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Biosecurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938765/advanced-oxidation-process-sanitization-of-hatching-eggs-reduces-salmonella-in-broiler-chicks
#1
A C Rehkopf, J A Byrd, C D Coufal, T Duong
The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery is an important critical control point for biosecurity, pathogen reduction, and food safety programs in poultry production. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in reducing Salmonella on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927474/first-detection-and-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-in-poultry-and-swine-raised-in-backyard-production-systems-in-central-chile
#2
R Alegria-Moran, D Rivera, V Toledo, A I Moreno-Switt, C Hamilton-West
Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile...
September 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926026/conceptual-models-underlying-economic-analysis-of-animal-health-and-welfare-with-the-inclusion-of-three-components-people-products-and-resources
#3
D A Hennessy
Infectious animal diseases can spill across farm boundaries, so effective management requires coordinated responses. Costs and benefits from the management of infectious diseases are such that those who make the decisions have weak incentives to act, the levels of goods and services produced from animal agriculture are probably smaller than is socially optimal and resources are likely wasted. This work provides an overview of the existing literature on conceptual economic models in animal disease management, paying particular attention to inadequate incentives to make the required biosecurity efforts...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919398/controlling-bovine-paratuberculosis-at-a-regional-scale-towards-a-decision-modelling-tool
#4
Gaël Beaunée, Elisabeta Vergu, Alain Joly, Pauline Ezanno
Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), a worldwide enzootic disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), mainly introduced into farms by purchasing infected animals, has a large economic impact for dairy producers. Since diagnostic tests used in routine are poorly sensitive, observing Map spread in the field is hardly possible, whereas there is a need for evaluating control strategies. Our objective was to provide a modelling framework to compare the efficacy of regional control strategies combining internal biosecurity measures and testing of traded animals, against Map spread in a metapopulation of dairy cattle herds...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918144/short-communication-molecular-epidemiology-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-differs-between-countries
#5
J Reyes, M Chaffer, Juan Carlos Rodriguez-Lecompte, Javier Sánchez, Ruth N Zadoks, Natasha Robinson, Ximena Cardona, N Ramírez, G P Keefe
Group B Streptococcus or Streptococcus agalactiae continue to be challenging for milk quality programs in countries with emerging dairy industries, such as Colombia, where high prevalence has been reported. Molecular typing of isolates is needed to understand the variability and epidemiology of this pathogen and to develop effective control and eradication programs. We characterized the molecular profile of Strep. agalactiae isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis in 21 Colombian dairy herds and measured diversity within and between herds using multilocus sequence typing...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910140/impact-of-clinical-salmonellosis-in-veal-calves-on-the-recovery-of-salmonella-in-lymph-nodes-at-harvest
#6
Lohendy Muñoz-Vargas, Sarah K Finney, Holden Hutchinson, Margaret A Masterson, Greg Habing
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, serotypes, antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella recovered in feces and mesenteric and prefemoral lymph nodes (LNs) from cohorts of calves with and without a confirmed outbreak of salmonellosis. In a prospective cohort study, 160 calves from four farms without a reported outbreak (nonoutbreak farms) were sampled at farm and harvest. In addition, harvest samples from 80 calves of two farms with a confirmed outbreak (outbreak farms) were collected...
