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Luís P Carmo, Liza R Nielsen, Lis Alban, Paulo M da Costa, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Ioannis Magouras
Reducing antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock is requested by Public Health authorities. Ideally, this should be achieved without jeopardizing production output or animal health and welfare. Thus, efficient measures must be identified and developed to target drivers of AMU. Veterinarians play a central role in the identification and implementation of such efficient interventions. Sixty-seven veterinarians with expertise in livestock production in Denmark, Portugal, and Switzerland participated in an expert opinion study aimed at investigating experiences and opinions of veterinarians about the driving forces and practices related to AMU in the main livestock sectors (broiler, dairy cattle, fattening/veal calf, and pig industry) of the aforementioned countries...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
T P Loch, M Faisal
Flavobacterial diseases are significant impediments to hatchery-based fishery conservation and aquaculture productivity worldwide. Recent studies revealed a multitude of novel flavobacteria within the reproductive fluids and unfertilized eggs of feral Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha broodstock, some of which were associated with systemic disease. Herein, embryonated eggs/fry from these broodstock were assayed for flavobacteria while in incubator stacks in three hatcheries over 2 years, as was the water entering hatchery incubators...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Megan A Schilling, Robab Katani, Sahar Memari, Meredith Cavanaugh, Joram Buza, Jessica Radzio-Basu, Fulgence N Mpenda, Melissa S Deist, Susan J Lamont, Vivek Kapur
Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kate Suzanne Hutson, Alexander Karlis Brazenor, David Brendan Vaughan, Alejandro Trujillo-González
Global expansion in fish production and trade of aquatic ornamental species requires advances in aquatic animal health management. Aquatic parasite cultures permit diverse research opportunities to understand parasite-host dynamics and are essential to validate the efficacy of treatments that could reduce infections in captive populations. Monogeneans are important pathogenic parasites of captured captive fishes and exhibit a single-host life cycle, which makes them amenable to in vivo culture. Continuous cultures of oviparous monogenean parasites provide a valuable resource of eggs, oncomiracidia (larvae) and adult parasites for use in varied ecological and applied scientific research...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Shin-Hee Kim
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Yanhong Ji, Tao Liu, Yingying Du, Xiaole Cui, Qingzhong Yu, Zhengxiang Wang, Jinjin Zhang, Yu Li, Qiyun Zhu
Administration of vaccines combined with the good management and strict biosecurity is an effective way for Newcastle disease (ND) control. However, vaccine failure is continuously reported in some countries mainly because the antigenic difference between the used vaccine and field strains even they are of one serotype. Therefore, development of antigen-matched ND vaccines is needed to improve the vaccine efficacy in birds. In this study, we introduced four site mutations, K1756A, D1881A, K1917A and E1954Q, respectively, into the large protein gene of the virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) G7 strain using reverse genetics technology...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Vera Haapala, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Nella Vähänikkilä, Jani Halkilahti, Henri Simonen, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki, Tiina Autio
Mycoplasma bovis infections are responsible for substantial economic losses in the cattle industry, have significant welfare effects and increase antibiotic use. The pathogen is often introduced into naive herds through healthy carrier animals. In countries with a low prevalence of M. bovis, transmission from less common sources can be better explored as the pathogen has limited circulation compared to high prevalence populations. In this study, we describe how M. bovis was introduced into two closed and adequately biosecure dairy herds through the use of contaminated semen during artificial insemination (AI), leading to mastitis outbreak in both herds...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Fangyuan Guo, Dongxue Huang, Wei Zhang, Qinying Yan, Qingliang Yang, Yan Yang, Hanbing Li, Junxian Yun, Weiyong Hong, Gensheng Yang
Elastomers are largely developed for biomedical applications; however, little is reported on them although they are an effective and controllable delivery system for proteins. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics, biosecurity, and hypoglycemic effect of an insulin-loaded elastomer formulation in diabetic rats. Cylindrical insulin-loaded elastomers were fabricated using a UV cross-linking process based on methyl-acrylic-star-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) cyclic ester and methyl-bi-acrylic-poly(ε-caprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol-b-ε-caprolactone) (CLPEGCLMA)...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Volker Moennig, Paul Becher
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most important infectious diseases of cattle with respect to animal health and economic impact. Its stealthy nature, prolonged transient infections, and the presence of persistently infected (PI) animals as efficient reservoirs were responsible for its ubiquitous presence in cattle populations worldwide. Whereas it was initially thought that the infection was impossible to control, effective systematic control strategies have emerged over the last 25 years. The common denominators of all successful control programs were systematic control, removal of PI animals, movement controls for infected herds, strict biosecurity, and surveillance...
March 8, 2018: Pathogens
Gary Ackerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Nature
Matthew J Gray, Jennifer A Spatz, E Davis Carter, Christian M Yarber, Rebecca P Wilkes, Debra L Miller
Human-mediated disease outbreaks due to poor biosecurity practices when processing animals in wild populations have been suspected. We tested whether not changing nitrile gloves between processing wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles and co-housing individuals increased pathogen transmission and subsequent diseased-induced mortality caused by the emerging pathogen, ranavirus. We found that not changing gloves between processing infected and uninfected tadpoles resulted in transmission of ranavirus and increased the risk of mortality of uninfected tadpoles by 30X...
