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Christine Susan Fagnant, Matthew Toles, Nicolette Angela Zhou, Jacob Powell, John Adolphsen, Yifei Guan, Byron Ockerman, Jeffry Hiroshi Shirai, David S Boyle, Igor Novosselov, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of waterborne pathogens is vital for monitoring the spread of diseases, and electropositive filters are frequently used for sampling wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water. Viruses adsorbed to electropositive filters require elution prior to detection or quantification. Elution is typically facilitated by a peristaltic pump, although this requires a significant startup cost and does not include biosafety or cross-contamination considerations. These factors may pose a barrier for low-resource laboratories that aim to conduct environmental surveillance of viruses...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jinfeng Zhang, Caixia Yang, Rui Zhang, Rui Chen, Zhenyu Zhang, Wenjun Zhang, Shih-Hao Peng, Xiaoyuan Chen, Gang Liu, Chain-Shu Hsu, Chun-Sing Lee
The development of nanotheranostic agents that integrate diagnosis and therapy for effective personalized precision medicine has obtained tremendous attention in the past few decades. In this report, biocompatible electron donor-acceptor conjugated semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (PPor-PEG NPs) with light-harvesting unit is prepared and developed for highly effective photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the concept of light-harvesting unit is exploited for enhancing the photoacoustic signal and photothermal energy conversion in polymer-based theranostic agent...
April 5, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
Paul N Schwarz, Anina Buchmann, Luisa Roller, Andreas Kulik, Harald Gross, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Evi Stegmann
Nocardia terpenica IFM 0406 is the producer of the immunosuppressants brasilicardins A-D. Brasilicardin is a promising compound because of its unique mode of action and its higher potency and reduced toxicity compared to today's standard drugs. However, production of brasilicardin was so far hampered since N. terpenica IFM 0406 synthesizes brasilicardin in only low amounts and represents a human pathogen (biosafety level 2 BSL2). In order to achieve a safe and high yield production of brasilicardin A (BraA) we heterologously expressed the brasilicardin gene cluster in the nocardioform actinomycete Amycolatopsis japonicum (A...
October 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Zhanying Jiao, Yu Song, Yang Jin, Cheng Zhang, Dong Peng, Zhenzhen Chen, Panpan Chang, Subhas C Kundu, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
The biosafety of sericin remains controversial. The misunderstanding regarding sericin causing adverse biological responses have been clarified by extensively reviewing relevant literatures and experimentally demonstrating that sericin exhibits mild inflammatory responses, negligible allergenicity, and low immunogenicity in vivo. This study supports that sericin is biosafe as a natural biomaterial.
October 17, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Xiaopeng Su, Lifeng Yang, Cailian Huang, Qinli Hu, Xinyi Shan, Junmin Wan, Zhiwen Hu, Bing Wang
Reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanotube (rGO/TNT) composites have superior properties, such as a large surface area, extraordinary mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, etc. However, the biosafety and biocompatibility of these composites, such as their influences on cell viability and cell functions, which are of paramount importance, are still not fully addressed. In this study, rGO/TNT nanocomposites were successfully synthesized through a modified hydrothermal treatment method. Then, the interactions between the rGO/TNT nanocomposites and Raw264...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Guofeng Li, Kecheng Quan, CongCong Xu, Bo Deng, Xing Wang
Composites are attractive for its potential synergistic effects that can result in high-performance, but the synergy depends on subtle design. In this study, a hemostatic composite, a thrombin/cross-linked graphene sponge (TCGS), was developed through a facile gradient composite strategy. The porous structure of the CGS assures that the thrombin is stably embedded in the TCGS, avoiding a burst release but maintaining its bioactivity. In the synergy between proper thrombin stimulation and the fast absorption of the sponge, TCGS exhibits outstanding hemostatic performance, ultrafast bleeding cessation, within 100s, which is superior to both CGS and equal amounts of native thrombin...
October 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Mark Q Benedict, Austin Burt, Margareth L Capurro, Paul De Barro, Alfred M Handler, Keith R Hayes, John M Marshall, Walter J Tabachnick, Zach N Adelman
Versatile molecular tools for creating driving transgenes and other invasive genetic factors present regulatory, ethical, and environmental challenges that should be addressed to ensure their safe use. In this article, we discuss driving transgenes and invasive genetic factors that can potentially spread after their introduction into a small proportion of individuals in a population. The potential of invasive genetic factors to increase their number in natural populations presents challenges that require additional safety measures not provided by previous recommendations regarding accidental release of arthropods...
