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Biosafety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108316/crispr-cas9-in-insects-applications-best-practices-and-biosafety-concerns
#1
REVIEW
Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Benigna Van Eynde, Na Yu, Sanyuan Ma, Guy Smagghe
Discovered as a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated) is being developed as an attractive tool in genome editing. Due to its high specificity and applicability, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing has been employed in a multitude of organisms and cells, including insects, for not only fundamental research such as gene function studies, but also applied research such as modification of organisms of economic importance. Despite the rapid increase in the use of CRISPR in insect genome editing, results still differ from each study, principally due to existing differences in experimental parameters, such as the Cas9 and guide RNA form, the delivery method, the target gene and off-target effects...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106357/possession-use-and-transfer-of-select-agents-and-toxins-biennial-review-of-the-list-of-select-agents-and-toxins-and-enhanced-biosafety-requirements-final-rule
#2
(no author information available yet)
In accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Response Act), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has reviewed the list of biological agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. Following the review, HHS has decided: Not to finalize the proposed changes to the list of select agents and toxins at this time; to finalize provisions to address toxin permissible limits and the inactivation of select agents; to finalize specific provisions to the section of the regulations addressing biosafety; and to clarify regulatory language concerning security, training, incident response, and records...
19, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099492/priming-cross-protective-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-specific-immunity-using-live-vectored-mosaic-antigens
#3
Shehnaz Lokhandwala, Xin Fang, Suryakant D Waghela, Jocelyn Bray, Leo M Njongmeta, Andy Herring, Karim W Abdelsalam, Christopher Chase, Waithaka Mwangi
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) plays a key role in bovine respiratory disease complex, which can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea and death of calves. Current vaccines are not very effective due, in part, to immunosuppressive traits and failure to induce broad protection. There are diverse BVDV strains and thus, current vaccines contain representative genotype 1 and 2 viruses (BVDV-1 & 2) to broaden coverage. BVDV modified live virus (MLV) vaccines are superior to killed virus vaccines, but they are susceptible to neutralization and complement-mediated destruction triggered by passively acquired antibodies, thus limiting their efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092458/a-biosafety-agenda-to-spur-biotechnology-development-and-prevent-accidents
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#5
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089755/biodistribution-and-retention-of-locally-administered-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-detection-of-human-dna-in-murine-organs
#6
Michael Creane, Linda Howard, Timothy O'Brien, Cynthia M Coleman
BACKGROUND: Determining the distributive fate and retention of a cell therapy product after administration is an essential part of characterizing it's biosafety profile. Therefore, regulatory guidelines stipulate that biodistribution assays are a requirement prior to advancing a cell therapy to the clinic. Here the development of a highly sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based method of tracking the biodistribution and retention of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in mice, rats or rabbits is described...
January 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088891/recent-advances-in-developing-photosensitizers-for-photodynamic-cancer-therapy
#7
Cong Chen, Jianmin Wang, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaolong Liu, Xiao Han
Photosensitizers are key molecules used in photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT), which is an effective therapeutic modality option for several diseases and non-oncological disorders. Due to its lower systemic toxicity and its ability to destroy tumors selectively, PDT has been considered clinical avenue for the treatment of several cancers. Three essential elements are involved in a PDT procedure: a photosensitizer, light of a specific wavelength, and singlet oxygen. However, the properties of conventional photosensitizers exhibit some drawbacks that may limit their use...