2018: PloS One
J H Kim, J-H Jang, S-W Yoon, J Y Noh, M-J Ahn, Y Kim, D G Jeong, H K Kim
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a causative agent of respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle and calves. BCoV infection was also evident in captive wild ruminants. Recently, water deer are recognized as the most common wildlife to approach farmhouses and livestock barns in Korea. Therefore, we investigated 77 nasal swab samples from non-captive wild water deer (Hydropotes inermis) between November 2016 and September 2017 and identified three samples positive for coronavirus, indicating potential for respiratory shedding...
March 5, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yiqiang Yu, Hua Lu, Jiao Sun
Magnesium (Mg) based materials are the focus of research for use as degradable materials in orthopedics and cranio-maxillofacial surgery. However, corrosion rate control and biosecurity are still the key questions that need solving prior to their clinical applications. In the present study, as-rolled high-purity magnesium (HP Mg, 99.99 wt.%) screws were implanted in rabbit tibiae for over 52 weeks in order to investigate their long-term in vivo evolution and the local and systemic effects of their degradation products...
March 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jannigje G Kers, Francisca C Velkers, Egil A J Fischer, Gerben D A Hermes, J A Stegeman, Hauke Smidt
The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
John I Alawneh, Christopher R Parke, Eduardo J Lapuz, Jose E David, Voltaire G Basinang, Augusto S Baluyut, Tamsin S Barnes, Edwin C Villar, Minnie L Lopez, Joanne Meers, Patrick J Blackall
A cross-sectional study of lungs from 1,887 randomly selected pigs from 471 farms from two provinces in the Philippines was carried out to estimate the prevalence of gross pathological lesions, identify potential risk factors and spatial clustering associated with high lung or pleurisy score farms. Lungs from pigs were scored at slaughter. Interviews with the farm managers were conducted to collect information about farm management and biosecurity practices. Of lungs examined, 48% had a lung score above 6 (maximum was 55) and 22% showed pleurisy...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Hector Argüello, Edgar G Manzanilla, Helen Lynch, Kavita Walia, Finola C Leonard, John Egan, Geraldine Duffy, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Among the zoonotic pathogens affecting pigs, Salmonella stands out due to the high number of human cases linked to pork consumption. In the last two decades many countries have put considerable effort into the control of the infection by surveillance and control strategies on farm. Despite this effort, many herds still have a high Salmonella prevalence and they require guidance to address this problem. The present study, using the serological surveillance data of finishing pigs from the Irish National pig Salmonella Control Programme, aimed to highlight factors associated with increased risk or that might mitigate Salmonella occurrence on farm...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Rosemirta Birungi, Peter Lule, Lawrence Mayega, Kanar Dizyee
Pig production in peri-urban smallholder value chains in Uganda is severely constrained by impact of disease, particularly African swine fever (ASF), and the economic consequences of an inefficient pig value chain. Interventions in the form of biosecurity to control ASF disease outbreaks and pig business hub models to better link smallholder farmers to pig markets have the potential to address the constraints. However, there is a dearth of evidence of the effects of the interventions on performance and distribution of outcomes along the pig value chain...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kennedy Mwacalimba, Annette Litster
Since March 2015, canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 has caused widespread outbreaks in dogs across the USA. The effects of local H3N2 outbreaks on veterinary practices were investigated using an online interface and followed with phone calls to respondents when necessary. An outbreak was defined as confirmed diagnosis of H3N2 by either PCR or serology in at least four dogs. Of 30 practices invited to participate, five met the entry criteria: at least one documented H3N2 outbreak in the previous 12 months, a predominantly (≥70%) small animal caseload, and adequate financial records to complete the survey...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Gwij Stegen, Sergé Bogaerts, Stefano Canessa, Sebastian Steinfartz, Nico Janssen, Wilbert Bosman, Frank Pasmans, An Martel
Lack of disease spill-over between adjacent populations has been associated with habitat fragmentation and the absence of population connectivity. We here present a case which describes the absence of the spill-over of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) between two connected subpopulations of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra). Based on neutrally evolving microsatellite loci, both subpopulations were shown to form a single genetic cluster, suggesting a shared origin and/or recent gene flow...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
David W Shanafelt, C Perrings
The 2001 UK foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic marked a change in global FMD management, focusing less on trade isolation than on biosecurity within countries where FMD is endemic. Post 2001 policy calls for the isolation of disease-free zones in FMD-endemic countries, while increasing the opportunities for trade. The impact of the change on disease risk has yet to be tested. In this paper, we estimate an empirical model of disease risk that tests for the impact of trade volumes before and after 2001, controlling for biosecurity measures...
February 27, 2018: EcoHealth
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