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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225481/perspectives-on-high-intensity-interval-exercise-for-health-promotion-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Bert Bond, Kathryn L Weston, Craig A Williams, Alan R Barker
Physical activity lowers future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, few children and adolescents achieve the recommended minimum amount of daily activity. Accordingly, there is virtue in identifying the efficacy of small volumes of high-intensity exercise for health benefits in children and adolescents for the primary prevention of CVD risk. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a novel overview of the available literature concerning high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) interventions in children and adolescents...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225206/prevalence-of-central-fatness-in-1992-1994-40-of-japanese-boys-6-17-years
#2
Mikako Inokuchi, Nobutake Matsuo, John I Takayama, Tomonobu Hasegawa
Obesity in children is a serious public health problem in Japan. However, the prevalence of central fatness has not been well determined in Japanese youth. We studied the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) using line of equality analysis in 5,787 boys and 4,639 girls aged 6 to 17 years who participated in the 1992-1994 national survey on body sizes. WC was measured at the level of maximum waist narrowing in girls (WC1) and at the level of the top of iliac crest in boys (WC2)...
December 8, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224987/tobacco-smoke-exposure-association-with-lipid-profiles-and-adiposity-among-u-s-adolescents
#3
Ashley L Merianos, Roman A Jandarov, Jane C Khoury, E Melinda Mahabee-Gittens
PURPOSE: We investigated the association between tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) as measured by serum cotinine and lipoprotein cholesterols and adiposity in adolescents. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data including participants 12-19 years old. We examined TSE: unexposed (<.05 ng/mL), passively exposed (.05-2.99 ng/mL), and actively exposed (≥3 ng/mL); lipid profiles: total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides; and adiposity: body mass index z-score (BMIZ), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224241/cost-effectiveness-of-bariatric-surgery-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity-in-the-uk
#4
M Panca, R M Viner, B White, T Pandya, H Melo, M Adamo, R Batterham, D Christie, S Kinra, S Morris
Evidence shows that surgery for severe obesity in adults improves health and psychological functioning, and is cost-effective. Data on bariatric surgery for adolescents with severe obesity are extremely limited, with no evidence on cost-effectiveness. We evaluated the lifetime cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery compared with no surgery in adolescents with severe obesity from the UK's National Health Service perspective. Eighteen adolescents with body mass index ≥40 kg m-2 who underwent bariatric surgery (laparoscopic Roux en Y Gastric Bypass [RYGB] [N = 9], and laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy [SG] [N = 9]) at University College London Hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 were included...
December 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224232/physical-activity-and-family-based-obesity-treatment-a-review-of-expert-recommendations-on-physical-activity-in-youth
#5
REVIEW
C Foster, J B Moore, C R Singletary, J A Skelton
Targeting physical inactivity in children is pertinent to aiding in the decrease of childhood obesity rates. Only 33% of adolescents are obtaining the recommended goal of at least 60 min of physical activity per day. The objectives of this review are to summarize professional recommendations for physical activity and exercise in children and adolescents, and identify family-centred strategies that can be implemented by weight management clinicians. Clinically oriented recommendations and policy statements from professional organizations were identified through literature and internet searches, summarized using rubrics of aerobic, muscle strengthening and bone strengthening exercise, then examined for details on family-based focus, inclusion of child developmental stage and age, and application to the prevention and treatment of obesity...
December 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223472/-excess-weight-and-abdominal-obesity-in-galician-children-and-adolescents
#6
Mónica Pérez-Ríos, María Isolina Santiago-Pérez, Rosaura Leis, Ana Martínez, Alberto Malvar, Xurxo Hervada, Jorge Suanzes
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old...
