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Biosecurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349788/roles-of-water-quality-and-disinfectant-application-on-inactivation-of-fish-pathogenic-streptococcus-agalactiae-with-povidone-iodine-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-and-glutaraldehyde
#1
N Mon-On, W Surachetpong, S Mongkolsuk, K Sirikanchana
Streptococcosis is an important bacterial disease in Nile tilapia causing severe economic losses to tilapia aquaculture worldwide. The effects of water quality (low- [LS] and high-level [HS] soiling, to mimic clean or dirty surface conditions and temperatures) and disinfectant application (diluted concentrations and exposure time) were characterized on the inactivation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from diseased tilapia. Five isolates were tested against three commercial disinfectant products with the main ingredients being povidone iodine (Anidine 100™; AD), benzalkonium chloride (Better BKC 80%™; BKC 80), and a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds and glutaraldehyde (Chloraldehyde™; CR)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348350/draft-genome-sequences-of-14-strains-of-pseudomonas-isolated-from-prunus-sp-plants
#2
Sandra B Visnovsky, Ashley Lu, Preetinanda Panda, Robert Taylor, Andrew R Pitman
We present here the draft genome sequences of 14 Pseudomonas strains isolated from Prunus sp. plants in New Zealand and overseas. These new genomic data will be used to improve the detection of Pseudomonas strains found in imported plant material at the New Zealand border, improving the time involved in the process of biosecurity decision-making.
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346750/from-healthcare-to-warfare-and-reverse-how-should-we-regulate-dual-use-neurotechnology
#3
Marcello Ienca, Fabrice Jotterand, Bernice S Elger
Recent advances in military-funded neurotechnology and novel opportunities for misusing neurodevices show that the problem of dual use is inherent to neuroscience. This paper discusses how the neuroscience community should respond to these dilemmas and delineates a neuroscience-specific biosecurity framework. This neurosecurity framework involves calibrated regulation, (neuro)ethical guidelines, and awareness-raising activities within the scientific community.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341315/use-of-quantitative-real-time-pcr-to-determine-viability-of-streptococcus-equi-subspecies-equi-in-respiratory-secretions-from-horses-with-strangles
#4
N Pusterla, C M Leutenegger, S M Barnum, B A Byrne
BACKGROUND: In recent years, molecular approaches have been able to characterise the viability of equine upper respiratory tract pathogens using absolute molecular quantitation as well as detection of transcripts for virulence genes. OBJECTIVES: The objective this study was to investigate molecular surrogates for S. equi subspecies equi (S. equi) viability in biological samples from horses with strangles. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study...
January 17, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321941/hygienic-measures-during-animal-transport-to-abattoirs-a-status-quo-analysis-of-the-current-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-animal-transporters-in-germany
#5
Luisa Weber, Diana Meemken
Background: The process of cleaning and disinfection of animal transport vehicles after unloading animals at the abattoir is a critical control point regarding proper hygiene. It is an important step regarding the biosecurity. In the present study, a status quo analysis of the currently performed cleaning and disinfection measures of animal transport vehicles was carried out at the vehicle washing facilities of five different industrial abattoirs in Germany. For this purpose, a checklist was developed and validated to assess the washing procedure of transport vehicles in a standardised way...
2018: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321027/the-role-of-transportation-in-the-spread-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-in-fattening-farms
#6
Enrico Giacomini, Sara Gasparrini, Massimiliano Lazzaro, Federico Scali, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Attilio Corradi, Paolo Pasquali, Giovanni Loris Alborali
BACKGROUND: Direct and indirect contact among animals and holdings are important in the spread of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of slaughterhouse vehicles in spreading B. hyodysenteriae between unconnected farms. RESULTS: Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) were used to characterize B. hyodysenteriae strains isolated from trucks. Before cleaning, 976 batches of finishing pigs transported by 174 trucks from 540 herds were sampled...