October 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Chuanqi Peng, Xiaofei Gao, Jing Xu, Bujie Du, Xuhui Ning, Shaoheng Tang, Robert M Bachoo, Mengxiao Yu, Woo-Ping Ge, Jie Zheng
A major clinical translational challenge in nanomedicine is the potential of toxicity associated with the uptake and long-term retention of non-degradable nanoparticles (NPs) in major organs. The development of inorganic NPs that undergo renal clearance could potentially resolve this significant biosafety concern. However, it remains unclear whether inorganic NPs that can be excreted by the kidneys remain capable of targeting tumors with poor permeability. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant orthotopic brain tumor, presents a unique challenge for NP delivery because of the blood-brain barrier and robust blood-tumor barrier of reactive microglia and macroglia in the tumor microenvironment...
April 2017: Nano Research
Jaspreet K Aulakh, Tarlok S Lobana, Henna Sood, Daljit S Arora, Victoria A Smolinski, Courney E Duff, Jerry P Jasinski
The basic objective of this investigation is to explore potential metallo-organic antimicrobial agents based on silver-heterocyclic-2-thiones. In this respect, a series of silver(I) halide complexes with imidazolidine-2-thiones (L-NR, R=H, Me, Et, Pr(n), Bu(n), Ph), namely, mononuclear [AgX(L-NR)(PPh3)2] (X, R: Cl, Bu, 1; Br, Ph, 7); [AgX(L-NR)3] (Br, Bu, 5; Br, Pr(n), 8) and halogen bridged dinuclear [Ag2(μ-X)2(L-NR)2(PPh3)2] (Cl, Bu(n), 2; Cl, Ph, 3; Cl, Pr(n), 4; Br, Ph, 6) have been synthesized and characterized using modern techniques...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Jiajing Wu, Chenyan Zhao, Qiang Liu, Weijin Huang, Youchun Wang
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that is transmitted to humans primarily via the bite of an infected mosquito. Infection of humans by CHIKV can cause chikungunya fever which is an acute febrile illness associated with severe, often debilitating polyarthralgias. Since a re-emergence of CHIKV in 2004, the virus has spread into novel locations in nearly 40 countries including non-endemic regions and has led to millions of cases of disease throughout countries. Handling of CHIKV is restricted to the high-containment Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) facilities, which greatly impede the research progress of this virus...
October 11, 2017: Vaccine
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Machiko Nishio
Hazara virus (HAZV) is a member of the genus Orthonairovirus of the family Nairoviridae. HAZV is closely related to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus but differs in that it is non-pathogenic to humans. To establish an infection model system, we tested whether embryonated chicken eggs, which are classically used for evaluating viral pathogenicity, are susceptible to HAZV infection. We demonstrated that HAZV replicates well in embryonated chicken eggs and kills 100% of the embryos. This can be a valuable tool to evaluate the lethality of nairoviruses in a biosafety level 2 laboratory...
