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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353373/disturbance-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-mediated-long-term-depression-mglu-ltd-of-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-rat-hippocampus-after-prenatal-immune-challenge
#1
Mélanie Cavalier, Azza Ben Sedrine, Lea Thevenet, Nadine Crouzin, Janique Guiramand, Marie-Céleste de Jésus Ferreira, Catherine Cohen-Solal, Gérard Barbanel, Michel Vignes
Maternal immune challenge has proved to induce moderate to severe behavioral disabilities in the offspring. Cognitive/behavioral deficits are supported by changes in synaptic plasticity in different brain areas. We have reported previously that prenatal exposure to bacterial LPS could induce inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the juvenile/adult male offspring associated with spatial learning inabilities. Nevertheless, deficits in plasticity could be observed at earlier stages as shown by the early loss of long-term depression (LTD) in immature animals...
January 20, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353048/cardiac-events-after-non-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-undergoing-pre-operative-dobutamine-stress-echocardiography-findings-from-the-mayo-poce-dse-investigators
#2
R Jay Widmer, Michael W Cullen, Bradley R Salonen, Karna K Sundsted, David Raslau, Arya B Mohabbat, Brian M Dougan, D Mike Bierle, Donna K Lawson, A Jimmy Widmer, Mary Bundrick, Prakriti Gaba, Rene Tellez, Darrell R Schroeder, Robert B McCully, Karen F Mauck
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support the use of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) prior to non-cardiac surgery in higher risk patients who are unable to perform at least 4 metabolic equivalents of physical activity. We evaluated post-operative outcomes of patients in different operative risk categories after pre-operative DSE. METHODS: We collected data from the medical record on 4,494 patients from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2011 who had DSE up to 90 days prior to a non-cardiac surgery...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352772/neurotransmitters-and-receptors-changes-in-medial-nucleus-of-the-trapezoid-body-mntb-of-early-developmental-rats-with-single-side-deafness
#3
Jinsheng Dai, Jinfeng Liu, Mo Zhou, Wenjiao Wang, Zhi-Qing David Xu, Ningyu Wang
BACKGROUND Congenital single-side deafness (SSD) affects sound localization even after cochlear implantation (CI) in some conditions. The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) plays an important role in binaural benefit and sound localization, but little is known about intrinsic molecular changes in MNTB with SSD. We aimed to observe changes in MNTB in early-developmental SSD rats, including the key neurotransmitters (GABA, Gly, Glu) and major receptors (GABAa-R/GABAb-R for GABA, Gly-R for Gly, and AMPA/NMDA for Glu)...
January 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352698/gastric-varices-bleed-at-lower-portosystemic-pressure-gradients-than-esophageal-varices
#4
Joseph D Morrison, Nasya Mendoza-Elias, Andrew J Lipnik, R Peter Lokken, James T Bui, Charles E Ray, Ron C Gaba
PURPOSE: To quantify and compare portosystemic pressure gradients (PSGs) between bleeding esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single-center, retrospective study, 149 patients with variceal bleeding (90 men, 59 women, mean age 52 y) with EV (n = 69; 46%) or GV (n = 80; 54%) were selected from 320 consecutive patients who underwent successful transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation from 1998 to 2016...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#5
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352131/early-impoverished-environment-delays-the-maturation-of-cerebral-cortex
#6
Roberta Narducci, Laura Baroncelli, Gabriele Sansevero, Tatjana Begenisic, Concetta Prontera, Alessandro Sale, Maria Cristina Cenni, Nicoletta Berardi, Lamberto Maffei
The influence of exposure to impoverished environments on brain development is unexplored since most studies investigated how environmental impoverishment affects adult brain. To shed light on the impact of early impoverishment on developmental trajectories of the nervous system, we developed a protocol of environmental impoverishment in which dams and pups lived from birth in a condition of reduced sensory-motor stimulation. Focusing on visual system, we measured two indexes of functional development, that is visual acuity, assessed by using Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs), and VEP latency...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352105/an-ornithine-%C3%AF-aminotransferase-required-for-growth-in-the-absence-of-exogenous-proline-in-the-archaeon-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#7
Ren-Chao Zheng, Shin-Ichi Hachisuka, Hiroya Tomita, Tadayuki Imanaka, Yu-Guo Zheng, Makoto Nishiyama, Haruyuki Atomi
Aminotransferases are pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze reversible transamination reactions between amino acids and α-keto acids, and are important for the cellular metabolism of nitrogen. Many bacterial and eukaryotic ω-aminotransferases that use L-ornithine (Orn), L-lysine (Lys) or γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) have been identified and characterized, but the corresponding enzymes from archaea are unknown. Here we examined the activity and function of TK2101, a gene annotated as GABA aminotransferase, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis We overexpressed the TK2101 gene in T...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351505/helping-mediating-and-gaining-recognition-the-everyday-identity-work-of-romanian-health-social-workers
#8
Alexandra Ciocănel, Florin Lazăr, Shari Munch, Cara Harmon, Georgiana-Cristina Rentea, Daniela Gaba, Anca Mihai
Health social work is a field with challenges, opportunities, and ways of professing social work that may vary between different national contexts. In this article, we look at how Romanian health social workers construct their professional identity through their everyday identity work. Drawing on a qualitative study based on interviews with 21 health social workers working in various organizational contexts, we analyze what health social workers say they do and how this shapes their self-conception as professionals...
