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Biosecurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812726/biocontrol-of-common-carp-in-australia-poses-risks-to-biosecurity
#1
Jackie Lighten, Cock van Oosterhout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811626/outbreak-and-genotyping-of-canine-distemper-virus-in-captive-siberian-tigers-and-red-pandas
#2
He Zhang, Fen Shan, Xia Zhou, Bing Li, Jun-Qiong Zhai, Shu-Zhan Zou, Meng-Fan Wu, Wu Chen, Shao-Lun Zhai, Man-Lin Luo
In this study, four canine distemper virus (CDV) strains were isolated from captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) during two separate CDV outbreaks in a zoo in Guangdong province, China. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype Asia-1. Prior to confirmation of CDV in Siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuated combination CDV vaccine was used among almost all carnivore animals except for red pandas in which another recombinant combination CDV vaccine was used...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808693/the-simulated-air-flow-pattern-around-a-moving-animal-transport-vehicle-as-the-basis-for-a-prospective-biosecurity-risk-assessment
#3
Jens Seedorf, Ralf-Gunther Schmidt
Research that investigates bioaerosol emissions from animal transport vehicles (ATVs) and their importance in the spread of harmful airborne agents while the ATVs travel on roads is limited. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of theoretically released particles from a moving ATV, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM was used to calculate the external and internal air flow fields with passive and forced ventilated openings of a common ATV moving at a speed of 80 km/h. In addition to a computed flow rate of approximately 40,000 m(3)/h crossing the interior of the ATV, the visualization of the trajectories has demonstrated distinct patterns of the spatial distribution of potentially released bioaerosols in the vicinity of the ATV...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806130/existential-risk-and-cost-effective-biosecurity
#4
Piers Millett, Andrew Snyder-Beattie
In the decades to come, advanced bioweapons could threaten human existence. Although the probability of human extinction from bioweapons may be low, the expected value of reducing the risk could still be large, since such risks jeopardize the existence of all future generations. We provide an overview of biotechnological extinction risk, make some rough initial estimates for how severe the risks might be, and compare the cost-effectiveness of reducing these extinction-level risks with existing biosecurity work...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804982/epidemiological-investigation-of-outbreaks-of-fowl-adenovirus-infections-in-commercial-chickens-in-china
#5
Y Niu, Q Sun, G Zhang, W Sun, X Liu, Y Xiao, Y Shang, S Liu
One hundred and five fowl adenovirus (FAdV) strains were isolated in China from 2015 to 2016 from poultry with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). Polymerase chain reactions determined that 68 were FAdV species C, five were FAdV species D, two were FAdV species E, and 30 contained two or more different FAdV strains. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated FAdV strains clustered into three major groups: FAdV-C, FAdV-D and FAdV-E. Based on a hexon gene sequencing analysis, these viruses were genetically related to FAdV-4, FAdV-7, FAdV-8b and FAdV-11, of which FAdV-4 was dominant (93% of the strains)...
August 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803007/associations-between-biosecurity-practices-and-bovine-digital-dermatitis-in-danish-dairy-herds
#6
Victor H S Oliveira, Jan T Sørensen, Peter T Thomsen
The relationship between biosecurity and digital dermatitis (DD) was evaluated in 8,269 cows from a convenience sample of 39 freestall dairy herds. The hypothesis was that poor implementation of biosecurity was associated with higher within-herd prevalence of DD. All lactating cows were scored as negative or positive for DD at the hind legs during milking in the milking parlor. Information about biosecurity was obtained through questionnaires addressed to farmers, on-farm observations, and information from the Danish Cattle Database (www...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799660/when-does-poor-governance-presage-biosecurity-risk
#7
Stephen E Lane, Anthony D Arthur, Christina Aston, Sam Zhao, Andrew P Robinson
Border inspection, and the challenge of deciding which of the tens of millions of consignments that arrive should be inspected, is a perennial problem for regulatory authorities. The objective of these inspections is to minimize the risk of contraband entering the country. As an example, for regulatory authorities in charge of biosecurity material, consignments of goods are classified before arrival according to their economic tariff number. This classification, perhaps along with other information, is used as a screening step to determine whether further biosecurity intervention, such as inspection, is necessary...
