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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548568/genetic-antigenic-and-pathogenic-characteristics-of-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-from-geese-in-china
#1
Qianqian Xu, Junfeng Sun, Mengying Gao, Shasha Zhao, Huairan Liu, TingTing Zhang, Zongxi Han, Xiangang Kong, Shengwang Liu
Four Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains were isolated from domestic, commercial geese that showed clinical signs that were believed to be the result of NDV infections. The genetic, antigenic, and pathogenic characteristics of the 4 NDVs were compared with those of NDV strains that were isolated from chickens. The complete genomes of 2 of the NDV strains contained 15,186 nucleotides (nt); the other 2 contained 15,192 nt, and exhibited the typical genomic organization of genotype II NDV and molecular characteristics of VIId NDVs...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546868/evaluation-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-stabilization-protocols-in-23-french-farrow-to-finish-farms-located-in-a-high-density-swine-area
#2
Pauline Berton, Valérie Normand, Guy-Pierre Martineau, Franck Bouchet, Arnaud Lebret, Agnès Waret-Szkuta
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for reproductive disorders in sows and respiratory problems in pigs, and has a major economic impact. Controlling PRRSV is therefore a priority for the swine industry. Stabilization of a herd, defined as the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning from seropositive sows, is a common method of control, and different protocols have been described in the literature to achieve this stabilization. CONTEXT AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate wether the combination of mass vaccination of sows and their piglets with a Genotype I modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, with temporal closure to the introduction of replacement animals and unidirectional pig and human flow can result in the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535863/evaluation-of-anthelmintic-resistance-and-exhaust-air-dust-pcr-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-mice-enzootically-infected-with-aspiculuris-tetraptera
#3
Pratibha Kapoor, Yumiko O Hayes, Leslie T Jarrell, Dwight A Bellinger, Rhiannon D Thomas, Gregory W Lawson, Jaclyn D Arkema, Craig A Fletcher, Judith N Nielsen
The entry of infectious agents in rodent colonies occurs despite robust sentinel monitoring programs, strict quarantine measures, and stringent biosecurity practices. In light of several outbreaks with Aspiculuris tetraptera in our facilities, we investigated the presence of anthelmintic resistance and the use of exhaust air dust (EAD) PCR for early detection of A. tetraptera infection. To determine anthelmintic resistance, C57BL/6, DBA/2, and NCr nude mice were experimentally inoculated with embryonated A...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532990/-catch-22-biosecurity-awareness-interpretation-and-practice-amongst-poultry-catchers
#4
Caroline Millman, Rob Christley, Dan Rigby, Diana Dennis, Sarah J O'Brien, Nicola Williams
Campylobacter contamination of chicken on sale in the UK remains at high levels and has a substantial public health impact. This has prompted the application of many interventions in the supply chain, including enhanced biosecurity measures on-farm. Catching and thinning are acknowledged as threats to the maintenance of good biosecurity, yet the people employed to undertake this critical work (i.e. 'catchers') are a rarely studied group. This study uses a mixed methods approach to investigate catchers' (n=53) understanding of the biosecurity threats posed by the catching and thinning, and the barriers to good biosecurity practice...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532807/distribution-of-aleutian-mink-disease-virus-contamination-in-the-environment-of-infected-mink-farms
#5
A Prieto, R Fernández-Antonio, J M Díaz-Cao, G López, P Díaz, J M Alonso, P Morrondo, G Fernández
Control and eradication of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) are a major concern for fur-bearing animal production. Despite notably reducing disease prevalence, current control programs are unable to prevent the reinfection of farms, and environmental AMDV persistence seems to play a major role regarding this issue. In this study 114 samples from different areas and elements of seven infected mink farms were analyzed by qPCR in order to evaluate the environmental distribution of AMDV load. Samples were classified into nine categories, depending on the type of sample and degree of proximity to the animals, the main source of infection...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528495/dairy-farm-demographics-and-management-factors-that-played-a-role-in-the-re-emergence-of-brucellosis-on-dairy-cattle-farms-in-fiji
#6
Andrew Tukana, B Gummow
Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525653/predicted-philogeny-secondary-conformational-structure-and-epitope-antigenicity-of-immunological-sequences-in-poultry
#7
L J Lara, A P Peconick, É J Fassani, A M P Júnior, P R B Chalfun, D L Raymundo, T A Barçante, J M de P Barçante
Poultry production is faced with different types of stresses that are responsible for issues of animal welfare as well as for economic losses. Moreover, the immunity decreases when animals are stressed. In silico analyses are important in reducing the cost and in increasing the accuracy of scientific results. A bioinformatics tool was used to perform ontology studies on 15 different immunological sequences of poultry. The mRNA structures and sequences with maximum antigenic residues were also predicted. No homology was found between the sequences of poultry and mammals...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521744/determination-of-the-sources-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-salmonella-isolated-from-the-poultry-industry-in-southern-ethiopia
#8
Reta Duguma Abdi, Fisseha Mengstie, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Takele Beyene, Hika Waktole, Bedasso Mammo, Dinka Ayana, Fufa Abunna
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512231/survey-on-antimicrobial-prescribing-patterns-in-small-animal-veterinary-practice-in-emilia-romagna-italy
#9
A Barbarossa, J Rambaldi, V Miraglia, M Giunti, G Diegoli, A Zaghini
This investigation provides for the first time a general view of the prescribing patterns of antimicrobials in small animal practice in Emilia Romagna, Italy. In the context of a project on antimicrobial resistance managed by the Regional Veterinary Service, veterinary clinicians were invited to voluntarily complete an online questionnaire. This was designed to gather information on antimicrobial prescribing practices and biosecurity measures and to understand the perception of the issue specific to this region of Italy...
May 16, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502086/does-influenza-pandemic-preparedness-and-mitigation-require-gain-of-function-research
#10
Dillon C Adam, Daniel J Magee, Chau M Bui, Matthew Scotch, C Raina MacIntyre
The risk and benefits of gain-of-function studies on influenza A has been widely debated since 2012 when the methods to create two respiratory transmissible H5N1 mutant isolates were published. Opponents of gain-of-function studies argue the biosecurity risk is unacceptable, while proponents cite potential uses for pandemic surveillance, preparedness and mitigation. In this commentary, we provide an overview of the background and applications of gain-of-function research and argue that the anticipated benefits have yet to materialize while the significant risks remain...
May 14, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497727/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#11
Mitchell Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. Themajority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493973/prevalence-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-cattle-at-south-korean-national-breeding-stock-farms
#12
Min-Goo Seo, In-Ohk Ouh, Seung-Hun Lee, Jong Wan Kim, Man Hee Rhee, Oh-Deog Kwon, Tae-Hwan Kim, Dongmi Kwak
This is the first study to evaluate the serologic and molecular prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in cattle at national breeding stock farms in South Korea. These government farms have well-organized biosecurity and management systems to prevent livestock diseases. Of the 736 cattle in this study, 77 tested positive for antibodies against C. burnetii antigens (10.5%, 95% CI: 8.3-12.7) and 11 were positive for a C. burnetti infection on PCR analysis (1.5%, 95% CI: 0.6-2.4). Since the 16S rRNA sequences of C. burnetii from all 11 PCR-positive samples were identical, three representative samples (C-CN-3 from the southern region, C-JJ-9 from Jeju Island, and C-CB-37 from the central region) are described in this paper...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491068/phytoplasmas-the-crouching-tiger-threat-of-australian-plant-pathology
#13
REVIEW
Jian Liu, David Gopurenko, Murray J Fletcher, Anne C Johnson, Geoff M Gurr
Phytoplasmas are insect-vectored bacteria that cause disease in a wide range of plant species. The increasing availability of molecular DNA analyses, expertise and additional methods in recent years has led to a proliferation of discoveries of phytoplasma-plant host associations and in the numbers of taxonomic groupings for phytoplasmas. The widespread use of common names based on the diseases with which they are associated, as well as separate phenetic and taxonomic systems for classifying phytoplasmas based on variation at the 16S rRNA-encoding gene, complicates interpretation of the literature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490143/method-for-sampling-and-analysis-of-volatile-biomarkers-in-process-gas-from-aerobic-digestion-of-poultry-carcasses-using-time-weighted-average-spme-and-gc-ms
#14
