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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525354/the-relationship-between-insulin-resistance-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-obese-adolescents
#1
Preneet Cheema Brar, Payal Patel, Stuart Katz
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction share a reciprocal relationship that links the metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae of obesity. We characterized the brachial artery reactivity testing (BART) and carotid artery-intima media thickness (CIMT) in adolescents categorized as obese insulin resistant (OIR) and obese not insulin resistant (ONIR). Lipoprotein particle (p) analysis and inflammatory cytokines in OIR and ONIR groups were also analyzed. METHODS: Obese adolescents (n=40; mean body mass index [BMI] 35...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525348/obesity-prevalence-and-contributing-factors-among-adolescents-in-secondary-schools-in-pemagatshel-district-bhutan
#2
Wang Norbu, Ugyen Wangdi, Desang Dorji, Dumrongkiet Arthan, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, Pannamas Maneekan, Pimpimon Thongthien, Nantaporn Viravathana, Pattaneeya Prangthip
Background The prevalence of obesity has increased globally, with childhood and adolescent obesity being more common in developed countries. There has been no study on teenage obesity in Bhutan. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of obesity in Bhutan for the first time in order to provide a baseline for future researchers. Methods The investigation, which included 392 adolescents, aimed to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its contributing factors. Anthropometric measurements, food recall and knowledge, attitude, behaviour and environment questionnaires were administered...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520503/serum-alanine-aminotransferase-trends-and-their-relationship-with-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-united-states-adolescents-1999-2014
#3
Cyrelle R Fermin, Arthur M Lee, Stephanie L Filipp, Matthew J Gurka, Mark D DeBoer
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatocyte dysfunction, fat accumulation, and fibrosis, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are used clinically to identify potential liver dysfunction. Our goal was to assess for changes in the national prevalence of elevated ALT over time and potential relationship to trends in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) severity and elevated body mass index (BMI)...
May 18, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520476/early-life-growth-predictors-of-childhood-adiposity-trajectories-and-future-risk-for-obesity-birth-to-twenty-cohort
#4
Richard J Munthali, Juliana Kagura, Zané Lombard, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of variations in adiposity trajectories among individuals, but the influence of early life growth patterns on these trajectories is underresearched in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between early life conditional weight gain and childhood adiposity trajectories. METHODS: We previously identified distinct adiposity trajectories (four for girls and three for boys) in black South African children (boys = 877; girls = 947)...
May 18, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516496/the-impact-of-childhood-obesity-on-health-and-health-service-use
#5
Jonas Minet Kinge, Stephen Morris
OBJECTIVE: To test the impact of obesity on health and health care use in children, by the use of various methods to account for reverse causality and omitted variables. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Fifteen rounds of the Health Survey for England (1998-2013), which is representative of children and adolescents in England. STUDY DESIGN: We use three methods to account for reverse causality and omitted variables in the relationship between BMI and health/health service use: regression with individual, parent, and household control variables; sibling fixed effects; and instrumental variables based on genetic variation in weight...
May 17, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508133/children-and-adolescents-macrovascular-reactivity-level-and-dynamics-but-not-the-microvascular-response-is-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-arterial-stiffness-levels
#6
Yanina Zócalo, Marco Marotta, Victoria García-Espinosa, Santiago Curcio, Pedro Chiesa, Gustavo Giachetto, Daniel Bia
INTRODUCTION: The existing evidence indicates that primary prevention of atherosclerotic disease should begin in childhood. Detection of children and adolescents at risk for atherosclerosis may allow early intervention to decrease the atherosclerotic process, thereby preventing or delaying cardiovascular disease. Vascular reactivity (VR) is altered even by early atherosclerosis. Obesity is a main cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) observed in childhood. If childhood obesity associates impaired macro and/or micro VR is controversial...
May 15, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505241/tri-ponderal-mass-index-vs-body-mass-index-in-estimating-body-fat-during-adolescence
#7
Courtney M Peterson, Haiyan Su, Diana M Thomas, Moonseong Heo, Amir H Golnabi, Angelo Pietrobelli, Steven B Heymsfield
Importance: Body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity in adolescents worldwide, despite evidence that weight does not scale with height squared in adolescents. To account for this, health care providers diagnose obesity using BMI percentiles for each age (BMI z scores), but this does not ensure that BMI is accurate in adolescents. Objective: To compare the accuracy of BMI vs other body fat indices of the form body mass divided by heightn in estimating body fat levels in adolescents...