August 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798542/distribution-of-the-invasive-bryozoan-schizoporella-japonica-in-great-britain-and-ireland-and-a-review-of-its-european-distribution
#8
J Loxton, C A Wood, J D D Bishop, J S Porter, M Spencer Jones, C R Nall
The bryozoan Schizoporella japonica Ortmann (1890) was first recorded in European waters in 2010 and has since been reported from further locations in Great Britain (GB) and Norway. This paper provides a new earliest European record for the species from 2009, a first record from Ireland and presence and absence records from a total of 231 marinas and harbours across GB, Ireland, the Isle of Man, France and Portugal. This species is typically associated with human activity, including commercial and recreational vessels, aquaculture equipment, and both wave and tidal energy devices...
2017: Biological Invasions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796311/predicting-the-risk-of-biological-invasions-using-environmental-similarity-and-transport-network-connectedness
#9
Robert C Cope, Joshua V Ross, Talia A Wittmann, Michael J Watts, Phillip Cassey
Understanding the risk of biological invasions associated with particular transport pathways and source regions is critical for implementing effective biosecurity management. This may require both a model for physical connectedness between regions, and a measure of environmental similarity, so as to quantify the potential for a species to be transported from a given region and to survive at a destination region. We present an analysis of integrated biosecurity risk into Australia, based on flights and shipping data from each global geopolitical region, and an adaptation of the "range bagging" method to determine environmental matching between regions...
August 10, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780111/bulk-tank-milk-antibody-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-as-a-biosecurity-tool-for-detecting-dairy-herds-with-past-exposure-to-mycoplasma-bovis
#10
A M Parker, J K House, M S Hazelton, K L Bosward, J M Morton, P A Sheehy
In Australia, one of the biosecurity recommendations to help prevent the introduction of Mycoplasma bovis into a dairy herd is to use a PCR assay on bulk tank milk (BTM) samples to evaluate the M. bovis infection status of potential source herds. An alternative approach is to assess the immunological status of the herd with respect to previous exposure to M. bovis via the use of an ELISA that is commercially available for use on cattle milk and serum. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate factors potentially associated with variation in the ELISA BTM optical density coefficient (ODC%) in previously exposed herds, (2) evaluate the association between the proportion of cows that are ELISA positive and the BTM ELISA ODC%, (3) assess agreement between the BTM ELISA and PCR and culture, and (4) compare BTM ELISA ODC% between the "hospital" herd and the main lactating herd on the same farm...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770344/low-viral-doses-are-sufficient-to-infect-cottontail-rabbits-with-avian-influenza-a-virus
#11
J Jeffrey Root, Susan A Shriner, Jeremy W Ellis, Kaci K VanDalen, Heather J Sullivan
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have been reported in wild lagomorphs in environments where they share resources with waterfowl. Recent studies have conclusively shown that a North American lagomorph, cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.), become infected following exposure to IAVs and can shed significant quantities of virus. However, the minimum infectious dose and the efficiency of various routes of infection have not been evaluated. Thirty-six cottontail rabbits were used in a dose response study assessing both the oral and nasal routes of infection...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767358/monitoring-avian-influenza-viruses-from-chicken-carcasses-sold-at-markets-china-2016
#12
Xiaoxiao Mao, Jie Wu, Eric H Y Lau, Kit Ling Cheng, Zhifeng Zhong, Yinchao Song, Xunmin Ji, Lirong Zou, Changwen Ke, Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris, Hong Wang, Hui-Ling Yen
During 2016 in Guangzhou, China, we detected infectious avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in 39.8% of samples from chicken carcasses slaughtered at live poultry markets but none from carcasses supplied to supermarkets by facilities bypassing live poultry markets. Promoting supply chains with high biosecurity may reduce the risk for zoonotic AIV transmission.