December 6, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222904/dietary-patterns-change-over-two-years-in-early-adolescent-girls-in-hawai-i
#7
Michelle Ann Mosley, Jinan C Banna, Eunjung Lim, Marie Kainoa Fialkowski, Rachel Novotny
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In investigating diet-disease relationships, examination of dietary patterns allows for conclusions to be drawn based on overall intake. This study characterized dietary patterns of early adolescent girls over a two-year period and examined the relationship between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using longitudinal data from food records of early adolescent girls (n=148) 9 to 14 years in Hawai'i from the Female Adolescent Maturation (FAM) study...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221939/obesity-and-contraceptive-use-among-women-20-44-years-of-age-in-the-united-states-results-from-the-2011-15-national-survey-of-family-growth-nsfg
#8
William D Mosher, Hannah Lantos, Anne Burke
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has increased dramatically in the US in recent decades. Our objective was to explore associations of contraceptive choices of US women, aged 20-44 years, with body mass index (BMI) and relevant covariates. STUDY DESIGN: Data are based on interviews with a national sample of 11,300 women in the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). We analyzed women ages 20-44 at risk of unintended pregnancy. The primary dependent variable was BMI category...
December 5, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220800/exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents
#9
Tanya L Alderete, Roshonda B Jones, Zhanghua Chen, Jeniffer S Kim, Rima Habre, Frederick Lurmann, Frank D Gilliland, Michael I Goran
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic dysfunction in humans. Animal studies suggest that air pollutants may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, which may negatively impact metabolic health through changes in the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether elevated TRAP exposure was correlated with gut bacterial taxa in overweight and obese adolescents from the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220530/impaired-lipolysis-diminished-fat-oxidation-and-metabolic-inflexibility-in-obese-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#10
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, Silva Arslanian
CONTEXT: Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whole-body lipolysis, substrate oxidation and metabolic flexibility in obese PCOS vs. non-PCOS girls. PATIENTS/DESIGN: Twenty-one obese (BMI 32...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220206/aerobic-training-but-no-resistance-training-increases-sirt3-in-skeletal-muscle-of-sedentary-obese-male-adolescents
#11
Katya Vargas-Ortiz, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo Figueroa, Francisco J Díaz, Paulina G Montaño-Ascencio, Maciste H Macías-Cervantes
In recent years, prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased. A strategy for prevention and management of obesity is aerobic training (AT) due to its effectiveness to decrease fat mass. AT increases the content of SIRT3, a mitochondrial protein that increases the expression of PGC-1α and NFR1, thereby enhances mitochondrial function and metabolic health. Resistance training (RT) provides metabolic benefits but its effect on SIRT3 content is unknown. To compare the effect of AT and RT on SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 protein levels in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese adolescents...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218844/predictors-of-hepatotoxicity-and-pancreatitis-in-children-and-adolescents-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-according-to-contemporary-regimens
#12
Christopher C Denton, Yasmin A Rawlins, Matthew J Oberley, Deepa Bhojwani, Etan Orgel
BACKGROUND: Hepatotoxicity and pancreatitis are common treatment-related toxicities (TRTs) during contemporary treatment regimens for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Limited detailed data from Children's Oncology Group (COG) regimens has been previously reported to enable identification of patient and treatment risk factors for these toxicities and their impact on outcomes. PROCEDURE: We analyzed a retrospective pediatric ALL cohort treated at a single institution according to COG regimens from 2008 to 2015...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218646/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-complications-diagnosis-and-management-in-obese-children
#13
REVIEW
Naval K Vikram
The world at present is facing a burden of rising prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. The developing countries are particularly facing the dual burden on under-nutrition and obesity. This is associated with appearance and clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities at an early age with development of chronic complications early and possible decrease in life span of these children and adolescents. In adults this clustering has been termed as 'metabolic syndrome' with definitions that can be used universally...
