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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241093/quantitative-analysis-of-drugs-in-hair-by-uhplc-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#1
Robert Kronstrand, Malin Forsman, Markus Roman
Liquid chromatographic methods coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry are increasingly used to identify compounds in various matrices including hair but there are few recommendations regarding the parameters and their criteria to identify a compound. In this study we present a method for the identification and quantification of a range of drugs and discuss the parameters used to identify a compound with high resolution mass spectrometry. Drugs were extracted from hair by incubation in a buffer:solvent mixture at 37°C during 18h...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230989/-the-role-of-segmental-analysis-of-clonazepam-in-hair-in-drug-facilitated-cases
#2
H Chen, P Xiang, M Shen
OBJECTIVES: To infer the frequency of dosage and medication history investigate of the victims in drug facilitated cases by the segmental analysis of clonazepam in hair. METHODS: Freezing milling under liquid nitrogen environment combined with ultrasonic bath was used as sample pretreatment in this study, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for the segmental analysis of the hair samples collected from 6 victims in different cases. The concentrations of clonazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam were detected in each hair section...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227273/-poisoning-by-psychopharmacological-drugs-in-azerbaijan-the-results-of-8-year-prospective-observation
#3
I Afandiyev, V Azizov
Acute poisoning of chemical etiology is a significant global public health problem. The aim of this study was the analysis of the toxicoepidemiological structure of psychopharmacological drugs poisoning in Azerbaijan. We collected and analyzed the data on all cases of acute poisoning by psychopharmacological drugs (codes of categories T42/T43 ICD-10) undergoing inpatient treatment at the Center of Clinical Toxicology in Baku, Azerbaijan in 2009-2016. The total number of patients with acute intoxication by psychopharmacological drugs was 3,413, which was 48...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208538/sleep-related-painful-erections-a-meta-analysis-on-the-pathophysiology-and-risks-and-benefits-of-medical-treatments
#4
REVIEW
Sanne Vreugdenhil, Alida Cornelia Weidenaar, Igle Jan de Jong, Mels Frank van Driel
BACKGROUND: Patients with sleep-related painful erections (SRPEs) have frequent awakenings from deep penile pain during nocturnal erections. This results in severe sleep deprivation. AIM: To review the current literature on SRPEs and discuss the pathophysiologic theories and risks and benefits of medical treatments. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms sleep-related painful erections, nocturnal priapism, treatment, and sleep-related erections...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204799/dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-5-ht6-receptors-regulate-anxiety-like-behavior
#5
Fei Geng, Jia Tian, Jian-Lin Wu, Yun Luo, Wen-Jun Zou, Chao Peng, Gui-Feng Lu
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) plays a very important role in decision-related and anxiety-related information processing. It has enriched 5-HT6 receptors; however, the precise role of dmPFC 5-HT6 receptors in anxiety remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we injected dmPFC with the 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD 386088 and antagonist SB 271046 using stereotactic technology. 5-HT6 receptor activation in mice increased time spent in the center area on the open-field test, increased exploration of the open arms on the elevated plus maze test, and increased ratio on the social interaction test...
December 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197846/severe-recurrent-hypothermia-in-an-elderly-patient-with-refractory-mania-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-valproic-acid-and-oxcarbazepine-therapy
#6
Oluwadamilare O Ajayi, Suzanne Holroyd
Hypothermia is a rare but serious condition that has been associated with various psychiatric medications. We present a 76-year-old woman with refractory mania who developed multiple episodes of severe hypothermia associated with several psychiatric medications including olanzapine, quetiapine, valproic acid and oxcarbazepine. These episodes resolved following discontinuation of the agents. The patient had never experienced hypothermia before, despite having been on these or similar agents for many years. With traditional treatments for mania not feasible, other medications were used to treat her including lithium, clonazepam, gabapentin and the novel protein kinase c inhibitor tamoxifen...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191768/interactions-of-aliskiren-a-direct-renin-inhibitor-with-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-test-of-maximal-electroshock-in-mice
#7
Krzysztof Łukawski, Grzegorz Raszewski, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Experimental studies showed that certain angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists can decrease seizure severity in rodents. Additionally, some of these blockers of the renin-angiotensin system have been documented to enhance the anticonvulsant activity of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock-induced seizures. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor and a novel antihypertensive drug, on the protective action of numerous antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, valproate, clonazepam, phenobarbital, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and pregabalin) in the test of maximal electroshock in mice...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172026/effect-of-non-prohibited-drugs-on-the-phase-ii-metabolic-profile-of-morphine-an-in-vitro-investigation-for-doping-control-purposes
#8
Gabriella Ambrosio, Xavier de la Torre, Monica Mazzarino, Maria K Parr, Francesco Botrè
The potential consequences of drug-drug interaction on the strategies adopted by the anti-doping laboratories to report an adverse analytical finding for morphine were investigated. We have evaluated in vitro the effects of fourteen drugs on the principal metabolic pathways of morphine. The selected drugs are among those most commonly used by the athletes, none of them presently included in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List. The non-prohibited drugs included four antifungals (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole), six benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam and triazolam), and four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and nimesulide)...
