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Marina López-Paniagua, Teresa Nieto-Miguel, Ana de la Mata, Sara Galindo, José M Herreras, Rosa M Corrales, Margarita Calonge
PURPOSE: Transplantation of in vitro cultured limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) is a treatment widely used for LESC deficiency. However, the number of limbal tissue donors is limited, and protocols for LESC cultivation often include compounds and/or feeder layers that can induce side effects and/or increase the cost of the culture procedure. We investigated the feasibility of obtaining more than one limbal primary culture (LPC) from the same biopsy using a culture medium in which several potentially harmful compounds were replaced at the same time by biosafe supplements, allowing the LESC cultivation without feeder layers...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
Tikam Chand Dakal, Anu Kumar, Rita S Majumdar, Vinod Yadav
Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jasmin Fertey, Lea Bayer, Thomas Grunwald, Alexandra Pohl, Jana Beckmann, Gaby Gotzmann, Javier Portillo Casado, Jessy Schönfelder, Frank-Holm Rögner, Christiane Wetzel, Martin Thoma, Susanne M Bailer, Ekkehard Hiller, Steffen Rupp, Sebastian Ulbert
Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
Petra Dickmann, Aphaluck Bhatiasevi, Fadela Chaib, Ombretta Baggio, Christina Banluta, Lilian Hollenweger, Abderrahmane Maaroufi
Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication...
November 22, 2016: Health Security
X G Xu, L P Guan, Y Lv, Y S Wan, Y Wu, R Q Qi, Zh G Liu, J G Zhang, Y L Chen, F P Xu, X Xu, Y H Li, L Geng, X H Gao, H D Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Darrell S Agbulos, Larissa Barelli, Bryan V Giordano, Fiona F Hunter
Zika virus (ZIKV), belonging to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, is an arthropod-borne virus that was first discovered from the Zika forest in Uganda in 1947. Recent outbreaks in South America have linked ZIKV to cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. With the increased interest in ZIKV, protocols must be established to facilitate proper research. Here we describe the laboratory techniques required to quantify, propagate, and store ZIVK. We also review the proper safety protocol for the handling of ZIKV, which is classified as a Biosafety Level 2 pathogen by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
November 18, 2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Yongfei Cao, Ling Yu, Guo Dai, Shanshan Zhang, Zhengpei Zhang, Tian Gao, Weichun Guo
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a major cause of cancer-related mortality in children and young adults worldwide. Due to preexisting or acquired chemoresistance, the current standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens show only moderate activity against OS. In the current study, we explored the potential anti-OS Cinobufagin in vitro and in vivo, and investigated its underlying mechanisms. The antitumor potential of Cinobufagin was assessed using cell viability assays, and cycle and apoptosis were determined. In a cell-based assay, the mRNA and protein expression of Notch-1, Hes-1, Hes-5 and Hey-1 were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reactions and western blotting...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Paulo Paes de Andrade, Francisco José Lima Aragão, Walter Colli, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Flávio Finardi-Filho, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Amaro de Castro Lira-Neto, Marcia Almeida de Melo, Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno, Francisco Gorgônio da Nóbrega, Gutemberg Delfino de Sousa, Fernando Hercos Valicente, Maria Helena Bodanese Zanettini
The OX513A strain of Aedes aegypti, which was developed by the British company Oxitec, expresses a self-limiting transgene that prevents larvae from developing to adulthood. In April 2014, the Brazilian National Technical Commission on Biosafety completed a risk assessment of OX513A and concluded that the strain did not present new biological risks to humans or the environment and could be released in Brazil. At that point, Brazil became the first country to approve the unconstrained release of a genetically modified mosquito...
October 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Kar Wey Yong, Jane Ru Choi, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan Safwani
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a type of adult stem cells that hold great potential in clinical applications (e.g., regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy) due to their ability to differentiate into multiple types of specialized cells and secrete soluble factors which can initiate tissue repair and regulate immune response. hMSCs need to be expanded in vitro or cryopreserved to obtain sufficient cell numbers required for clinical applications. However, long-term in vitro culture-expanded hMSCs may raise some biosafety concerns (e...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tien Van Vu, Vinh Nang Do
RNAi approaches, including microRNA (miRNA) regulatory pathway, offer great tools for functional characterization of unknown genes. Moreover, the applications of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) in the field of plant transgenesis have also been advanced to engineer pathogen-resistant or trait-improved transgenic plants. Until now, despite the high potency of amiRNA approach, no commercial plant cultivar expressing amiRNAs with improved traits has been released yet. Beside the issues of biosafety policies, the specificity and efficacy of amiRNAs are of major concerns...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lindsey A Moser, Lisbeth Ramirez-Carvajal, Vinita Puri, Steven J Pauszek, Krystal Matthews, Kari A Dilley, Clancy Mullan, Jennifer McGraw, Michael Khayat, Karen Beeri, Anthony Yee, Vivien Dugan, Mark T Heise, Matthew B Frieman, Luis L Rodriguez, Kristen A Bernard, David E Wentworth, Timothy B Stockwell, Reed S Shabman
Several biosafety level 3 and/or 4 (BSL-3/4) pathogens are high-consequence, single-stranded RNA viruses, and their genomes, when introduced into permissive cells, are infectious. Moreover, many of these viruses are select agents (SAs), and their genomes are also considered SAs. For this reason, cDNAs and/or their derivatives must be tested to ensure the absence of infectious virus and/or viral RNA before transfer out of the BSL-3/4 and/or SA laboratory. This tremendously limits the capacity to conduct viral genomic research, particularly the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
May 2016: MSystems
N Bhattacharjee, L F Horowitz, A Folch
Concerns over biosafety, cost, and carrying capacity of viral vectors have accelerated research into physical techniques for gene delivery such as electroporation and mechanoporation. Advances in microfabrication have made it possible to create high electric fields over microscales, resulting in more efficient DNA delivery and higher cell viability. Continuous-flow microfluidic methods are typically more suitable for cellular therapies where a large number of cells need to be transfected under sterile conditions...
