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Danilo Fernández Ríos, Clara Rubinstein, Carmen Vicién
The need for functional risk assessment bodies in general, and in the biosafety field in particular, demands continued efforts and commitment from regulatory agencies, if results that are sustainable in time are to be achieved. The lack of formal processes that ensure continuity in the application of state of the art scientific criteria, the high rotation in some cases or the lack of experienced professionals, in others, is a challenge to be addressed. Capacity building initiatives with different approaches and degrees of success have been implemented in many countries over the years, supported by diverse governmental and non-governmental organizations...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Kazunobu Kojima, Catherine Makison Booth, Kathrin Summermatter, Allan Bennett, Marianne Heisz, Stuart D Blacksell, Michelle McKinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Science
Susy S Hota, Salman Surangiwala, Aimee S Paterson, Bryan Coburn, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but little guidance exists for implementation of FMT programs. The objective of this study is to describe the program characteristics and protocols of 9 planned or operating FMT programs in the Southern Ontario Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (SOFT) Movement, to help guide future FMT program implementation. METHODS: A 59-item survey was administered electronically to clinical leads of the SOFT Movement on June 2, 2016...
April 18, 2018: CMAJ Open
Weiqiong Ma, Qi Xie, Baolin Zhang, Huixian Chen, Jianyi Tang, Zhengxian Lei, Minyi Wu, Dingxuan Zhang, Jiani Hu
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with contrast agents is believed to be useful for stem cell tracking in vivo, and the aim of this research was to investigate the biosafety and neural induction of SD rat-originated adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) using cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle which was synthesized by the improved polyol method, in order to allow visualization using in vitro MRI. The scan protocols were performed with T2-mapping sequence; meanwhile, the ultrastructure of labeled cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) while the iron content was measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Christian Brendel, Michael Rothe, Giorgia Santilli, Sabine Charrier, Stefan Stein, Hana Kunkel, Daniela Abriss, Uta Müller-Kuller, Bobby Gaspar, Ute Modlich, Anne Galy, Axel Schambach, Adrian J Thrasher, Manuel Grez
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a debilitating primary immunodeficiency affecting phagocyte function due to the absence of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. The vast majority of CGD patients in the Western world have mutations within the X-linked CYBB gene encoding for gp91phox (NOX2), the redox center of the NADPH oxidase complex (XCGD). Current treatments of XCGD are not entirely satisfactory, and prior attempts at autologous gene therapy using gammaretrovirus vectors did not provide long-term curative effects...
April 17, 2018: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
Kee-Hang Lee, Hyun Nam, Jeong-Seob Won, Ji-Yoon Hwang, Hye Won Jang, Sun-Ho Lee, Kyeung Min Joo
Objective: The purpose of this study was to find an optimal delivery route for clinical trials of intrathecal cell therapy for spinal cord injury in preclinical stage. Methods: We compared in vivo distribution of Cy5.5 fluorescent dye in the spinal cord region at various time points utilizing in vivo optical imaging techniques, which was injected into the lateral ventricle (LV) or cisterna magna (CM) of rats. Results: Although CM locates nearer to the spinal cord than the LV, significantly higher signal of Cy5...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Hailin Tang, Yuan Guo, Li Peng, Hui Fang, Zhigang Wang, Yuanyi Zheng, Haitao Ran, Yu Chen
As one of the most representative non-invasive therapeutic modalities, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has shown the great promise for cancer therapy, but its low therapeutic efficacy and biosafety significantly hinder the further extensive clinical translation and application. In this work, we report on the construction of a multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform to synergistically enhance the HIFU-therapeutic efficacy based on nanomedicine. A targeted and temperature-responsive theranostic nanoplatform (PFH/DOX@PLGA/Fe3O4-FA) has been designed and fabricated for efficient ultrasound/magnetic resonance dual-modality imaging-guided HIFU/chemo synergistic therapy...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manish K Dubey, Mohd Aamir, Manish S Kaushik, Saumya Khare, Mukesh Meena, Surendra Singh, Ram S Upadhyay