January 10, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304084/risk-assessment-and-spread-of-the-potentially-invasive-ceratitis-rosa-karsch-and-ceratitis-quilicii-de-meyer-mwatawala-virgilio-sp-nov-using-life-cycle-simulation-models-implications-for-phytosanitary-measures-and-management
#7
Chrysantus Mbi Tanga, Fathiya Mbarak Khamis, Henri E Z Tonnang, Ivan Rwomushana, Gladys Mosomtai, Samira A Mohamed, Sunday Ekesi
Integrative taxonomy has resolved the species status of the potentially invasive Ceratitis rosa Karsch into two separate species with distinct ecological requirements: C. rosa "lowland type" and the newly described species Ceratitis quilicii De Meyer, Mwatawala & Virgilio sp. nov. "highland type". Both species are tephritid pests threatening the production of horticultural crops in Africa and beyond. Studies were carried out by constructing thermal reaction norms for each life stage of both species at constant and fluctuating temperatures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299685/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-biosecurity-levels-in-fattening-pigs-and-sows-serological-and-molecular-epidemiology-in-the-intensive-pig-industry-lombardy-northern-italy
#8
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Marianna Marangi, Luca Villa, Maria Elena Ragona, Emanuela Olivieri, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Annunziata Giangaspero, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan affecting animals and humans. One of the major routes of human infection is through the consumption of raw or under-cooked meat, particularly of certain animal species, including pigs. Although T. gondii represents an important public health issue, its control at slaughter is not mandatory. Consequently, available information on T. gondii infection in domestic animals destined for human consumption is scarce. Thus, an epidemiologic survey was designed to update information on T...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299274/cryptic-genetic-variation-in-an-inbreeding-and-cosmopolitan-pest-xylosandrus-crassiusculus-revealed-using-ddradseq
#9
Caroline Storer, Adam Payton, Stuart McDaniel, Bjarte Jordal, Jiri Hulcr
Each year new exotic species are transported across the world through global commerce, causing considerable economic and ecological damage. An important component of managing invasion pathways is to identify source populations. Some of the most widespread exotic species are haplodiploid ambrosia beetles. The ability to mate with siblings (inbreed) and their transportable food source (symbiotic fungus) have enabled them to colonize most of the world and become pests of plant nurseries, lumber, and forests. One of the fastest spreading ambrosia beetles is Xylosandrus crassiusculus...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290294/investigating-the-epidemiology-of-ei-epidemic-spread-in-the-province-of-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan-in-2015-16
#10
Amjad Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Mansur Ud Din Ahmad, Jawad Nazir, Zahida Fatima, Asghar Khan, Shahid Hussain Farooqi
EI in non-vaccinated population causes disruption and economic losses. To identify the risk factors associated with the EI epidemics in equids in Pakistan, a 1:1 matched case control study was conducted during 2015-2016. Including a total of 197 laboratory confirmed cases and negative controls, matched on the basis of geography, time of sampling, specie and age. A piloted questionnaire was used to collect data regarding risk factors associated with the occurrence of EI in face to face interviews. Conditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the data...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290292/mathematical-modeling-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-dynamics-within-a-farrow-to-finish-swine-farm-to-investigate-the-effects-of-control-measures
#11
Kiyokazu Murai, Sachiko Moriguchi, Yoko Hayama, Sota Kobayashi, Ayako Miyazaki, Toshiyuki Tsutsui, Takehisa Yamamoto
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious enteric disease in swine that can cause devastating economic damage to pig producers. Japan was severely affected by PED epidemics from 2013 through 2015, with over 1000 farms were affected during this period. Although many studies have unraveled pathological and molecular characteristics of PED virus (PEDV), the mechanism for within-farm spread is largely unknown. Here, we constructed a deterministic compartmental model to quantitatively describe the infection dynamics in a farm setting and to investigate effective control measures...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250719/selenium-nanoparticles-in-poultry-feed-modify-gut-microbiota-and-increase-abundance-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii
#12
Sheeana Gangadoo, Ivan Dinev, James Chapman, Robert J Hughes, Thi Thu Hao Van, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
The poultry industry aims to improve productivity while maintaining the health and welfare of flocks. Pathogen control has been achieved through biosecurity, vaccinations and the use of antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance, in animal and human pathogens, has prompted researchers and chicken growers alike to seek alternative approaches. The use of new and emerging approaches to combat pathogen activity including nanotechnology, in particular, silver nanoparticles (NPs), has been found to not only eradicate pathogenic bacteria but also include issues of toxicity and bioaccumulation effects...
