveer Singh, Rajesh Kumar Goel
BACKGROUND: Elevated nitric oxide (NO) levels in the brain have been apparently associated with depression in kindled animals. Owing to the major role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in brain and ineffectiveness of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in restoring nitrosative stress, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the adjuvant nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) with valproic acid for combined treatment of epilepsy and associated depression. METHODS: Pentylenetetrazole kindled animals associated with depression were treated with vehicle, valproate (300mg/kg/day ip), valproate with 7-NI (10mg/kg; 20mg/kg; 40mg/kg)/day ip and 7-NI (40mg/kg/day ip) for 15days...
October 4, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923040/a-low-correlation-resting-state-of-the-striatum-during-cortical-avalanches-and-its-role-in-movement-suppression
#15
Andreas Klaus, Dietmar Plenz
During quiet resting behavior, involuntary movements are suppressed. Such movement control is attributed to cortico-basal ganglia loops, yet population dynamics within these loops during resting and their relation to involuntary movements are not well characterized. Here, we show by recording cortical and striatal ongoing population activity in awake rats during quiet resting that intrastriatal inhibition maintains a low-correlation striatal resting state in the presence of cortical neuronal avalanches. Involuntary movements arise from disturbed striatal resting activity through two different population dynamics...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922194/pharmacodynamic-response-profiles-of-anxiolytic-and-sedative-drugs
#16
Xia Chen, Freerk Broeyer, Marieke de Kam, Joke Baas, Adam Cohen, Joop van Gerven
INTRODUCTION: Centrally-acting acutely anxiolytic drugs, like benzodiazepines, barbiturates and gabapentinoids, affect various central nervous system (CNS) functions, which reflect not only their anxiolytic effects but also neuropsychological side-effects. To validate the pharmacodynamic biomarkers for GABA-ergic anxiolytics, this study determined the pharmacodynamics of two anxiolytics and a non-anxiolytic control and linked them to their anxiolytic and sedative effects, during an anxiety-challenge study day...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922053/electrophysiological-properties-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-along-the-longitudinal-axis-of-the-mouse-hippocampus
#17
Giampaolo Milior, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Livio Pepe' Sciarria, Stefano Garofalo, Igor Branchi, Davide Ragozzino, Cristina Limatola, Laura Maggi
Evidence for different physiological properties along the hippocampal longitudinal axis is emerging. Here, we examined the electrophysiological features of neurons at different dorso-ventral sites of the mouse CA1 hippocampal region. Cell position was defined with respect to longitudinal coordinates of each slice. We measured variations in neuronal excitability, subthreshold membrane properties and neurotransmitter responses along the longitudinal axis. We found that (i) pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) were less excitable than those of the ventral hippocampus (VH)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920772/streptococcus-thermophilus-apc151-strain-is-suitable-for-the-manufacture-of-naturally-gaba-enriched-bioactive-yogurt
#18
Daniel M Linares, Tom F O'Callaghan, Paula M O'Connor, R P Ross, Catherine Stanton
Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic) dairy foods. Yogurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic agent. Here, we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yogurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (200 mg in a standard yogurt volume of 100 ml), a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919211/development-of-mlr-and-svm-aided-qsar-models-to-identify-common-sar-of-gaba-uptake-herbal-inhibitors-used-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#19
Sahila Mohammed Marunnan, Babitha Pallikkara Pulikka, V K Gopalakrishnan, Srinivas Bandaru, Mukesh Yadav, Anuraj Nayarisseri, Victor Arokia Doss
Deficits in GABAnergic system is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Available antipsychotics that target GABA receptor form a desirable therapeutic strategy in the treatment regimen of schizophrenia but, unfortunately, suffers serious setback due to their prolonged side effects. The present investigation focuses on developing QSAR models from the biological activity of herbal compounds and their derivatives that promise to be alternative candidates to GABA uptake inhibitors. Three sets of compounds were undertaken in the study to develop the QSAR models...
December 5, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918706/effects-of-gaba-neural-regulation-and-intrinsic-cardiac-factors-on-heart-rate-variability-in-zebrafish-larvae
#20
Rafael Antonio Vargas
Heart rate (HR) is a periodic activity that is variable over time due to intrinsic cardiac factors and extrinsic neural control, largely by the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is analyzed by measuring consecutive beat-to-beat intervals. This variability can contain information about the factors regulating cardiac activity under normal and pathological conditions, but the information obtained from such analyses is not yet fully understood. In this article, HRV in zebrafish larvae was evaluated under normal conditions and under the effect of substances that modify intrinsic cardiac activity and cardiac activity modulated by the nervous system...
December 5, 2016: Zebrafish
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