October 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
Meric A Altinoz, İlhan Elmaci
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer with no curative treatment. Targeting Nitric Oxide (NO) and glutamatergic pathways may help as adjunctive treatments in GBM. NO at low doses promotes tumorigenesis, while at higher levels (above 300 nM) triggers apoptosis. Gliomas actively secrete high amounts of glutamate which activates EGR signaling and mediates degradation of peritumoral tissues via excitotoxic injury. Memantine inhibits NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and induces autophagic death of glioma cells in vitro and blocks glioma growth in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Long Pang, Chunqiu Dai, Long Bi, Zhongshang Guo, Junjun Fan
In recent years, graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles have begun to be applied in surgical implant surface modification. However, biosafety and antibacterial ability of G and GO are still unclear. In this study, the biosafety of G and GO in vitro was evaluated by co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and biosafety in vivo was observed by implanting materials into mice muscle tissue. Biosafety results showed that 10 μg/ml was the safety critical concentration for G and GO...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Xiaoling Li, Zi Wang, Yanji Li, Kexin Bian, Tian Yin, Dawei Gao
As the widely use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in drug delivery, the precise control on the size and morphology of the AuNPs is urgently required. In this scenario, traditional synthesis methods cannot meet current requirement because of their inherent defects. We have depicted here a novel method for fabricating monodispersed large size gold nanoparticles, based on the self-assembly of bacitracin. The AuNPs could be facilely, low-cost, and green synthesized with repeatability and controllability in this method...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
James T Rudrik, Marty K Soehnlen, Michael J Perry, Maureen Sullivan, Wanda Reiter-Kintz, Philip A Lee, Denise Pettit, Anthony Tran, Erin Swaney
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization -- time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) sample preparation methods including the direct, on-plate formic acid, and ethanol/formic acid tube extraction were evaluated for their ability to render highly pathogenic organisms non-viable and safe for handling in a Biosafety Level-2 laboratory. Of these, the tube extraction procedure was the most successful, with none of the tested strains surviving this sample preparation method. Tube extracts from several agents of bioterrorism and their near neighbors were analyzed in an eight laboratory study to examine the utility of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS MALDI-TOF MS systems and their IVD, research use only, and Security-Relevant databases, as applicable, to accurately identify these agents...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Dong Bian, Weirui Zhou, Jiuxu Deng, Yang Liu, Wenting Li, Xiao Chu, Peng Xiu, Hong Cai, Yuhui Kou, Baoguo Jiang, Yufeng Zheng
From the perspective of element biosafety and dietetics, the ideal alloying elements for magnesium should be those which are essential to or naturally presented in human body. Element germanium is a unique metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors, Si and Sn. It is a dietary trace element that naturally presents in human body. Physiological role of Ge is still unanswered, but it might be necessary to ensure normal functioning of the body. In present study, novel magnesium alloys with dietary trace element Ge were developed...
October 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Sheli R Radoshitzky, Veronica Soloveva, Dima Gharaibeh, Jens H Kuhn, Sina Bavari
The majority of viruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans are Risk Group 3 or 4 pathogens and, therefore, can only be handled in biosafety level 3 or 4 (BSL-3/4) containment laboratories. The restricted number of such laboratories, the substantial financial requirements to maintain them, and safety concerns for the laboratory workers pose formidable challenges for rapid medical countermeasure discovery and evaluation. BSL-2 surrogate systems are a less challenging, cheap, and fast alternative to the use of live high-consequence viruses for dissecting and targeting individual steps of viral lifecycles with a diminished threat to the laboratory worker...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peng Xu, Yuhua Jia, Yongshuai Yang, Jincan Chen, Ping Hu, Zhuo Chen, Mingdong Huang
Here, we report photodynamic oncotherapies mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors. We synthesized conjugates 1 and 2 by coupling zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to GnRH analogues. Compared to unmodified ZnPc, conjugates 1 and 2 exhibited higher and more specific phototoxicities to breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the two conjugates demonstrated excellent anti-tumor efficacies in a breast cancer-grafted animal model. Biodistribution study suggested the high biosafety of conjugate 2 because of the low retention in brain and skin...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Fernanda Isadora Boni, Andreia Almeida, Anna Lechanteur, Bruno Sarmento, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira Cury, Maria Palmira Daflon Gremião
Nanostructured polyelectrolytes complexes (nano PECs) loaded with methotrexate (MTX) were obtained by the polyelectrolyte complexation of chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), further incorporating hypromellose phthalate (HP). The mean diameter of nano PECs ranged from 325 to 458nm, with a narrow size distribution. Zeta potential was close to +30mV, decreasing to +21mV after the incorporation of HP, a range of values that favour the physical stability of system as the interaction with cationic biological membranes...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Niloofar Zandvakili, Mohammadreza Zamani, Mostafa Motallebi, Zahra Moghaddassi Jahromi
BACKGROUND: Plants have various defense mechanisms such as production of antimicrobial peptides, particularly pathogenesis related proteins (PR proteins). PR10 family is an essential member of this group, with antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral activities. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to assess the antifungal activity of maize PR10 against some of fungal phytopathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zea mays PR10 gene (TN-05-147) was cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA and overexpressed in Escherichia coli...
March 2017: Iranian journal of biotechnology
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