November 24, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#9
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104832/belly-dancer-s-dyskinesia-a-glimpse-of-a-rare-phenomenon
#10
Ashutosh Gupta, Suman Kushwaha
Belly dancer's dyskinesia (BDD) is an extremely rare manifestation consisting of involuntary and repetitive rhythmic movements of the abdominal wall. These movements cannot be voluntarily suppressed but may be influenced by respiratory maneuvers. Investigations such as spinal cord and abdominal imaging usually fail to reveal any local abnormalities to explain the movement disorder. A 23-year-old male presented with sudden onset of undulating movements of the abdominal wall for the last two months after he took domperidone...
July 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103007/anti-lgi1-encephalitis-causing-faciobrachial-dystonic-seizures
#11
Stamatios Zouras, Jeffrey W Stephens, Srinivasa Rao Abburu, Chika Emelle
Anti-leucine-richglioma inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) encephalitis has an autoimmune origin and can be reversed with immunotherapy. It is obvious that identifying and treating this condition early is of paramount importance. We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with faciobrachial dystonic seizures and was found to have antibodies to LGI1. His symptoms started approximately 3 months prior admission to the hospital. There had also been some subtle cognitive impairment. He was treated with two courses of intravenous immunoglobulin and commenced on prednisolone 50 mg daily and clonazepam 500 µg at night...
November 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101940/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-diagnosis-clinical-implications-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Erik K St Louis, Bradley F Boeve
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is diagnosed by a clinical history of dream enactment accompanied by polysomnographic rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is strongly associated with neurodegenerative disease, especially synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. A history of RBD may begin several years to decades before onset of any clear daytime symptoms of motor, cognitive, or autonomic impairments, suggesting that RBD is the presenting manifestation of a neurodegenerative process...
November 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101905/conversion-factors-for-assessment-of-driving-impairment-after-exposure-to-multiple-benzodiazepines-z-hypnotics-or-opioids
#13
Maren Cecilie Strand, Jørg Mørland, Lars Slørdal, Bettina Riedel, Cato Innerdal, Trond Aamo, Grete Mathisrud, Vigdis Vindenes
AIMS: Norway has introduced legal concentration limits in blood for 28 non-alcohol drugs in driving under the influence cases. As of 2016 this legislation also regulates the assessment of combined effects of multiple benzodiazepines and opioids. We herein describe the employed methodology for the equivalence tables for concentrations of benzodiazepines/z-hypnotics and opioids implemented in the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. METHODS: Legislative limits corresponding to impairment at blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0...
December 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083341/a-case-of-refractary-epilepsy-and-related-pain-due-to-dysmenorrhea-solved-with-loading-dose-of-lacosamide-clinical-and-neurophysiological-correlates
#14
Nicolino Marchitto, Umberto Ceratti, Serenella Dalmaso, Gianfranco Raimondi
 In most cases, the etiology of epilepsy is unknown, although some individuals may develop epilepsy as a result of certain brain injuries, following a stroke, a brain tumor or because of drugs and alcohol. Even some rare genetic mutations may be related to the onset of the condition. Seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal activity of neurons in the cerebral cortex. In this case report we show a clinical case of refractory epilepsy due to pain related to uncontrolled dysmenorrhea. The patient, 43 yrs old, had a history of epilepsy of 20 years and ovarian cancer...
