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Biosecurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203367/efficacy-of-washing-and-disinfection-in-cattle-markets-in-ireland
#1
Jarlath T O Connor, Tracy A Clegg, Simon J More
BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported on the effectiveness of the washing and disinfection methods used in cattle markets in Ireland. Purchasing cattle into recipient herds poses a high biosecurity risk due to the possibility of introducing disease. In Ireland, livestock markets are an important intermediary in the movement of cattle to new herds. Thus disease control strategies need to consider the disease risk associated with moving livestock through markets. Some cattle are also moved directly from markets for slaughter at abattoirs...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192745/accepted-monitoring-or-endured-quarantine-ebola-contacts-perceptions-in-senegal
#2
Alice Desclaux, Dioumel Badji, Albert Gautier Ndione, Khoudia Sow
During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, transmission chains were controlled through contact tracing, i.e., identification and follow-up of people exposed to Ebola cases. WHO recommendations for daily check-ups of physical symptoms with social distancing for 21 days were unevenly applied and sometimes interpreted as quarantine. Criticisms arose regarding the use of coercion and questioned contact tracing on ethical grounds. This article aims to analyze contact cases' perceptions and acceptance of contact monitoring at the field level...
February 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174561/a-framework-for-the-evaluation-of-biosecurity-commercial-regulatory-and-scientific-impacts-of-plant-viruses-and-viroids-identified-by-ngs-technologies
#3
Sebastien Massart, Thierry Candresse, José Gil, Christophe Lacomme, Lukas Predajna, Maja Ravnikar, Jean-Sébastien Reynard, Artemis Rumbou, Pasquale Saldarelli, Dijana Škorić, Eeva J Vainio, Jari P T Valkonen, Hervé Vanderschuren, Christina Varveri, Thierry Wetzel
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have generated huge new opportunities for discovering and diagnosing plant viruses and viroids. Plant virology has undoubtedly benefited from these new methodologies, but at the same time, faces now substantial bottlenecks, namely the biological characterization of the newly discovered viruses and the analysis of their impact at the biosecurity, commercial, regulatory, and scientific levels. This paper proposes a scaled and progressive scientific framework for efficient biological characterization and risk assessment when a previously known or a new plant virus is detected by next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160160/the-unexpected-discovery-of-brucella-abortus-buck-19-vaccine-in-goats-from-ecuador-underlines-the-importance-of-biosecurity-measures
#4
Jorge Ron-Román, Dirk Berkvens, Daniela Barzallo-Rivadeneira, Alexandra Angulo-Cruz, Pablo González-Andrade, Elizabeth Minda-Aluisa, Washington Benítez-Ortíz, Jef Brandt, Richar Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Claude Saegerman
Very few, mostly old, and only preliminary serological studies of brucellosis in goats exist in Ecuador. In order to assess the current epidemiological situation, we performed a cross-sectional serological study in the goat populations of Carchi (n = 160 animals), Pichincha (n = 224 animals), and Loja provinces (n = 2024 animals). Only two positive serological results (RB negative and SAT-EDTA ≥400 IU/ml) were obtained in lactating goats from the same farm in Quito (Pichincha province). Additionally, milk was sampled from 220 animals in Pichincha province...
February 3, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126601/rapid-screening-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-in-clinical-elephant-trunk-wash-samples
#5
Roberta J Magnuson, Lyndsey M Linke, Ramiro Isaza, Mo D Salman
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can infect and be transmitted between elephants and humans. In elephants, the 'gold standard' reference test for detection of tuberculosis is culture, which takes a minimum of eight weeks for results and has limited sensitivity. A screening test that is rapid, easily implemented, and accurate is needed to aid in diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants. Ninety-nine clinical trunk wash samples obtained from 33 elephants were utilized to validate three molecular extraction techniques followed by a polymerase chain reaction for detection of M...