Out of the various mycotoxigenic food and feed contaminant, the fungal species belonging to Penicillium genera, particularly Penicillium roqueforti is of great economic importance, and well known for its crucial role in the manufacturing of Roquefort and Gorgonzola cheese. The mycotoxicosis effect of this mold is due to secretion of several metabolites, of which PR toxin is of considerable importance, with regard to food quality and safety challenges issues. The food products and silages enriched with PR toxin could lead into damage to vital internal organs, gastrointestinal perturbations, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, necrosis, and enzyme inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shivani Uppal, Khushwinder Kaur, Rajendra Kumar, Naval Deep Kaur, Geeta Shukla, S K Mehta
A plethora of evidences support the health benefits of a sulfur containing compound called Benzyl Isothiocyanate. However, its therapeutic application is limited due to its low solubility, poor stability and inadequate bioavailability. The problem has been worked upon and resolved by the synthesis of biodegradable nanoparticles using chitosan as the controlled delivery nanowagon. The prepared nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, XRD, TGA, TEM and FE-SEM...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
I S Pretorius, J D Boeke
Historians of the future may well describe 2018 as the year that the world's first functional synthetic eukaryotic genome became a reality. Without the benefit of hindsight, it might be hard to completely grasp the long-term significance of a breakthrough moment in the history of science like this. The role of synthetic biology in the imminent birth of a budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell carrying 16 man-made chromosomes causes the world of science to teeter on the threshold of a future-defining scientific frontier...
June 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Miguel Sena-Esteves, Guangping Gao
The potential emergence of replication-competent lentiviruses (RCLs) during vector production and the significant biosafety risk that this represents has led to the development of lentivirus vector production systems to minimize the risk of generating RCLs. Second- and third-generation lentivirus vector production systems appear to be safe, because there are no reports of RCL generation in either system. Screening of lentivirus vector stocks for RCLs involves serial passaging of transduced cells for 30 d with weekly monitoring of p24 levels in supernatants using an ELISA Kit...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Guoying Deng, Chenyun Dai, Jinyuan Chen, Anqi Ji, Jingpeng Zhao, Yue Zhai, Yingjie Kang, Xijian Liu, Yin Wang, Qiugen Wang
Background: Methylprednisolone (MPS) is an important drug used in therapy of many diseases. However, osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a serious damage in the MPS treatment. Thus, it is imperative to develop new drugs to prevent the serious side effect of MPS. Methods: The potential interferences Se@SiO2 nanocomposites may have to the therapeutic effect of methylprednisolone (MPS) were evaluated by classical therapeutic effect index of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), such as wet-to-dry weight ratio, inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xiaofen Yu, Qingchen Luo, Kaixun Huang, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
Microelement contents and metabolism are vitally important for cereal plant growth and development as well as end-use properties. While minerals phytotoxicity harms plants, microelement deficiency also affects human health. Genetic engineering provides a promising way to solve these problems. As plants vary in abilities to uptake, transport, and accumulate minerals, and the key enzymes acting on that process is primarily presented in this review. Subsequently, microelement function and biosafety assessment of transgenic cereal plants have become a key issue to be addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martin Gabriel, Donatus I Adomeh, Jacqueline Ehimuan, Jennifer Oyakhilome, Emmanuel O Omomoh, Yemisi Ighodalo, Thomas Olokor, Kofi Bonney, Meike Pahlmann, Petra Emmerich, Michaela Lelke, Linda Brunotte, Stephan Ölschläger, Corinna Thomé-Bolduan, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Carola Busch, Ikponmwonsa Odia, Ephraim Ogbaini-Emovon, Peter O Okokhere, Sylvanus A Okogbenin, George O Akpede, Herbert Schmitz, Danny A Asogun, Stephan Günther
BACKGROUND: The classical method for detection of Lassa virus-specific antibodies is the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using virus-infected cells as antigen. However, IFA requires laboratories of biosafety level 4 for assay production and an experienced investigator to interpret the fluorescence signals. Therefore, we aimed to establish and evaluate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using recombinant Lassa virus nucleoprotein (NP) as antigen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The IgM ELISA is based on capturing IgM antibodies using anti-IgM, and the IgG ELISA is based on capturing IgG antibody-antigen complexes using rheumatoid factor or Fc gamma receptor CD32a...