October 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037589/a-twin-purification-enrichment-procedure-based-on-two-versatile-solid-liquid-extracting-agents-for-efficient-uptake-of-ultra-trace-levels-of-lorazepam-and-clonazepam-from-complex-bio-matrices
#15
Maryam Hemmati, Maryam Rajabi, Alireza Asghari
In this research work, two consecutive dispersive solid/liquid phase microextractions based on efficient extraction media were developed for the influential and clean pre-concentration of clonazepam and lorazepam from complicated bio-samples. The magnetism nature of the proposed nanoadsorbent proceeded the clean-up step conveniently and swiftly (∼5min), pursued by a further enrichment via a highly effective and rapid emulsification microextraction process (∼4min) based on a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Finally, the instrumental analysis step was practicable via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032024/characteristics-of-self-inflicted-drug-overdose-deaths-in-north-carolina
#16
Anna E Austin, Scott K Proescholdbell, Kathleen E Creppage, Alex Asbun
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose mortality is a major public health concern in the United States, with prescription opioids contributing substantially to recent increases in drug overdose deaths. Compared to unintentional drug overdose deaths, relatively little data describes intentional self-inflicted drug overdose deaths (i.e., suicide by drug overdose). The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of self-inflicted drug overdose deaths, overall and in comparison to unintentional drug overdose deaths...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027197/the-risk-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-new-users-of-antiepileptic-drugs
#17
Noel Frey, Michael Bodmer, Andreas Bircher, Stephan Rüegg, Susan S Jick, Christoph R Meier, Julia Spoendlin
OBJECTIVE: Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). However, evidence for newer AED is sparse. We quantified risks of SJS/TEN in association with use of all AEDs in the United Kingdom. METHODS: In a matched case-control study of 480 previously validated SJS/TEN cases (1995-2013) we used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and calculated absolute risks of SJS/TEN within separate cohorts of new users of 28 AEDs...
October 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026345/tolerated-drugs-in-subjects-with-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-scars-induced-by-anticonvulsants-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Fabrizio De Luca, Laura Michelina Losappio, Corrado Mirone, Jan Walter Schroeder, Antonella Citterio, Maria Gloria Aversano, Joseph Scibilia, Elide Anna Pastorello
BACKGROUND: Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome represents a rare but potentially fatal kind of adverse drug reaction. This clinical picture often hampers the flexibility with which alternative anticonvulsants or even other classes of drugs are prescribed in these patients, negatively affecting the efficacy of treatment and the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse a group of six patients with severe cutaneous drug reactions induced by anticonvulsants and to report which alternative antiepileptic drugs and which drugs of other classes were tolerated...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024230/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-oral-rinse-reduces-capsaicin-induced-burning-mouth-pain-sensation-an-experimental-quantitative-sensory-testing-study-in-healthy-subjects
#19
Y Zhang, K Wang, L Arendt-Nielsen, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: In burning mouth patients, analgesia after oral administration of clonazepam may result from modulation of peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. METHODS: The effect of oral administration of test solutions (water, 0.5 mol/L or 0.05 mol/L GABA, 1% lidocaine) was investigated for the amelioration of pain and sensitivity induced by application of capsaicin (1%, 2 min) to the tongue of thirty healthy male and female subjects in this four-session, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975608/inappropriate-prescribing-in-older-hospitalized-adults-a-comparison-of-medical-specialties
#20
Ana Carmen Dos Santos Ribeiro Simoes Juliano, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Jéssica Teixeira Santos da Silva, Letícia Gomes Santos, Jéssica Borges Taranto Nunes, Guilherme Cortes Fernandes, Giancarlo Lucchetti
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and number of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in hospitalized older adults, comparing prescription patterns of medical specialties. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary general hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All older adults hospitalized from January through May 2015 (N = 1,900). MEASUREMENTS: Information on medications prescribed during the first and last days of hospitalization was collected and evaluated regarding PIMs using Beers and Screening Tool of Older People's Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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