January 19, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351468/gabaergic-contribution-to-the-muscle-mechanoreflex-mediated-heart-rate-responses-at-the-onset-of-exercise-in-humans
#9
André L Teixeira, Plinio Santos Ramos, Milena Samora, Jeann L Sabino-Carvalho, Djalma Rabelo Ricardo, Eduardo Colombari, Lauro C Vianna
Previous studies indicated that central GABAergic mechanisms are involved in the heart rate (HR) responses at the onset of exercise. Based on previous research that showed similar increases in HR during passive and active cycling, we reasoned that the GABAergic mechanisms involved in the HR responses at the exercise onset is primarily mediated by muscle mechanoreceptors afferents. Therefore, in this study we sought to determine if central GABA mechanisms are involved in the muscle mechanoreflex-mediated HR responses at the onset of exercise in humans...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351168/co-regulation-of-er-stress-and-oxidative-stress-in-neuropathic-pain-and-disinhibition-of-the-spinal-nociceptive-circuitry
#10
Yanhu Ge, Yingfu Jiao, Peiying Li, Zhenghua Xiang, Zhi Li, Long Wang, Wenqian Li, Hao Gao, Jiayun Shao, Daxiang Wen, Weifeng Yu
The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen leads to ER stress, which is related to cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Neuropathic pain may result from spinal dorsal horn (SDH) ER stress. In this study, we examined the cause-effect relationship between ER stress and neuropathic pain using the spinal nerve ligation(SNL) rat model. We showed that ER stress was mutually promotive with oxidative stress during the process. We also tested the hypothesis that spinal sensitization arose from reduced activities of GABA-ergic interneurons and that spinal sensitization was mediated by SDH ER stress...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350907/excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuronal-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord-and-their-role-in-the-control-of-motor-neuron-function-and-degeneration
#11
Uri Nimrod Ramírez-Jarquín, Ricardo Tapia
The complex neuronal networks of the spinal cord coordinate a wide variety of motor functions, including walking, running and voluntary and involuntary movements. This is accomplished by different groups of neurons, called center pattern generators, which control left-right alternation and flexor-extensor patterns. These spinal circuits, located in the ventral horns, are formed by several neuronal types, and the specific function of most of them has been identified by means of studies in vivo and in the isolated spinal cord of mice harboring genetically induced ablation of specific neuronal populations...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349630/developmental-changes-in-serotonergic-modulation-of-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-and-postsynaptic-gabaa-receptor-composition-in-the-cerebellar-nuclei
#12
Fumihito Saitow, Masatoshi Nagano, Hidenori Suzuki
Outputs from the cerebellar nuclei (CN) are important for generating and controlling movement. The activity of CN neurons is controlled not only by excitatory inputs from mossy and climbing fibers and by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-based inhibitory transmission from Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex but is also modulated by inputs from other brain regions, including serotonergic fibers that originate in the dorsal raphe nuclei. We examined the modulatory effects of serotonin (5-HT) on GABAergic synapses during development, using rat cerebellar slices...