December 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226568/incidence-of-contamination-of-live-bird-markets-in-bangladesh-with-influenza-a-virus-and-subtypes-h5-h7-and-h9
#13
P K Biswas, M Giasuddin, P Chowdhury, H Barua, N C Debnath, M Yamage
In the absence of robust active surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV) affecting poultry in South Asian countries, monitoring of live bird markets (LBMs) can be an alternative. In a longitudinal study of 32 LBM, five environments were sampled as follows: market floor, stall floor, slaughter area, poultry holding cage and water used for meat processing. Samples were taken monthly for 5 months, September 2013-January 2014. Incidence rates (IRs) of LBM contamination with AIV and its subtypes H5, H7 and H9 were assessed...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216266/identification-and-genetic-characterization-of-hepacivirus-and-pegivirus-in-commercial-equine-serum-products-in-china
#14
Gang Lu, Ji Huang, Qiliang Yang, Haibin Xu, Peixin Wu, Cheng Fu, Shoujun Li
Equine hepacivirus (EqHV), equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease-associated virus (TDAV) are three novel equine viruses in the family Flaviviridae. EqHV and EPgV have been identified to circulate in the equine population worldwide, whereas TDAV has not been detected in equines since the first reported case. To date, no studies have focused on investigating EqHV, EPgV and TDAV in commercial equine sera or equine blood products in China. Considering the potential threat of EqHV, EPgV and TDAV to biosecurity and considering their possible influences on research results, equine sera for cell culture propagation and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were purchased from different companies in China and investigated for EqHV, EPgV and TDAV in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212482/biosecurity-aspects-of-cattle-production-in-western-uganda-and-associations-with-seroprevalence-of-brucellosis-salmonellosis-and-bovine-viral-diarrhoea
#15
C Wolff, S Boqvist, K Ståhl, C Masembe, S Sternberg-Lewerin
BACKGROUND: Many low-income countries have a human population with a high number of cattle owners depending on their livestock for food and income. Infectious diseases threaten the health and production of cattle, affecting both the farmers and their families as well as other actors in often informal value chains. Many infectious diseases can be prevented by good biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to describe herd management and biosecurity routines with potential impact on the prevalence of infectious diseases, and to estimate the burden of infectious diseases in Ugandan cattle herds, using the seroprevalence of three model infections...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209511/effectiveness-of-composting-as-a-biosecure-disposal-method-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-infected-pig-carcasses
#16
Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt
Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209498/intensifying-poultry-production-systems-and-the-emergence-of-avian-influenza-in-china-a-one-health-ecohealth-epitome
#17
Marius Gilbert, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson
Several kinds of pressure can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases. In the case of zoonoses emerging from livestock, one of the most significant changes that has taken place since the mid twentieth century is what has been termed the "livestock revolution", whereby the stock of food animals, their productivity and their trade has increased rapidly to feed rising and increasingly wealthy and urbanized populations. Further increases are projected in the future in low and middle-income countries. Using avian influenza as an example, we discuss how the emergence of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 in China was linked to rapid intensification of the poultry sector taking place in landscapes rich in wetland agriculture and wild waterfowls habitats, providing an extensive interface with the wild reservoir of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204946/gene-editing-using-crispr-cas9-implications-for-dual-use-and-biosecurity
#18
Diane DiEuliis, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184365/public-health-concerns-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-endemicity-in-africa
#19
REVIEW
Olubunmi Gabriel Fasanmi, Ismail Ayoade Odetokun, Fatima Adeola Balogun, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in 2006; thereafter this virus has spread rapidly from Nigeria to 11 other African countries. This study was aimed at utilizing data from confirmed laboratory reports to carry out a qualitative evaluation of the factors responsible for HPAI H5N1 persistence in Africa and the public health implications; and to suggest appropriate control measures. Relevant publications were sought from data banks and repositories of FAO, OIE, WHO, and Google scholars...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178813/the-threat-of-synthetic-smallpox-european-perspectives
#20
Giulia Impelluso, Filippa Lentzos
This article explores how advances in synthetic biology, and the potential threat of deliberately recreating and spreading smallpox, are affecting the multilateral debate on the remaining variola virus stocks. It draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 high-profile, European-based experts in biosecurity and synthetic biology. Four overarching themes affecting the retention or destruction debate are discussed, relating to biosecurity, dangerous knowledge, accidental releases, and eradication. We conclude that while synthetic biology seems to affect all the main discourses in the variola stocks debate, a range of views is present and it is not apparent that advances in synthetic biology are causing a shift toward either retention or destruction of the stocks...
November 2017: Health Security
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