Jacek A Koziel, Lam T Nguyen, Thomas D Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S Frana, J Hans van Leeuwen
A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) - gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick's first law of diffusion were within 6...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481253/drug-loadable-calcium-alginate-hydrogel-system-for-use-in-oral-bone-tissue-repair
#15
Luyuan Chen, Renze Shen, Satoshi Komasa, Yanxiang Xue, Bingyu Jin, Yepo Hou, Joji Okazaki, Jie Gao
This study developed a drug-loadable hydrogel system with high plasticity and favorable biological properties to enhance oral bone tissue regeneration. Hydrogels of different calcium alginate concentrations were prepared. Their swelling ratio, degradation time, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) release rate were measured. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured with both calcium alginate hydrogels and polylactic acid (PLA), and then we examined the proliferation of cells...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475633/co-infection-with-iflaviruses-influences-the-insecticidal-properties-of-spodoptera-exigua-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus-occlusion-bodies-implications-for-the-production-and-biosecurity-of-baculovirus-insecticides
#16
Arkaitz Carballo, Rosa Murillo, Agata Jakubowska, Salvador Herrero, Trevor Williams, Primitivo Caballero
Biological insecticides based on Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) can efficiently control S. exigua larvae on field and greenhouse crops in many parts of the world. Spanish wild populations and laboratory colonies of S. exigua are infected by two iflaviruses (SeIV-1 and SeIV-2). Here we evaluated the effect of iflavirus co-infection on the insecticidal characteristics of SeMNPV occlusion bodies (OBs). Overall, iflavirus co-inoculation consistently reduced median lethal concentrations (LC50) for SeMNPV OBs compared to larvae infected with SeMNPV alone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463055/the-epidemiology-molecular-characterization-and-clinical-pathology-of-circovirus-infections-in-pigeons%C3%A2-%C3%A2-current-knowledge
#17
Tomasz Stenzel, Andrzej Koncicki
The first cases of circovirus infections in pigeons were documented less than 25 years ago. Since then, circovirus infections have been reported on nearly all continents. The prevalence of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infections in populations of domestic pigeons is very high (70% on average). The specificity of pigeon breeding defies biosecurity principles, which could be the reason for the high prevalence of PiCV infections. PiCV infections in pigeons lead to atrophy of immune system organs and lymphocyte apoptosis...
May 2, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461779/the-capacity-of-diagnostic-laboratories-in-kenya-for-detecting-infectious-diseases
#18
H-C Slotved, Kennedy K Yatich, Shem Otoi Sam, Edwardina Otieno Ndhine
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to present data of the diagnostic capacity of Kenyan laboratories to diagnose a number of human pathogens. The study is based on the data obtained from a biosecurity survey conducted in Kenya in 2014/2015 and data from the Statistical Abstract of Kenya for 2015. The biosecurity survey has previously been published; however, the survey also included information on laboratory capacity to handle a number of pathogens, which have not been published. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the survey on 86 laboratory facilities...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460754/pig-traders-networks-on-the-kenya-uganda-border-highlight-potential-for-mitigation-of-african-swine-fever-virus-transmission-and-improved-asf-disease-risk-management
#19
Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Jocelyn Davies, Yiheyis Maru, Philip M Kitala, Samuel M Githigia, Edward Okoth, Salome A Bukachi, Sam Okuthe, Richard P Bishop
We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460752/-we-ve-learned-to-live-with-it-a-qualitative-study-of-australian-horse-owners-attitudes-perceptions-and-practices-in-response-to-hendra-virus
#20
Anke K Wiethoelter, Kate Sawford, Nicole Schembri, Melanie R Taylor, Navneet K Dhand, Barbara Moloney, Therese Wright, Nina Kung, Hume E Field, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio
Hendra virus causes sporadic zoonotic disease in Australia following spill over from flying foxes to horses and from horses to people. Prevention and risk mitigation strategies such as vaccination of horses or biosecurity and property management measures are widely publicised, but hinge on initiative and action taken by horse owners as they mediate management, care and treatment of their animals. Hence, underlying beliefs, values and attitudes of horse owners influence their uptake of recommended risk mitigation measures...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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