September 14, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905713/interspecies-variation-in-the-susceptibility-of-a-wild-derived-colony-of-mice-to-pinworms-aspiculuris-tetraptera
#7
Ryan C Curtis, Jill K Murray, Polly Campbell, Yoko Nagamori, Adam Molnar, Todd A Jackson
Pinworms are common parasites in wild and laboratory rodents. Despite their relative nonpathogenicity in immunocompetent models, pinworm infections add an unwanted variable and may confound some types of research. For this reason, health monitoring programs and biosecurity measures aim to minimize the spread of pinworm infections into colonies free from the organisms. Wild-derived and laboratory strains of mice have shown varied susceptibility to infection with Aspiculuris tetraptera, the most commonly found murine pinworm...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903877/exploring-the-role-of-small-scale-livestock-keepers-for-national-biosecurity-the-pig-case
#8
Carla Correia-Gomes, Madeleine K Henry, Harriet K Auty, George J Gunn
Small-scale keepers are less likely to engage with production organisations and may therefore be less aware of legislation, rules and biosecurity practices which are implemented in the livestock sector. Their role in the transmission of endemic and exotic diseases is not well studied, but is believed to be important. The authors use small-scale pig keepers in Scotland as an example of how important small-scale livestock keepers might be for national biosecurity. In Scotland more than two thirds of pig producers report that they keep less than 10 pigs, meaning that biosecurity practices and pig health status on a substantial number of holdings are largely unknown; it is considered important to fill this knowledge gap...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903874/mortality-in-danish-swine-herds-spatio-temporal-clusters-and-risk-factors
#9
Ana Carolina Lopes Antunes, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Kristine Bihrmann, Nils Toft
The aim of this study was to explore spatio-temporal mortality patterns in Danish swine herds from December 2013 to October 2015, and to discuss the use of mortality data for syndromic surveillance in Denmark. Although it has previously been assessed within the context of syndromic surveillance, the value of mortality data generated on a regular and mandatory basis from all swine herds remains unexplored in terms of swine surveillance in Denmark. A total of 5010 farms were included in the analysis, corresponding to 1896 weaner herds, 1490 sow herds and 3839 finisher herds...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903868/predicting-farm-level-animal-populations-using-environmental-and-socioeconomic-variables
#10
Mary van Andel, Christopher Jewell, Joanna McKenzie, Tracey Hollings, Andrew Robinson, Mark Burgman, Paul Bingham, Tim Carpenter
Accurate information on the geographic distribution of domestic animal populations helps biosecurity authorities to efficiently prepare for and rapidly eradicate exotic diseases, such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Developing and maintaining sufficiently high-quality data resources is expensive and time consuming. Statistical modelling of population density and distribution has only begun to be applied to farm animal populations, although it is commonly used in wildlife ecology. We developed zero-inflated Poisson regression models in a Bayesian framework using environmental and socioeconomic variables to predict the counts of livestock units (LSUs) and of cattle on spatially referenced farm polygons in a commercially available New Zealand farm database, Agribase...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902860/alien-species-pathways-to-the-galapagos-islands-ecuador
#11
M Verónica Toral-Granda, Charlotte E Causton, Heinke Jäger, Mandy Trueman, Juan Carlos Izurieta, Eddy Araujo, Marilyn Cruz, Kerstin K Zander, Arturo Izurieta, Stephen T Garnett
Alien species, one of the biggest threats to natural ecosystems worldwide, are of particular concern for oceanic archipelagos such as Galápagos. To enable more effective management of alien species, we reviewed, collated and analysed all available records of alien species for Galápagos. We also assembled a comprehensive dataset on pathways to and among the Galápagos Islands, including tourist and resident numbers, tourist vessels, their itineraries and visitation sites, aircraft capacity and occupancy, air and sea cargo and biosecurity interceptions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886754/on-farm-biosecurity-practices-and-causes-of-preweaning-mortality-in-canadian-commercial-mink-kits
#12
Nicole Compo, David L Pearl, Brian Tapscott, Amanda Storer, Jutta Hammermueller, Marina Brash, Patricia V Turner
BACKGROUND: Mink are an important animal commodity group in Canada and excessive kit mortality represents a significant loss to production. National biosecurity standards have been developed for Canadian mink farms, but it is unclear how well these standards have been implemented as there are no studies correlating management practices of mink producers with causes of death in mink kits. To that end, we surveyed Ontario mink producers on their biosecurity and management practices and conducted almost 5660 post mortem examinations on found-dead, preweaned kits to characterize mink farm biosecurity practices and causes of death in preweaned kits...
September 8, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874068/characterization-of-a-novel-viil-sub-genotype-of-newcastle-disease-virus-circulating-in-iran
#13
Fereshteh Sabouri, Mehdi Vasfi Marandi, Mohsen Bashashati
Newcastle disease (ND) is an economically important and highly contagious disease of wild and domestic avian species. Despite extensive vaccination efforts of industrial poultry, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks causing significant economic losses still occur. Rural chickens may act as a potential reservoir of NDVs for commercial poultry due to poor biosecurity and inadequate vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate phylogenetic relationship and molecular characterization of eight NDVs isolated from backyard poultry during 2011-2013...