March 29, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marjan Peeters, Panha Chung, Hua Lin, Kristien Mortelmans, Chhundy Phe, Chentha San, Laura Maria Francisca Kuijpers, Syna Teav, Thong Phe, Jan Jacobs
To assess the diagnostic and operational performance of the InBiOS AMD rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (Seattle, USA) for the detection of B. pseudomallei in grown blood culture broth. The InBiOS RDT is a lateral flow immunoassay in a strip format detecting B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide in culture fluids, marketed for research only. Broth of blood culture bottles (BacT/Alert, bioMérieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France) sampled in adult patients at the Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, during 2010-2017 and stored at - 80 °C was tested...
March 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jérémie Guedj, Géraldine Piorkowski, Frédéric Jacquot, Vincent Madelain, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Anne Rodallec, Stephan Gunther, Caroline Carbonnelle, France Mentré, Hervé Raoul, Xavier de Lamballerie
BACKGROUND: Despite repeated outbreaks, in particular the devastating 2014-2016 epidemic, there is no effective treatment validated for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Among the drug candidates is the broad-spectrum polymerase inhibitor favipiravir, which showed a good tolerance profile in patients with EVD (JIKI trial) but did not demonstrate a strong antiviral efficacy. In order to gain new insights into the antiviral efficacy of favipiravir and improve preparedness and public health management of future outbreaks, we assess the efficacy achieved by ascending doses of favipiravir in Ebola-virus-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs)...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Manousos E Kambouris, Yiannis Manoussopoulos, Stavroula Kritikou, Aphroditi Milioni, Spyridon Mantzoukas, Aristea Velegraki
Agrigenomics is one of the emerging focus areas for omics sciences. Yet, agrigenomics differs from medical omics applications such as pharmacogenomics and precision medicine, by virtue of vastly distributed geography of applications at the intersection of agriculture, nutrition, and genomics research streams. Crucially, agrigenomics can address diagnostics and safety surveillance needs in remote and rural farming communities or decentralized food, crop, and environmental monitoring programs for prompt, selective, and differential identification of pathogens...
March 27, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
The use of iron oxide nanoparticles for different biomedical applications, hold immense promise to develop negative tissue contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previously, we have optimized the labelling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with iron oxide nanoparticles complexed to different transfection agents like poly-l-lysine (IO-PLL) and protamine sulfate (Fe-Pro) on the basis of relaxation behaviour and its biological expressions. However, there is a distinct need to investigate the biocompatibility and biosafety concerns coupled with its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity...
March 22, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Xiaolei Jiang, Yanfei Peng, Chaozhong Yang, Wanshun Liu, Baoqin Han
Although various biopolymers and synthetic compounds have been proposed and tested as the vitreous substitutes, no ideal material has been identified yet. In the present study, we developed an in situ-formed hydrogel by crosslinking hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCTS) with alginate dialdehyde (ADA). Physical properties of the hydrogel were studied and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using L929 fibroblasts, rabbit corneal endothelial cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. In a preliminary in vivo study, the hydrogel was employed as vitreous substitute after vitrectomy surgery on rabbits and multiple parameters indicating biosafety and biocompatibility were measured and analyzed postoperatively...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Yu Wang, Jianwei Pan, Yiqun Zhang, Xiang Li, Zhen Zhang, Peng Wang, Zhifan Qin, Jihua Li
Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are being increasingly used to repair critical bone defect for biocompatibility, biosafety, porous structure and osteoinduction. Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are conservative and classic signaling pathways regulating osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs). In this study, we evaluated the expression of Wnt, Notch signal pathways and osteogenic related genes of BMSCs with and without Wnt pathway inhibitor DKK1 on CaP ceramics in vitro by real-time RT-PCR...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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