December 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214926/aerobic-training-performed-at-ventilatory-threshold-improves-liver-enzymes-and-lipid-profile-related-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#14
Camila Tc de Lira, Marcos Am Dos Santos, Priscyla P Gomes, Yara L Fidelix, Ana Co Dos Santos, Thiago Rs Tenório, Mara C Lofrano-Prado, Wagner L do Prado
BACKGROUND: Despite the positive effects of high-intensity training on weight management and health-related outcomes, it is postulated that high-intensity training may also induce oxidative stress, increasing hepatic damage. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low versus high-intensity training on biomarkers related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: For this study 107 adolescents (15 ± 1 years) with obesity (BMI = 34...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214176/human-gut-microbiota-associated-with-obesity-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents
#15
Ya-Ping Hou, Qing-Qing He, Hai-Mei Ouyang, Hai-Shan Peng, Qun Wang, Jie Li, Xiao-Fei Lv, Yi-Nan Zheng, Shao-Chuan Li, Hai-Liang Liu, Ai-Hua Yin
Objective: To investigate the gut microbiota differences of obese children compared with the control healthy cohort to result in further understanding of the mechanism of obesity development. Methods: We evaluated the 16S rRNA gene, the enterotypes, and quantity of the gut microbiota among obese children and the control cohort and learned the differences of the gut microbiota during the process of weight reduction in obese children. Results: In the present study, we learned that the gut microbiota composition was significantly different between obese children and the healthy cohort...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214021/a-pilot-study-with-early-adolescents-dealing-with-diet-tobacco-and-air-pollution-using-practical-experiences-and-biological-markers
#16
Chiara Marabelli, Elena Munarini, Micaela Lina, Roberto Mazza, Roberto Boffi, Cinzia De Marco, Ario Ruprecht, Giorgia Angellotti, Chiara Veronese, Paolo Pozzi, Eleonora Bruno, Giuliana Gargano, Adalberto Cavalleri, Giulia Garrone, Franco Berrino
Background: Tobacco use and the Western diet are two of the most important and investigated topics in relation to adolescents' health. In addition, air pollution is a crucial subject for future generations. School is a key social environment that should promote healthy behaviors in children and adolescents. In this field many different programs have been conducted, with mixed results and effectiveness. Research data suggest that comprehensive and multicomponent approaches may have a greater effect on tobacco use and diet, especially when integrated into a community-wide approach...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212175/the-role-of-established-east-asian-obesity-related-loci-on-pediatric-leptin-levels-highlights-a-neuronal-influence-on-body-weight-regulation-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-the-bcams-study
#17
Junling Fu, Ge Li, Lujiao Li, Jinhua Yin, Hong Cheng, Lanwen Han, Qian Zhang, Naishi Li, Xinhua Xiao, Struan F A Grant, Mingyao Li, Shan Gao, Jie Mi, Ming Li
Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple variants associated with adult obesity, mostly in European-ancestry populations. We aimed to systematically assess the contribution of key loci, which had been previously shown to be associated in East Asian adults, to childhood obesity, related adipokine profiles and metabolic traits in a Chinese pediatric population. Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) plus metabolic profiles and levels of five adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, fibroblast growth factor 21 and retinol binding protein 4) were evaluated in 3,506 Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211786/pediatric-sims-score-a-new-simple-and-accurate-continuous-metabolic-syndrome-score-for-everyday-use-in-pediatrics
#18
Rade Vukovic, Tatjana Milenkovic, George Stojan, Ana Vukovic, Katarina Mitrovic, Sladjana Todorovic, Ivan Soldatovic
BACKGROUND: The dichotomous nature of the current definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) in youth results in loss of information. On the other hand, the calculation of continuous MS scores using standardized residuals in linear regression (Z scores) or factor scores of principal component analysis (PCA) is highly impractical for clinical use. Recently, a novel, easily calculated continuous MS score called siMS score was developed based on the IDF MS criteria for the adult population. OBJECTIVE: To develop a Pediatric siMS score (PsiMS), a modified continuous MS score for use in the obese youth, based on the original siMS score, while keeping the score as simple as possible and retaining high correlation with more complex scores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211516/racial-discrimination-and-low-household-education-predict-higher-body-mass-index-in-african-american-youth
#19
Devin S Nelson, Julia M Gerras, Kellye C McGlumphy, Erika R Shaver, Amaanat K Gill, Kamala Kanneganti, Tiwaloluwa A Ajibewa, Rebecca E Hasson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. METHODS: A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable...
December 6, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210956/motor-skills-of-obese-and-severely-obese-children-and-adolescents-a-circuit-study
#20
Anna-Luisa Häcker, Jean-Luc Bigras, Mélanie Henderson, Tracie A Barnett, Marie-Eve Mathieu
During childhood, excessive weight is negatively associated with the development of motor skills, with children with overweight or obesity having poorer motor skills compared to children with normal weight. The objectives of the current study are to identify the differences in motor skills between children and adolescent with obesity and severe obesity and the extent of this difference. To do so, we examined cross-sectionally 165 subjects. Physical fitness was analyzed in both participants with obesity (>97-99...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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