May 15, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505188/early-childhood-lung-function-is-a-stronger-predictor-of-adolescent-lung-function-in-cystic-fibrosis-than-early-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#8
Jessica E Pittman, Hannah Noah, Hollin E Calloway, Stephanie D Davis, Margaret W Leigh, Mitchell Drumm, Scott D Sagel, Frank J Accurso, Michael R Knowles, Marci K Sontag
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been suggested as a major determinant of poor pulmonary outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF), although other factors play a role. Our objective was to investigate the association of early childhood Pseudomonas infection on differences in lung function in adolescence with CF. METHODS: Two populations of subjects with CF were studied: from the Gene Modifier Study (GMS), 346 F508del homozygotes with severe vs. mild adolescent lung disease, and from the Colorado Newborn Screen Study (NBS) 172 subjects diagnosed with CF by newborn screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500826/serum-kisspeptin-concentrations-are-negatively-correlated-with-body-mass-index-in-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-and-amenorrhea
#9
Flora Bacopoulou, George I Lambrou, Maria-Evangelia Rodanaki, Evgenia Stergioti, Vasiliki Efthymiou, Efthymios Deligeoroglou, Sophia I Markantonis
OBJECTIVE: To measure, for the first time, serum kisspeptin concentrations in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa (AN) and associated amenorrhea, and investigate potential correlations of kisspeptin with anthropometric, bone and hormonal data. DESIGN: Setting: University Adolescent Medicine Center. PARTICIPANTS: Females aged 12-20 years with typical or atypical AN (based on DSM-5 diagnostic criteria) and controls. INTERVENTIONS: Measurement of body mass index (BMI), whole body/lumbar spine bone mineral density and serum concentrations of kisspeptin, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, estradiol (E2), 17-hydroxyprogesterone...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500663/obesity-and-related-risk-of-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-among-israeli-adolescents
#10
Adi Leiba, Adrian Duek, Arnon Afek, Estela Derazne, Merav Leiba
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been associated with various malignancies, but a clear association between overweight and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has not been established. METHODS: This study assessed the association between adolescent obesity and future risk for MPN. Data on 2,516,256 Israeli adolescents, who underwent a compulsory general health examination at ages 16 to 19, between 1967 and 2011, were linked to the National Cancer Registry in this nationwide, population-based cohort study...
May 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500620/relationship-between-disordered-eating-and-self-identified-sexual-minority-youth-in-a-sample-of-public-high-school-adolescents
#11
Keith J Zullig, Molly R Matthews-Ewald, Robert F Valois
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between selected disordered eating behaviors and self-reported sexual minority status (gay/lesbian, bisexual, and unsure) among a representative sample of high school adolescents. METHODS: The 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored Connecticut Youth Risk Behavior Survey was utilized (N = 2242). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses, separated by gender, examined sexual minority adolescents (gay/lesbian, bisexual, and unsure) and selected eating behaviors...
May 12, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499209/precursors-in-adolescence-of-adult-onset-bipolar-disorder
#12
Ayako Hiyoshi, Julia A Sabet, Hugo Sjöqvist, Carren Melinder, Robert J Brummer, Scott Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Although the estimated contribution of genetic factors is high in bipolar disorder, environmental factors may also play a role. This Swedish register-based cohort study of men examined if physical and psychological characteristics in late adolescence, including factors previously linked with bipolar disorder (body mass index, asthma and allergy), are associated with subsequent bipolar disorder in adulthood. Unipolar depression and anxiety are analysed as additional outcomes to identify bipolar disorder-specific associations...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498351/low-family-support-and-risk-of-obesity-among-black-youth-role-of-gender-and-ethnicity
#13
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States...