October 17, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
Tadele Tefera, Stephen Mugo, Murenga Mwimali, Bruce Anani, Regina Tende, Yoseph Beyene, Simon Gichuki, Sylvester O Oikeh, Francis Nang'ayo, James Okeno, Evans Njeru, Kiru Pillay, Barbara Meisel, B M Prasanna
A study was conducted to assess the performance of maize hybrids with Bt event MON810 (Bt-hybrids) against the maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in a biosafety greenhouse (BGH) and against the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) under confined field trials (CFT) in Kenya for three seasons during 2013-2014. The study comprised 14 non-commercialized hybrids (seven pairs of near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrids) and four non-Bt commercial hybrids. Each plant was artificially infested twice with 10 first instar larvae...
November 2016: Crop Protection
T Schön, P Miotto, C U Köser, M Viveiros, E Böttger, E Cambau
Drug-resistance testing, or antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), is mandatory for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cases of failure on standard therapy. We reviewed the different methods and techniques of phenotypic and genotypic approaches. Although multiresistant and extensively drug-resistant (MDR/XDR) tuberculosis is present worldwide, AST for M. tuberculosis (AST-MTB) is still mainly performed according to the resources available rather than the drug-resistance rates. Phenotypic methods, i.e. culture-based AST, are commonly used in high-income countries to confirm susceptibility of new cases of tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Xiao Yu Liu, Kang Ning Xue, Rong Rong, Chi Hong Zhao
Epidemic hemorrhagic fever has been an ongoing threat to laboratory personnel involved in animal care and use. Laboratory transmissions and severe infections occurred over the past twenty years, even though the standards and regulations for laboratory biosafety have been issued, upgraded, and implemented in China. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify risk factors and to seek effective preventive measures that can curb the incidences of epidemic hemorrhagic fever among laboratory personnel. In the present study, we reviewed literature that relevant to animals laboratory-acquired hemorrhagic fever infections reported from 1995 to 2015, and analyzed these incidences using fault tree analysis (FTA)...
2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Konstantin Byrgazov, Chantal Blanche Lucini, Bettina Berkowitsch, Margit Koenig, Oskar A Haas, Gregor Hoermann, Peter Valent, Thomas Lion
Point mutations in the ABL1 kinase domain are an important mechanism of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in BCR-ABL1-positive and, as recently shown, BCR-ABL1-like leukemias. The cell line Ba/F3 lentivirally transduced with mutant BCR-ABL1 constructs is widely used for in vitro sensitivity testing and response prediction to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The transposon-based Sleeping Beauty system presented offers several advantages over lentiviral transduction including the absence of biosafety issues, faster generation of transgenic cell lines, and greater efficacy in introducing large gene constructs...
October 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Maartje van Kregten, Sylvia de Pater, Ron Romeijn, Robin van Schendel, Paul J J Hooykaas, Marcel Tijsterman
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a pathogenic bacterium, which transforms plants by transferring a discrete segment of its DNA, the T-DNA, to plant cells. The T-DNA then integrates into the plant genome. T-DNA biotechnology is widely exploited in the genetic engineering of model plants and crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying T-DNA integration remains unknown(1). Here we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA integration critically depends on polymerase theta (Pol θ). We find that TEBICHI/POLQ mutant plants (which have mutated Pol θ), although susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, are resistant to T-DNA integration...
October 31, 2016: Nature Plants
Ismael da Silva Aquino, Jhonatas Cley Santos Porto, Jacksony Lima da Silva, Khaiohana Fontinele Costa Morais, Frâncio Alencar Coelho, Thiago de Sousa Lopes, Ivonizete Pires Ribeiro, Iraci Salmito Noleto, Maria do Amparo Salmito, Mitra Mobin
This quantitative and qualitative study aimed to identify fungi isolated from patient beds at a reference hospital in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and evaluate the efficacy of 70 % ethanol and 1 % hypochlorite for removing the contamination. Thirty-eight beds were chosen at random and the collection was carried out in three situations: before and after disinfection with 70 % alcohol or hypochlorite 1 %. Each sample was inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol and incubated at room temperature to allow fungal growth...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Johnny P Mai, Matthieu Dumont, Christopher Rossi, Kevin Cleary, Joshua Wiedermann, Brian K Reilly
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: A prototype tympanostomy tube, composed of polybutyl/methyl methacrylate-co-dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate (PBM), was tested to 1) evaluate the effect of PBM tubes on rat dermis as a corollary for biocompatibility and (2) to observe the efficacy of dissolution with isopropyl alcohol (iPrOH) and ethanol (EtOH). STUDY DESIGN: Original animal experiment and bench testing. METHODS: A two-part study was conducted to assess biocompatible substance with inducible dissolvability as a critical characteristic for a newly engineered tympanostomy tube...
October 31, 2016: Laryngoscope
Shiqian Gao, Huayu Tian, Zhenkai Xing, Dawei Zhang, Ye Guo, Zhaopei Guo, Xiaojuan Zhu, Xuesi Chen
Herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase gene (HSV-TK) in viral vector is a promising strategy against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the biosafety risk restricts its application in clinic. In this work, poly (l-lysine)-grafted polyethylenimine (PEI-PLL), which combines the high transfection efficiency of polyethylenimine and the good biodegradability of poly (l-lysine), was adopted as the non-viral vector backbone. Angiopep-2, a blood brain barrier (BBB) crossing and glioma targeting bifunctional peptide was conjugated on PEI-PLL via polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and designated as PPA...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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