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Biosafety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438609/novel-replicons-and-trans-encapsidation-systems-for-hepatitis-c-virus-proteins-live-imaging-and-virus-host-interaction-proteomics
#1
Ovidiu Vlaicu, Tudor Selescu, Florin Pastrama, Cristian Munteanu, Laura Riva, Jean Dubuisson, Yves Rouille, Costin-Ioan Popescu
Proteomics and imaging techniques are used more and more in tandem to investigate the virus-host interaction. Herein we present novel replicons, methods and trans-encapsidation systems suitable for determination of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) proteins interactomes and live imaging of viral proteins dynamics in HCV cell culture (HCVcc) system. To identify endogenous factors involved in the HCV life cycle, we constructed full-length functional replicons with affinity purification (AP) tags fused to NS2 and NS5A proteins...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438179/genome-adaptive-evolution-of-lactobacillus-casei-under-long-term-antibiotic-selection-pressures
#2
Jicheng Wang, Xiao Dong, Yuyu Shao, Huiling Guo, Lin Pan, Wenyan Hui, Lai-Yu Kwok, Heping Zhang, Wenyi Zhang
BACKGROUND: The extensive use of antibiotics in medicine has raised serious concerns about biosafety. However, the effect of antibiotic application on the adaptive evolution of microorganisms, especially to probiotic bacteria, has not been well characterized. Thus, the objective of the current work was to investigate how antibiotic selection forces might drive genome adaptation using Lactobacillus (L.) casei Zhang as a model. METHODS: Two antibiotics, amoxicillin and gentamicin, were consistently applied to the laboratory culture of L...
April 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435832/microbiological-biosafety-multiple-drug-resistance-and-functional-diversity-of-bacteria-associated-with-the-surfaces-of-raw-vegetables
#3
Farooq Nisma, Raheem Asif, Ali Basharat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435072/development-of-a-pseudovirus-based-assay-for-measuring-neutralizing-antibodies-against-coxsackievirus-b5
#4
Pan Chen, Xing Wu, Yao Su, Xiaotian Hao, Qunying Mao, Zhenglun Liang
Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5), an important Coxsackie B virus from genus Enteroviruse within the family Picornaviridae, has also been isolated from Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) patients, and often associated with neurological manifestations. In this study, we found out that Coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) replicon RNA could be encapsidated with CV-B5 capsid to assemble infectious CV-B5 pseudovirus. We then utilized this single round infection system of CV-B5 to develop a neutralizing antibody quantification assay...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431555/reduction-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-by-phosphonate-based-surface-passivation
#5
Xiaoming Cai, Anson Lee, Zhaoxia Ji, Cynthia Huang, Chong Hyun Chang, Xiang Wang, Yu-Pei Liao, Tian Xia, Ruibin Li
BACKGROUND: The wide application of engineered nanoparticles has induced increasing exposure to humans and environment, which led to substantial concerns on their biosafety. Some metal oxides (MOx) have shown severe toxicity in cells and animals, thus safe designs of MOx with reduced hazard potential are desired. Currently, there is a lack of a simple yet effective safe design approach for the toxic MOx. In this study, we determined the key physicochemical properties of MOx that lead to cytotoxicity and explored a safe design approach for toxic MOx by modifying their hazard properties...
April 21, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417917/minicircle-mediated-gene-delivery-to-canine-and-equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Naomie Tidd, Jacob Michelsen, Bryan Hilbert, Jane C Quinn
Gene-directed tissue repair offers the clinician, human or veterinary, the chance to enhance cartilage regeneration and repair at a molecular level. Non-viral plasmid vectors have key biosafety advantages over viral vector systems for regenerative therapies due to their episomal integration however, conventional non-viral vectors can suffer from low transfection efficiency. Our objective was to identify and validate in vitro a novel non-viral gene expression vector that could be utilized for ex vivo and in vivo delivery to stromal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405626/basic-scholarship-in-biosafety-is-critically-needed-to-reduce-risk-of-laboratory-accidents
#7
Ryan Ritterson, Rocco Casagrande
Our firm conducted a risk/benefit assessment of "gain-of-function" research, as part of the deliberative process following a U.S. moratorium on the research (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Government Gain-of-Function Deliberative Process and Research Funding Pause on Selected Gain-of-Function Research Involving Influenza, MERS, and SARS Viruses, 2014). Due to significant missing but theoretically acquirable data, our biosafety assessment faced limitations, and we were forced to provide a relative, instead of absolute, measure of risk (Gryphon Scientific, LLC, Risk and Benefit Analysis of Gain of Function Research, 2016)...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402189/going-non-viral-the-sleeping-beauty-transposon-system-breaks-on-through-to-the-clinical-side
#8
Michael Hudecek, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Sandra Johnen, Matthias Renner, Gabriele Thumann, Zoltán Ivics
Molecular medicine has entered a high-tech age that provides curative treatments of complex genetic diseases through genetically engineered cellular medicinal products. Their clinical implementation requires the ability to stably integrate genetic information through gene transfer vectors in a safe, effective and economically viable manner. The latest generation of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors fulfills these requirements, and may overcome limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are prevalent in ongoing pre-clinical and translational research...
