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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210764/review-biosafety-assessment-of-bt-rice-and-other-bt-crops-using-spiders-as-example-for-non-target-arthropods-in-china
#1
REVIEW
Huilin Yang, Yuande Peng, Jianxiang Tian, Juan Wang, Jilin Hu, Qisheng Song, Zhi Wang
Since the birth of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin for pest control, the public debate regarding ecological and environmental risks as well as benefits of Bt crops has continued unabated. The impact of Bt crops, especially on non-target invertebrates, has received particular attention. In this review, we summarize and analyze evidences for non-target effects of Bt rice on spiders, major predators in rice fields. Bt rice has been genetically modified to express the Bt protein, which has been shown to be transferred and accumulate in spiders as part of their food chain...
February 16, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205641/the-tiered-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-transgenic-cry1c-rice-on-cyrtorhinus-lividipennis-a-main-predator-of-nilaparvata-lugens
#2
Yu Han, Fugang Ma, Muhammad Nawaz, Yu Wang, Wanlun Cai, Jing Zhao, Yueping He, Hongxia Hua, Yulan Zou
T1C-19, a newly developed transgenic cry1C rice line, expresses cry1C under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, and is highly resistant to lepidopteran pests of rice. Cyrtorhinus lividipennis is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of Nilaparvata lugens, which is the main non-target sap-sucking insect pest of Bt rice. C. lividipennis may be exposed to Cry1C protein, thus biosafety evaluations of transgenic cry1C rice on C. lividipennis should be conducted before the commercialization of T1C-19...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202375/generation-and-characterization-of-west-nile-pseudo-infectious-reporter-virus-for-antiviral-screening
#3
Hong-Lei Zhang, Han-Qing Ye, Cheng-Lin Deng, Si-Qing Liu, Pei-Yong Shi, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhi-Ming Yuan, Bo Zhang
West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is an important neurotropic human pathogen. As a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) agent, WNV is strictly to BSL-3 laboratories for experimentations, thus greatly hindering the development of vaccine and antiviral drug. Here, we developed a novel pseudo-infectious WNV reporter virus expressing the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc). A stable 293TNS1 cell line expressing NS1 was selected for trans-supplying NS1 protein to support the replication of WNV-ΔNS1 virus and WNV-ΔNS1-Gluc reporter virus with large-fragment deletion of NS1...
February 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196456/toxicity-of-internalized-laser-generated-pure-silver-nanoparticles-to-the-isolated-rat-hippocampus-cells
#4
Canan Kursungoz, Sadık Taşkın Taş, Mustafa F Sargon, Yıldırım Sara, Bülend Ortaç
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most commonly used nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine, industry and cosmetics. They are generally considered as biocompatible. However, contradictory reports on their biosafety render them difficult to accept as 'safe'. In this study, we evaluated the neurotoxicity of direct AgNP treatment in rat hippocampal slices. We produced pure uncoated AgNPs by a pulsed laser ablation method. NP characterization was performed by Ultraviolet (UV) visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194457/disposable-cartridge-platform-for-rapid-detection-of-viral-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses
#5
Steven M Scherr, David S Freedman, Krystle N Agans, Alexandru Rosca, Erik Carter, Melody Kuroda, Helen E Fawcett, Chad E Mire, Thomas W Geisbert, M Selim Ünlü, John H Connor
Light microscopy is a straightforward and highly portable imaging approach that is used for the detection of parasites, fungi, and bacteria. The detection of individual virus particles has historically not been possible through this approach. Thus, characterization of virus particles is typically performed using high-energy approaches such as electron microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from its normal milieu, significant levels of expertise, and only count a small number of particles at a time...
February 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192678/assaying-the-stability-and-inactivation-of-aav-serotype-1-vectors
#6
Douglas B Howard, Brandon K Harvey
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a commonplace tool for gene delivery ranging from cell culture to human gene therapy. One feature that makes AAV a desirable vector is its stability, in regard to both the duration of transgene expression and retention of infectivity as a viral particle. This study examined the stability of AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors under different conditions. First, transducibility after storage at 4°C decreased 20% over 7 weeks. Over 10 freeze-thaw cycles, the resulting transduction efficiency became variable at 60-120% of a single thaw...
February 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191771/linking-pluripotency-reprogramming-and-cancer
#7
Juan Manuel Iglesias, Juan Gumuzio, Angel G Martin
Tumor development and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are highly comparable processes with striking similarities. Cellular plasticity is inherent to tumor evolution, rendering cells that acquire a stem cell-like phenotype, for which Sox2 activation has proved instrumental for the plastic acquisition of stemness properties in tumor cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both events might uncover novel approaches for the development of anticancer therapeutics and constitute model systems for understanding tumor generation and ensuring the biosafety of cell-based therapies...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176187/brucellosis-and-associated-risk-factors-in-dairy-cattle-of-eastern-ethiopia
#8
Yitagele Terefe, Sisay Girma, Negesse Mekonnen, Biruhtesfa Asrade
Knowing the status of Bovine brucellosis and associated risk factors is a crucial step in formulating evidence based control scheme. In this study, a total of 967 dairy cows from 307 dairy farms in eastern Ethiopia were serologically tested for Brucella antibodies. The screening was done first using RBPT and positive samples were subsequently subjected to CFT for confirmation. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from 307 dairy cattle owners or attendants to assess their awareness and routine practice...