October 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765219/genomic-dissection-of-an-icelandic-epidemic-of-respiratory-disease-in-horses-and-associated-zoonotic-cases
#13
Sigríður Björnsdóttir, Simon R Harris, Vilhjálmur Svansson, Eggert Gunnarsson, Ólöf G Sigurðardóttir, Kristina Gammeljord, Karen F Steward, J Richard Newton, Carl Robinson, Amelia R L Charbonneau, Julian Parkhill, Matthew T G Holden, Andrew S Waller
Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country's native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750852/assessment-of-biosecurity-and-control-measures-to-prevent-incursion-and-to-limit-spread-of-emerging-transboundary-animal-diseases-in-europe-an-expert-survey
#14
Anaïs Léger, Marco De Nardi, Robin Simons, Amie Adkin, Giuseppe Ru, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Katharina D C Stärk
Decision-makers and risk managers are often called upon to prioritise on and recommend suitable measures to prevent the risk of introduction and spread of pathogens. The main objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of experts in Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom concerning the importance, effectiveness, feasibility, costs and acceptability of selected biosecurity measures to prevent the introduction and limit the spread of rabies, blue tongue (BT) and classical swine fever (CSF). After identifying the most relevant measures by the project team, an expert knowledge elicitation was implemented through a questionnaire...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736873/standardised-molecular-diagnostic-tool-for-the-identification-of-cryptic-species-within-the-bemisia-tabaci-complex
#15
S Elfekih, W T Tay, K Gordon, L Court, P De Barro
BACKGROUND: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex harbours over 40 cryptic species that have been placed in 11 phylogenetically distinct clades based on the molecular characterisation of partial mitochondrial DNA COI (mtCOI) gene region. Four cryptic species are currently within the invasive clade i.e. 'MED', 'MEAM1', 'MEAM2' and IO'. Correct identification of these species is a critical step towards implementing reliable measures for plant biosecurity and border protection, however no standardised B...
July 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730367/prevalence-of-chromosomal-aberrations-in-argentinean-agricultural-workers
#16
Graciela Eugenia Bianco, Eva Suarez, Lauro Cazon, Teresita Beatriz de la Puente, Marcelo Rafael Benitez Ahrendts, Julio César De Luca
Little is known about biosecurity measures and toxic effects during pesticide application in the province of Jujuy, Argentina, particularly concerning the protective measures and mixture of pesticides used by rural workers. We carried out an observational study of agricultural workers from Jujuy (76 exposed subjects and 53 controls) to investigate the prevalence of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes as well as the activity level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in red blood cell erythrocytes. Whole blood samples (5 mL) were collected in heparinized Vacutainer tubes for cytogenetic analysis and erythrocyte cholinesterase activity determination according to Ellman's method...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727845/emergent-multisystemic-enterococcus-infection-threatens-endangered-christmas-island-reptile-populations
#17
Karrie Rose, Jessica Agius, Jane Hall, Paul Thompson, John-Sebastian Eden, Mukesh Srivastava, Brendan Tiernan, Cheryl Jenkins, David Phalen
Multisystemic infections with a morphologically unusual bacterium were first observed in captive critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) on Christmas Island in October 2014. Since then the infection was identified in another captive critically endangered lizard species, the blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) and two species of invasive geckos; the four clawed gecko (Gehyra mutilata) and Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), in a wide geographic range across the east side of the island...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#18
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719770/household-exposure-to-livestock-and-health-in-the-chililab-hdss-cohort-vietnam
#19
Sinh Dang-Xuan, Lauren E MacDonald, Janna M Schurer, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham-Duc
In Vietnam, pigs and poultry are predominantly produced by small-scale farmers, creating challenges for zoonotic disease management. The objective of this study was to characterize practices related to livestock and manure management and to measure association with 3 self-reported health symptoms (coughing, fever, and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting) in a region currently undergoing health transitions. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from a subset (N = 5520) of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System cohort in Chi Linh district, Vietnam...
July 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716629/characterization-of-novel-bacillus-strain-n31-from-mariculture-water-capable-of-halophilic-heterotrophic-nitrification-aerobic-denitrification
#20
Fei Huang, Luqing Pan, Na Lv, Xianming Tang
The development of an intensive aquaculture industry has been accompanied by increasing environmental impacts, especially nitrogen pollution. In this study, a novel halophilic bacterium capable of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from mariculture water and identified as Bacillus litoralis N31. The efficiency of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate removal by N31 were 86.3%, 89.3% and 89.4%, respectively, after a 48-h cultivation in sole N-source medium with initial nitrogen approximately 20 mg/L...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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