April 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399166/ultraviolet-uv-c-inactivation-of-enterococcus-faecium-salmonella-choleraesuis-and-salmonella-typhimurium-in-porcine-plasma
#9
Elena Blázquez, Carmen Rodríguez, Jesús Ródenas, Ana Pérez de Rozas, Joaquim Segalés, Joan Pujols, Javier Polo
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation system on reducing the load of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Salmonella choleraesuis (S. choleraesuis) resistant to streptomycin and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) inoculated in sterile porcine plasma and then subjected to different UV-C irradiation doses (750, 1500, 3000, 6000 and 9000 J/L) using a pilot plant UV-C device working under turbulent flow. Results indicated that UV-C treatment induced a viability reduction of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389537/airborne-pathogens-inside-automobiles-for-domestic-use-assessing-in-car-air-decontamination-devices-using-staphylococcus-aureus-as-the-challenge
#10
Syed A Sattar, Bahram Zargar, Kathryn E Wright, Joseph R Rubino, M Khalid Ijaz
Family cars represent ∼74% of the yearly global output of motorized vehicles. With the life-expectancy of ∼8 decades in many countries, one spends >100 minutes daily inside the confined and often shared space of the car with exposure to a mix of potentially harmful microbes. Can commercial in-car air microbial decontamination devices mitigate the risk? Three such devices (designated as Device #s1-3) with HEPA filters were tested in the modified passenger cabin (3.25 m3) of a four-door sedan housed within a biosafety level 3 containment facility...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387734/cytotoxicity-of-zno-nanowire-arrays-on-excitable-cells
#11
Yongchen Wang, Yu Wu, Farhan Quadri, Jordan D Prox, Liang Guo
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires have been widely studied for their applications in electronics, optics, and catalysts. Their semiconducting, piezoelectric, fluorescent, and antibacterial properties have also attracted broad interest in their biomedical applications. Thus, it is imperative to evaluate the biosafety of ZnO nanowires and their biological effects. In this study, the cellular level biological effects of ZnO nanowire arrays are specifically tested on three types of excitable cells, including NG108-15 neuronal cell line, HL-1 cardiac muscle cell line, and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes...
April 7, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387574/ph-sensitive-phosphorylated-chitosan-hydrogel-as-vaccine-delivery-system-for-intramuscular-immunization
#12
Jianye Wei, Wei Xue, Xifei Yu, Xiaozhong Qiu, Zonghua Liu
In the field of immunotherapy, immune vaccinations have received more and more attention for disease prevention and treatment. In immune vaccination, efficient vaccine adjuvants are necessary due to the weak immunogenicity of vaccines. Some traditional vaccine adjuvants have been widely used but have shown obvious limitations such as poor biosafety. Therefore, researchers make a great effort to develop more functional novel immune adjuvants such as chitosan-based immune adjuvants. However, chitosan is poorly water soluble, which greatly limits its application as immune adjuvants, regardless of its good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and other biological activities...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383602/fungal-contamination-and-disinfection-of-dental-chairs-teresina-piaui-brazil
#13
Antônio Iv de Almondes, Jhonatta Op de Araújo, Larissa Mendes de Sirqueira Amaral, Renandro C Reis, Jhonatas Cs Porto, João Batista Teles, Thiago L Monte, Iraci de Ms Noleto, Tanit C Santos, Ivonizete P Ribeiro, Mitra Mobin
The aim of this study was to analyze fungal contamination on dental chairs at the clinic of a Higher Education Institution in TeresinaPI, Brazil, and to evaluate the effectiveness of different disinfectants: 70% alcohol and 1% sodium hypochlorite. We selected the five sites with most contact between patient and chair: headrest, backrest, armrests, seat and foot rest. Samples were collected from these sites on 14 chairs and inoculated in agar Sabouraud culture medium containing chloramphenicol. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from all sampling sites on the chairs...