February 7, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163586/evaluation-of-the-yield-of-abiotic-stress-tolerant-atdreb1a-transgenic-potato-under-saline-conditions-in-advance-of-field-trials
#9
Takayoshi Shimazaki, Tsukasa Endo, Mie Kasuga, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo N Watanabe, Akira Kikuchi
Cultivated potato is a drought-, salinity-, and frost-sensitive species. The transgenic approach is one of the methods used to mitigate abiotic stress. The utility of transgenic potatoes that have abiotic stress tolerance should be judged from their yield under stress conditions. In order to establish transgenic potato lines with the AtDREB1A gene that could be used in practical applications, we screened candidate lines in a growth room with growth profiles under non-stress conditions rather than the expression level of transgene...
December 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161832/enhanced-biosafety-of-silica-coated-gadolinium-based-nanoparticles
#10
Marta Laranjeira, Yuki Shirosaki, Saki Yoshimatsu Yasutomi, Toshiki Miyazaki, Fernando Jorge Monteiro
One of the most important and novel approaches of biomedical engineering is the development of new, effective and non-invasive medical diagnosis abilities, and treatments that have such requirements as advanced technologies for tumor imaging. Gadolinium (Gd) compounds can be used as MRI contrast agents, however the release of Gd(3+) ions presents some adverse side effects such as renal failure, pancreatitis or local necrosis. The main aim of the work was the development and optimization of Gadolinium based nanoparticles coated with silica to be used as bioimaging agent...
March 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159623/synthetic-biology-era-improving-antibiotic%C3%AC-s-world
#11
REVIEW
Silvia Guzmán-Trampe, Corina D Ceapa, Monserrat Manzo-Ruiz, Sergio Sánchez
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen microorganisms is a problematic in the context of the current spectrum of available medication. The poor specificity and the high toxicity of some available molecules has made imperative the search for new strategies to improve the specificity and to pursue the discovery of novel compounds with increased bioactivity. Using living cells as platforms, synthetic biology has counteracted this problem by offering novel pathways to create synthetic systems with improved and desired functions...
January 31, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158272/green-conversion-of-graphene-oxide-to-graphene-nanosheets-and-its-biosafety-study
#12
Adhiraj Dasgupta, Joy Sarkar, Manosij Ghosh, Amartya Bhattacharya, Anita Mukherjee, Dipankar Chattopadhyay, Krishnendu Acharya
Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to graphene employs the use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents, hindering mass production of graphene which is of tremendous technological importance. In this study we report a green approach to the synthesis of graphene, bio-reduced by crude polysaccharide. The polysaccharide reduces exfoliated GO to graphene at room temperature in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy image provides clear evidence for the formation of few layer graphene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131867/a-rapid-orthopoxvirus-purification-protocol-suitable-for-high-containment-laboratories
#13
Laura Hughes, Kimberly Wilkins, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Scott Smith, Paul Hudson, Nishi Patel, Kevin Karem, Inger Damon, Yu Li, Victoria A Olson, P S Satheshkumar
Virus purification in a high-containment setting provides unique challenges due to barrier precautions and operational safety approaches that are not necessary in lower biosafety level (BSL) 2 environments. The need for high risk group pathogen diagnostic assay development, anti-viral research, pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy research necessitates work in BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs with infectious agents. When this work is performed in accordance with BSL-4 practices, modifications are often required in standard protocols...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118988/evaluation-of-positive-rift-valley-fever-virus-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-samples-as-a-source-of-sequence-data-for-retrospective-phylogenetic-analysis
#14
B Mubemba, P N Thompson, L Odendaal, P Coetzee, E H Venter
Rift Valley fever (RVF), caused by an arthropod borne Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, is a haemorrhagic disease that affects ruminants and humans. Due to the zoonotic nature of the virus, a biosafety level 3 laboratory is required for isolation of the virus. Fresh and frozen samples are the preferred sample type for isolation and acquisition of sequence data. However, these samples are scarce in addition to posing a health risk to laboratory personnel. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are safe and readily available, however FFPE derived RNA is in most cases degraded and cross-linked in peptide bonds and it is unknown whether the sample type would be suitable as reference material for retrospective phylogenetic studies...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117476/an-initial-experience-with-a-digital-drainage-system-during-the-postoperative-period-of-pediatric-thoracic-surgery
#15
Altair da Silva Costa, Thiago Bachichi, Caio Holanda, Luiz Augusto Lucas Martins De Rizzo
Objective: To report an initial experience with a digital drainage system during the postoperative period of pediatric thoracic surgery. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving consecutive patients, ≤ 14 years of age, treated at a pediatric thoracic surgery outpatient clinic, for whom pulmonary resection (lobectomy or segmentectomy via muscle-sparing thoracotomy) was indicated. The parameters evaluated were air leak (as quantified with the digital system), biosafety, duration of drainage, length of hospital stay, and complications...