January 13, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079309/bioactive-injectable-aggregates-with-nanofibrous-microspheres-and-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-a-translational-strategy-in-dental-endodontics
#8
I Garzón, M A Martin-Piedra, V Carriel, M Alaminos, X Liu, R D Souza
Regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex with stem cells is a potential alternative to conventional root canal treatments. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have been extensively studied because of their ability to proliferate and differentiate into mineralized dental and nondental tissues. In this work we combined hDPSCs with two types of injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) microspheres with a nanofibrous or smooth surface to form bioactive injectable aggregates, and examined their ability to promote pulp regeneration in the root canal in an in vivo model...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071899/near-ir-absorbing-gold-nanoframes-with-enhanced-physiological-stability-and-improved-biocompatibility-for-in-vivo-biomedical-applications
#9
Liying Wang, Yunching Chen, Hsin Yao Lin, Yung-Te Hou, Ling-Chu Yang, Aileen Y Sun, Jia-Yu Liu, Chien-Wen Chang, Dehui Wan
This paper describes the synthesis of near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing gold nanoframes (GNFs) and a systematic study comparing their physiological stability and biocompatibility with those of hollow Au-Ag nanoshells (GNSs), which have been used widely as photothermal agents in biomedical applications because of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the NIR region. The GNFs were synthesized in three steps: galvanic replacement, Au deposition, and Ag dealloying, using silver nanospheres (SNP) as the starting material...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071743/self-assembly-assisted-fabrication-of-dextran-based-nanohydrogels-with-reduction-cleavable-junctions-for-applications-as-efficient-drug-delivery-systems
#10
Hao Wang, Tingting Dai, Shuyan Zhou, Xiaoxiao Huang, Songying Li, Kang Sun, Guangdong Zhou, Hongjing Dou
In order to overcome the key challenge in improving both fabrication efficiency and their drug delivery capability of anti-cancer drug delivery systems (ACDDS), here polyacrylic acid (PAA) grafted dextran (Dex) nanohydrogels (NGs) with covalent crosslinked structure bearing redox sensitive disulfide crosslinking junctions (Dex-SS-PAA) were synthesized efficiently through a one-step self-assembly assisted methodology (SAA). The Dex-SS-PAA were subsequently conjugated with doxorubicin through an acid-labile hydrazone bond (Dex-SS-PAA-DOX)...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057819/a-new-method-to-evaluate-macaque-health-using-exhaled-breath-a-case-study-of-m-tuberculosis-in-a-bsl-3-setting
#11
Theodore R Mellors, Lionel Blanchet, JoAnne L Flynn, Jaime Tomko, Melanie O'Malley, Charles A Scanga, Philana L Lin, Jane E Hill
Breath is hypothesized to contain clinically relevant information, useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease, as well as understanding underlying pathogenesis. Non-human primates, such as the cynomolgus macaque, serve as an important model for the study of human disease, including over 70 different human infections. In this feasibility study, exhaled breath was successfully collected in less than five minutes under Biosafety Level 3 conditions from five anesthetized, intubated cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, before and after lung infection with M...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055578/critical-aspects-for-detection-of-coxiella-burnetii
#12
Marcella Mori, Katja Mertens, Sally J Cutler, Ana Sofia Santos
Coxiella burnetii is a globally distributed zoonotic γ-proteobacterium with an obligatory intracellular lifestyle. It is the causative agent of Q fever in humans and of coxiellosis among ruminants, although the agent is also detected in ticks, birds, and various other mammalian species. Requirements for intracellular multiplication together with the necessity for biosafety level 3 facilities restrict the cultivation of C. burnetii to specialized laboratories. Development of a novel medium formulation enabling axenic growth of C...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050721/titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-an-in-vitro-study-of-dna-binding-chromosome-aberration-assay-and-comet-assay
#13
Suhani Patel, Palak Patel, Sonal R Bakshi
Engineered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are extensively used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and other industries globally due to their unique properties, which has raised concern for biosafety. Genotoxicity assessment is an important part of biosafety evaluation; we report in vitro cytogenetic assays for NPs considering their unique physicochemical characteristics to fill the gap of laboratory data regarding biological safety along with mechanistic study for mode of interaction of NP with genetic material...
January 3, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039114/model-based-calculating-tool-for-pollen-mediated-gene-flow-frequencies-in-plants
#14
Wang Lei, Lu Bao-Rong
The potential social-economic and environmental impacts caused by transgene flow from genetically engineered (GE) crops have stimulated worldwide biosafety concerns. To determine transgene flow frequencies resulted from pollination is the first critical step for assessing such impacts, in addition to the determination of transgene expression and fitness in crop-wild hybrid descendants. Two methods are commonly used to estimate pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) frequencies: field experimenting and mathematical modeling...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035224/enzymatic-activity-of-fungi-isolated-from-crops
#15
Wioletta A Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Grażyna Cholewa, Paweł Sobczak, Wojciech Silny, Rafał Nadulski, Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora, Jerzy Zagórski
AIM: To detect and assess the activity of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and to find differences in enzymograms between fungi isolated from wheat and rye samples and grown on Czapek-Dox Broth and Sabouraud Dextrose Broth enriched with cereal (wheat or rye). Isolated strains were also classified in the scale of biosafety levels (BSL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study used 23 strains of fungi cultured from samples of wheat and rye (grain, grain dust obtained during threshing and soil) collected in the Lublin region (eastern Poland)...