January 19, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#13
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346425/hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-support-recognition-memory-and-modulate-hippocampal-excitability
#14
Andrew Hooper, Patrick M Fuller, Jamie Maguire
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory. Given our laboratory's recent characterization of a subset of hippocampal CRH neurons as a novel class of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that these local GABAergic hippocampal CRH neurons may influence hippocampal function. Here we applied an array of molecular tools to selectively label and manipulate hippocampal CRH neurons in mice, in order to assess this interneuron population's impact on hippocampus-dependent behaviors and hippocampal network excitability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345055/npas4-deficiency-interacts-with-adolescent-stress-to-disrupt-prefrontal-gabaergic-maturation-and-adult-cognitive-flexibility
#15
Chloe Page, Jonathan Alexander, Ryan Shepard, Laurence Coutellier
Healthy cognitive and emotional functioning relies on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex. This balance is largely established during early postnatal and adolescent developmental periods by maturation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, including increased density of parvalbumin cells and perineuronal nets. Genetic and/or environmental factors during adolescence can disrupt GABAergic maturation and lead to behavioral dysfunction in adulthood. The present study examined the interaction between chronic mild stress during adolescence and genetic deficiency of neuronal PAS domain 4 (Npas4), a brain-specific transcription factor that regulates inhibitory neurotransmission and that contributes to adolescent prefrontal GABAergic maturation...
January 18, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343737/moderate-decline-in-select-synaptic-markers-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-ba9-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-at-various-cognitive-stages
#16
Odile Poirel, Sébastien Mella, Catherine Videau, Lauriane Ramet, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Etienne Herzog, Pavel Katsel, Naguib Mechawar, Vahram Haroutunian, Jacques Epelbaum, Stéphanie Daumas, Salah El Mestikawy
Synaptic loss, plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are viewed as hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated synaptic markers in neocortical Brodmann area 9 (BA9) samples from 171 subjects with and without AD at different levels of cognitive impairment. The expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1&2), glutamate uptake site (EAAT2), post-synaptic density protein of 95 kD (PSD95), vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VIAAT), somatostatin (som), synaptophysin and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) were evaluated...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342238/rhythmic-spontaneous-activity-mediates-the-age-related-decline-in-somatosensory-function
#17
Rachel K Spooner, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341457/different-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-midazolam-on-the-expression-of-nr2b-and-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-rats
#18
Jiayu Chen, Hanjun Li, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Wei Zhao, Yunli Yang, Weiqing Ma, Na Li
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain condition and the treatment is a major clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that two FDA approved drugs dexmedetomidine (DEX) and midazolam (MZL), may be useful in treating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism is not fully dementated. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of DEX and MZL treatment in the peripheral nerve injury model. Intramuscular injection with DEX and MZL attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341331/the-relationship-between-thalamic-gaba-content-and-resting-cortical-rhythm-in-neuropathic-pain
#19
Flavia Di Pietro, Paul M Macey, Caroline D Rae, Zeynab Alshelh, Vaughan G Macefield, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Recurrent thalamocortical connections are integral to the generation of brain rhythms and it is thought that the inhibitory action of the thalamic reticular nucleus is critical in setting these rhythms. Our work and others' has suggested that chronic pain that develops following nerve injury, that is, neuropathic pain, results from altered thalamocortical rhythm, although whether this dysrhythmia is associated with thalamic inhibitory function remains unknown. In this investigation, we used electroencephalography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate cortical power and thalamic GABAergic concentration in 20 patients with neuropathic pain and 20 pain-free controls...
January 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339464/propionate-enters-gabaergic-neurons-inhibits-gaba-transaminase-causes-gaba-accumulation-and-lethargy-in-a-model-of-propionic-acidemia
#20
Cecilie Morland, Anne-Sofie Frøland, Mi Nyguyen Pettersen, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Vidar Gundersen, Frode Rise, Bjørnar Hassel
Propionic acidemia is the accumulation of propionate in blood due to dysfunction of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The condition causes lethargy and striatal degeneration with motor impairment in humans. How propionate exerts its toxic effect is unclear. Here we show that intravenous administration of propionate causes dose-dependent propionate accumulation in the brain and transient lethargy in mice. Propionate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, entered GABAergic neurons, as could be seen from increased neuronal histone H4 acetylation in striatum and neocortex...
January 16, 2018: Biochemical Journal
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