November 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115250/lead-adsorption-anticoagulation-and-in-vivo-toxicity-studies-on-the-new-magnetic-nanomaterial-fe3o4-sio2-dmsa-as-a-hemoperfusion-adsorbent
#16
Yang Xiang, Zhiming Bai, Shufang Zhang, Yan Sun, Shunlan Wang, Xiaobin Wei, Wenshi Mo, Jiale Long, Zhenxiang Liu, Chao Yang, Linlin Zheng, Xueyi Guo, Wang Xiaoyang, Fangfang Mao, Ningchuan Feng
This project aimed to develop and characterize a new nanoadsorbent for hemoperfusion. Fe3O4 nanoparticles synthesized by a facile solvothermal method were coated with SiO2 and further modified by DMSA. TEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS and SEM were performed before and after lead adsorption to reveal the general performance and adsorption mechanism. Rabbit lead poisoning models were established to study the adsorption rate; then, a pig hemoperfusion experiment was used for further validation. In addition, coagulation, liver, kidney and heart function, blood lipids, electrolytes and the immune inflammatory system were studied before and after hemoperfusion...
January 20, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114969/integrated-analysis-of-hematopoietic-differentiation-outcomes-and-molecular-characterization-reveals-unbiased-differentiation-capacity-and-minor-transcriptional-memory-in-hpc-hsc-ipscs
#17
Shuai Gao, Xinfeng Hou, Yonghua Jiang, Zijian Xu, Tao Cai, Jiajie Chen, Gang Chang
BACKGROUND: Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming can reset the epigenetics of somatic cells into a pluripotency compatible state. Recent studies show that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) always inherit starting cell-specific characteristics, called epigenetic memory, which may be advantageous, as directed differentiation into specific cell types is still challenging; however, it also may be unpredictable when uncontrollable differentiation occurs. In consideration of biosafety in disease modeling and personalized medicine, the availability of high-quality iPSCs which lack a biased differentiation capacity and somatic memory could be indispensable...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112553/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-evaluate-infection-control-in-oral-radiology
#18
Eliana Dantas da Costa, Camila Pinelli, Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro, José Eduardo Corrente, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano
OBJECTIVE: To create and validate a questionnaire to evaluate infection control in oral radiology. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed after review of the literature, which included published papers and the biosafety protocols available from health care agencies. The initial version of the questionnaire was composed of 14 multiple choice questions and was divided into 3 domains on handwashing, disinfection/protection of surfaces, and disinfectant used. Content validity was assessed by two expert committees, which reviewed the content and scope of the questionnaire and the relevance of each item, respectively...
January 23, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112006/a-biosafety-evaluation-of-synchrotron-radiation-x-ray-to-skin-and-bone-marrow-single-dose-irradiation-study-of-rats-and-macaques
#19
Yifan Lu, Guanghui Tang, Hui Lin, Xiaojie Lin, Lu Jiang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
PURPOSE: Very limited experimental data is available regarding the safe dosages related to synchrotron radiation (SR) procedures. We used young rats and macaques to address bone marrow and skin tolerance to various doses of synchrotron radiation. METHODS: Rats were subjected to 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 25, or 100 Gy local SR X-ray irradiation at left hind limb. Rat blood samples were analyzed at 2 to 90 days after irradiation. The SR X-ray irradiated skin and tibia were sectioned for morphological examination...
January 23, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111906/statistical-test-for-tolerability-of-effects-of-an-antifungal-biocontrol-strain-on-fungal-communities-in-three-arable-soils
#20
Kai Antweiler, Susanne Schreiter, Jens Keilwagen, Petr Baldrian, Siegfried Kropf, Kornelia Smalla, Rita Grosch, Holger Heuer
A statistical method was developed to test for equivalence of microbial communities analysed by next-generation sequencing of amplicons. The test uses Bray-Curtis distances between the microbial community structures and is based on a two-sample jackknife procedure. This approach was applied to investigate putative effects of the antifungal biocontrol strain RU47 on fungal communities in three arable soils which were analysed by high-throughput ITS amplicon sequencing. Two contrasting workflows to produce abundance tables of operational taxonomic units from sequence data were applied...
January 23, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
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