September 6, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873426/dna-in-a-bottle-rapid-metabarcoding-survey-for-early-alerts-of-invasive-species-in-ports
#14
Yaisel J Borrell, Laura Miralles, Hoang Do Huu, Khaled Mohammed-Geba, Eva Garcia-Vazquez
Biota monitoring in ports is increasingly needed for biosecurity reasons and safeguarding marine biodiversity from biological invasion. Present and future international biosecurity directives can be accomplished only if the biota acquired by maritime traffic in ports is controlled. Methodologies for biota inventory are diverse and now rely principally on extensive and labor-intensive sampling along with taxonomic identification by experts. In this study, we employed an extremely simplified environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling methodology from only three 1-L bottles of water per port, followed by metabarcoding (high-throughput sequencing and DNA-based species identification) using 18S rDNA and Cytochrome oxidase I as genetic barcodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865923/rapid-and-label-free-electrochemical-dna-biosensor-for-detecting-hepatitis-a-virus
#15
Marisa Manzano, Sara Viezzi, Sandra Mazerat, Robert S Marks, Jasmina Vidic
Diagnostic systems that can deliver highly specific and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food and water are of particular interest in many fields including food safety, biosecurity and control of outbreaks. Our aim was the development of an electrochemical method based on DNA hybridization to detect HAV. A ssDNA probe specific for HAV (capture probe) was designed and tested on DNAs from various viral and bacterial samples using Nested-Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (nRT-PCR)...
August 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862083/detection-of-salmonella-spp-in-veterinary-samples-by-combining-selective-enrichment-and-real-time-pcr
#16
Laura B Goodman, Patrick L McDonough, Renee R Anderson, Rebecca J Franklin-Guild, James R Ryan, Gillian A Perkins, Anil J Thachil, Amy L Glaser, Belinda S Thompson
Rapid screening for enteric bacterial pathogens in clinical environments is essential for biosecurity. Salmonella found in veterinary hospitals, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, can pose unique challenges for culture and testing because of its poor growth. Multiple Salmonella serovars including Dublin are emerging threats to public health given increasing prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. We adapted an automated food testing method to veterinary samples and evaluated the performance of the method in a variety of matrices including environmental samples ( n = 81), tissues ( n = 52), feces ( n = 148), and feed ( n = 29)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860056/preparation-of-chitosan-collagen-alginate-composite-dressing-and-its-promoting-effects-on-wound-healing
#17
Haixia Xie, Xiuli Chen, Xianrong Shen, Ying He, Wei Chen, Qun Luo, Weihong Ge, Weihong Yuan, Xue Tang, Dengyong Hou, Dingwen Jiang, Qingrong Wang, Yuming Liu, Qiong Liu, Kexian Li
The present study aimed to prepare a composite dressing composed of collagen, chitosan, and alginate, which may promote wound healing and prevent from seawater immersion. Chitosan-collagen-alginate (CCA) cushion was prepared by paintcoat and freeze-drying, and it was attached to a polyurethane to compose CCA composite dressing. The swelling, porosity, degradation, and mechanical properties of CCA cushion were evaluated. The effects on wound healing and seawater prevention of CCA composite dressing were tested by rat wound model...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857695/movement-patterns-of-exhibition-swine-and-associations-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-with-swine-management-practices
#18
Nola Bliss, Jason W Stull, Steven J Moeller, Päivi J Rajala-Schultz, Andrew S Bowman
OBJECTIVE To identify the geographic distribution of exhibition swine in the Midwestern United States, characterize management practices used for exhibition swine, and identify associations between those practices and influenza A virus (IAV) detection in exhibition swine arriving at county or state agricultural fairs. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 480 swine exhibitors and 641 exhibition swine. PROCEDURES Inventories of swine exhibited at fairs in 6 selected Midwestern states during 2013 and of the total swine population (including commercial swine) in these regions in 2012 were obtained and mapped...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854745/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-thermotolerant-species-of-campylobacter-in-poultry-meat-at-retail-in-europe
#19
Andrea Osimani, Lucia Aquilanti, Marina Pasquini, Francesca Clementi
The thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis are the causative agents of the human illness called campylobacteriosis. This infection represents a threat for the health of consumers in Europe. It is well known that poultry meat is an important food vehicle of Campylobacter infection. As emerged from the reported scientific literature published between 2006 and 2016, poultry meat sold at retail level in Europe represents an important source of the pathogen...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837685/species-distribution-models-a-comparison-of-statistical-approaches-for-livestock-and-disease-epidemics
#20
Tracey Hollings, Andrew Robinson, Mary van Andel, Chris Jewell, Mark Burgman
In livestock industries, reliable up-to-date spatial distribution and abundance records for animals and farms are critical for governments to manage and respond to risks. Yet few, if any, countries can afford to maintain comprehensive, up-to-date agricultural census data. Statistical modelling can be used as a proxy for such data but comparative modelling studies have rarely been undertaken for livestock populations. Widespread species, including livestock, can be difficult to model effectively due to complex spatial distributions that do not respond predictably to environmental gradients...
2017: PloS One
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