December 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034885/occupational-hiv-infection-in-a-research-laboratory-with-unknown-mode-of-transmission-a-case-report
#16
Alessandro Soria, Claudia Alteri, Gabriella Scarlatti, Ada Bertoli, Monica Tolazzi, Emanuela Balestra, Maria Concetta Bellocchi, Fabio Continenza, Luca Carioti, Mara Biasin, Daria Trabattoni, Alessandra Bandera, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo Federico Perno, Andrea Gori
A lab-worker was infected with HIV-1 in a biosafety level-2 of containment, without any apparent breach. Through full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we could identify the source of infection in a replication-competent clone, unknowingly contaminating a safe experiment. Mode of transmission remains unclear. Caution is warranted when handling HIV-derived constructs.
December 28, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034853/draft-genome-sequences-of-biosafety-level-2-opportunistic-pathogens-isolated-from-the-environmental-surfaces-of-the-international-space-station
#17
Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Nitin K Singh, Jonathan E Allen, James Thissen, Crystal Jaing, Kasthuri Venkateswaran
The draft genome sequences of 20 biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) opportunistic pathogens isolated from the environmental surfaces of the International Space Station (ISS) were presented. These genomic sequences will help in understanding the influence of microgravity on the pathogenicity and virulence of these strains when compared with Earth strains.
December 29, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029125/ameliorative-effect-of-curcumin-encapsulated-hyaluronic-acid-pla-nanoparticles-on-thioacetamide-induced-murine-hepatic-fibrosis
#18
Yu-Nong Chen, Shih-Lan Hsu, Ming-Yuan Liao, Yi-Ting Liu, Chien-Hung Lai, Ji-Feng Chen, Mai-Huong Thi Nguyen, Yung-Hsiang Su, Shang-Ting Chen, Li-Chen Wu
In this study, we developed curcumin-encapsulated hyaluronic acid-polylactide nanoparticles (CEHPNPs) to be used for liver fibrosis amelioration. CD44, the hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor, is upregulated on the surface of cancer cells and on activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) rather than normal cells. CEHPNPs could bind to CD44 and be internalized effectively through endocytosis to release curcumin, a poor water-soluble liver protective agent. Thus, CEHPNPs were potentially not only improving drug efficiency, but also targeting aHSCs...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018964/structure-determination-of-a-human-virus-by-the-combination-of-cryo-em-and-x-ray-crystallography
#19
Zheng Liu, Tom S Y Guu, Jianhao Cao, Yinyin Li, Lingpeng Cheng, Yizhi Jane Tao, Jingqiang Zhang
Virus 3D atomic structures provide insight into our understanding of viral life cycles and the development of antiviral drugs. X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM have been used to determine the atomic structure of viruses. However, limited availability of biological samples, biosafety issues due to virus infection, and sometimes inherent characteristics of viruses, pose difficulties on combining both methods in determining viral structures. These have made solving the high resolution structure of some medically important viruses very challenging...
2016: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012857/an-enzymatic-assay-based-on-luciferase-ebola-virus-like-particles-for-evaluation-of-virolytic-activity-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#20
Marie Peskova, Zbynek Heger, Petr Janda, Vojtech Adam, Vladimir Pekarik
Antimicrobial peptides are currently considered as promising antiviral compounds. Current assays to evaluate the effectivity of peptides against enveloped viruses based on liposomes or hemolysis are encumbered by the artificial nature of liposomes or distinctive membrane composition of used erythrocytes. We propose a novel assay system based on enzymatic Ebola virus-like particles containing sensitive luciferase reporter. The assay was validated with several cationic and anionic peptides and compared with lentivirus inactivation and hemolytic assays...
December 22, 2016: Peptides
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