May 12, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497673/body-mass-index-and-skin-reactivity-to-histamine-and-dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus-in-children-and-adolescents-followed-in-a-pediatric-allergy-service
#14
A Keller Franco, R Oselka Sarni, M Carvalho Mallozi, D Solé
Rationale. Recent data suggest that the nutritional status assessed by body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with skin reactivity to histamine in children. Objective. To study the relation between BMI and skin reactivity to histamine and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in allergic children and adolescents. Methods. The medical charts of patients attended in our outpatient clinic between 2013 and 2014 (n = 972) were evaluated. Only patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis or wheezing infants sensitized to at least one aeroallergen were selected: a total of 626 patients (6 months to 19 year-olds; 60...
May 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495176/pubertal-timing-and-cardiometabolic-markers-at-age-16-years
#15
Nina E Berentzen, Alet H Wijga, Lenie van Rossem, Dirkje S Postma, Ulrike Gehring, Henriëtte A Smit
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pubertal timing and cardiometabolic markers among adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from Dutch adolescents participating in a birth cohort study. The study population for the current study consisted of 799 adolescents of whom data were available for at least 1 of the exposure variables (pubertal timing and/or age at menarche) and any of the cardiometabolic markers (waist circumference, cholesterol, blood pressure [BP], glycated hemoglobin) measured at age 16 years...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494125/harassment-and-mental-distress-among-adolescent-female-students-by-sexual-identity-and-bmi-or-perceived-weight-status
#16
Michelle Marie Johns, Richard Lowry, Zewditu Demissie, Leah Robin
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. METHODS: Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight...
May 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492239/reductions-in-blood-pressure-during-a-community-based-overweight-and-obesity-treatment-in-children-and-adolescents-with-prehypertension-and-hypertension
#17
P M Mollerup, U Lausten-Thomsen, C E Fonvig, J L Baker, J-C Holm
Due to the pandemic of childhood obesity and thus obesity-related hypertension, improvements in treatment availability are needed. Hence, we investigated whether reductions in blood pressure (BP) would occur in children with overweight and obesity exhibiting prehypertension/hypertension during a community-based overweight and obesity treatment program, and if changes in body mass index (BMI) are associated with changes in BP. The study included 663 children aged 3-18 years with a BMI ⩾85th percentile for sex and age that entered treatment from June 2012 to January 2015...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489559/neck-circumference-is-similarly-predicting-for-impairment-of-glucose-tolerance-as-classic-anthropometric-parameters-among-healthy-and-obese-children-and-adolescents
#18
Jennifer Junge, Christoph Engel, Mandy Vogel, Stephanie Naumann, Markus Löffler, Joachim Thiery, Jürgen Kratzsch, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to investigate the association of neck circumference (NC) to parameters of glucose homeostasis compared to classical anthropometric parameters of lean and obese children. METHODS: Three dimensional (3D)-body scanning quantified anthropometric (height, weight, NC, hip/waist circumference, BMI) and metabolic parameters (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], insulin, HbA1c, oGTT, HOMA-IR) were determined cross-sectionally in 1542 participants (5-18 years)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489221/addressing-eating-disorders-and-weight-control-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
Rachel S Dawson
How often do we look at a patient's body mass index (BMI) and only make a comment if the BMI is above normal in the overweight or obese category? As pediatricians, we often do not give it a second thought when the BMI is normal, and we generally do not counsel on healthy eating practices in these cases. However, when people are overweight, obese, and sometimes even normal weight they are told by family, friends, as well as physicians that they need to either not gain any more weight, or that they need to lose weight...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488742/feminization-of-the-fat-distribution-pattern-of-children-and-adolescents-in-a-recent-german-population
#20
Christiane Scheffler, Melanie Dammhahn
OBJECTIVES: During the early 1990s, the economic and political situation in eastern Germany changed overnight. Here, we use the rare chance of an experiment-like setting in humans and aim to test whether the rapid change of environmental conditions in eastern Germany in the 1990s led to a change in the sex-specific fat distribution pattern, an endocrine-influenced phenotypic marker. METHODS: Based on a cross-sectional data set of 6- to 18-year-old girls and boys measured between 1982-1991 and 1997-2012, we calculated a skinfold ratio of triceps to subscapular and percentage of body fat...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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