December 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374245/generation-and-production-of-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-mva-as-a-vaccine-vector
#14
Vincent Pavot, Sarah Sebastian, Alison V Turner, Jake Matthews, Sarah C Gilbert
The smallpox vaccine based on the vaccinia virus was successfully used to eradicate smallpox, but although very effective, it was a very reactogenic vaccine and responsible for the deaths of one to two people per million vaccinated. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated derivative, also used in the smallpox eradication campaign and now being developed as a recombinant viral vector to produce vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. MVA can encode one or more foreign antigens and thus can function as a multivalent vaccine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374241/development-of-recombinant-canarypox-viruses-expressing-immunogens
#15
Débora Garanzini, María Paula Del Médico-Zajac, Gabriela Calamante
Canarypox viruses (CNPV) are excellent candidates to develop recombinant vector vaccines due to both their capability to induce protective immune responses and their incompetence to replicate in mammalian cells (safety profile). In addition, CNPV and the derived recombinants can be manipulated under biosafety level 1 conditions. There is no commercially available system to obtain recombinant CNPV; however, the methodology and tools required to develop recombinant vaccinia virus (VV), prototype of the Poxviridae family, can be easily adapted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374026/impact-of-graphyne-on-structural-and-dynamical-properties-of-calmodulin
#16
Mei Feng, David R Bell, Judong Luo, Ruhong Zhou
Carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphyne, graphene, and carbon nanotubes have attracted considerable attention for their applications, but questions remain regarding their biosafety through potential adverse interactions with important biomolecules. Here, we investigate the binding of a graphyne nanosheet and a graphyne quantum dot to calmodulin (CaM), a dynamic Ca(2+) binding protein. Simulation results show that both the graphyne nanosheet and graphyne quantum dot are able to bind both Ca(2+)-bound and Ca(2+)-free CaM with similar binding affinities...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373829/hazardous-effects-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-in-ecosystem
#17
REVIEW
Syed Niaz Ali Shah, Zahir Shah, Muzammal Hussain, Muzaffar Khan
Although nanoparticles (NPs) have made incredible progress in the field of nanotechnology and biomedical research and their applications are demanded throughout industrial world particularly over the past decades, little is known about the fate of nanoparticles in ecosystem. Concerning the biosafety of nanotechnology, nanotoxicity is going to be the second most priority of nanotechnology that needs to be properly addressed. This review covers the chemical as well as the biological concerns about nanoparticles particularly titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs and emphasizes the toxicological profile of TiO2 at the molecular level in both in vitro and in vivo systems...
2017: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373723/biosafety-level-3-setup-for-multiphoton-microscopy-in-vivo
#18
D Barlerin, G Bessière, J Domingues, M Schuette, C Feuillet, A Peixoto
Multiphoton microscopy has revealed important insights into cellular behavior in vivo. However, its application in infectious settings often encounters technical, safety and regulatory limitations that prevent its wider use with highly virulent human pathogens. Herein, we present a method that renders multiphoton microscopy in vivo compatible with biosafety level 3 regulations and present an example of its application and potential to visualize a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the mouse lung.
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369139/an-inter-laboratory-proficiency-testing-exercise-for-rabies-diagnosis-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#19
Alfonso Clavijo, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Lillian A Orciari, Andres Velasco-Villa, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Pamela A Yager, Douglas B Green, Marco A Vigilato, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio-Vilas
The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA), is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Twenty three laboratories affiliated to the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture participated in this exercise...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366605/yellow-fever-live-attenuated-vaccine-a-very-successful-live-attenuated-vaccine-but-still-we-have-problems-controlling-the-disease
#20
REVIEW
Alan D T Barrett
Yellow fever (YF) is regarded as the original hemorrhagic fever and has been a major public health problem for at least 250years. A very effective live attenuated vaccine, strain 17D, was developed in the 1930s and this has proved critical in the control of the disease. There is little doubt that without the vaccine, YF virus would be considered a biosafety level 4 pathogen. Significantly, YF is currently the only disease where an international vaccination certificate is required under the International Health Regulations...
March 30, 2017: Vaccine
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