January 3, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116869/investigation-of-smallholder-farmer-biosecurity-and-implications-for-sustainable-foot-and-mouth-disease-control-in-cambodia
#6
J R Young, S Suon, L Olmo, C Bun, C Hok, K Ashley, R D Bush, P A Windsor
In Cambodia, the majority of the population is rural and reliant on subsistence agriculture, with cattle raised by smallholder farmers using traditional practices, resulting in low productivity and vulnerability to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). As FMD causes deleterious impacts on rural livelihoods, known FMD risk factors were reviewed, using knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) surveys of smallholders (n = 240) from four regions. The study aimed to understand current biosecurity threats to smallholder livelihoods and investigate the hypothesis that smallholder farmers practising FMD risk management should be associated with higher incomes from cattle...
January 24, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116526/genetic-properties-and-pathogenicity-of-a-novel-reassortant-h10n5-influenza-virus-from-wild-birds
#7
Yane Jia, Jiayun Yang, Zhengxiang Wang, Yingying Du, Jie Cui, Liang Wang, Fengfeng Guo, Maijuan Yang, Shufang Han, Qiyun Zhu
In this study, we analyzed the genome of a H10N5 influenza virus from wild birds. This virus was identified as a novel reassortant virus with internal genes from multiple subtypes and of distinct origins. After sequential passage in mice, mouse-adapted viruses bearing mutations PB2-E627K and HA-G218E were generated. These viruses caused dramatic body weight loss and death, and also replicated in mouse brain, suggesting that the pathogenicity of low pathogenic H10N5 in chickens can be enhanced after passage in mammals...
January 23, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112339/-salmonella-enterica-a-review-or-the-trilogy-agent-host-and-environment-and-its-importance-in-chile
#8
Marlen Barreto, Mario Castillo-Ruiz, Patricio Retamal
Salmonella enterica is a major foodborne pathogen worldwide, being the main cause of outbreaks by food consumption in Chile. Despite all efforts deployed for control and prevention, the high incidence in people still persists, with several factors that could be influencing the epidemiological behavior of this infection. The objective of this review is to identify these factors belonging to the biological agent, the human host and the environment, which probably have a greater importance in Chile. Thus, priority areas for research of S...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088420/exploring-expert-opinion-on-the-practicality-and-effectiveness-of-biosecurity-measures-on-dairy-farms-in-the-united-kingdom-using-choice-modeling
#9
Orla Shortall, Martin Green, Marnie Brennan, Wendela Wapenaar, Jasmeet Kaler
Biosecurity, defined as a series of measures aiming to stop disease-causing agents entering or leaving an area where farm animals are present, is very important for the continuing economic viability of the United Kingdom dairy sector, and for animal welfare. This study gathered expert opinion from farmers, veterinarians, consultants, academics, and government and industry representatives on the practicality and effectiveness of different biosecurity measures on dairy farms. The study used best-worst scaling, a technique that allows for greater discrimination between choices and avoids the variability in interpretation associated with other methods, such as Likert scales and ranking methods...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080994/global-food-and-fibre-security-threatened-by-current-inefficiencies-in-fungal-identification
#10
REVIEW
Pedro W Crous, Johannes Z Groenewald, Bernard Slippers, Michael J Wingfield
Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity, life cycle stages and population structures. The majority of current fungal species descriptions lack even the most basic genetic data that could address at least some of these issues. Such information is essential for accurate fungal identifications, to link critical metadata and to understand the real and potential impact of fungal pathogens on production and natural ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077064/an-internet-based-bioinformatics-toolkit-for-plant-biosecurity-diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-viruses-and-viroids
#11
Roberto A Barrero, Kathryn R Napier, James Cunnington, Lia Liefting, Sandi Keenan, Rebekah A Frampton, Tamas Szabo, Simon Bulman, Adam Hunter, Lisa Ward, Mark Whattam, Matthew I Bellgard
BACKGROUND: Detection and preventing entry of exotic viruses and viroids at the border is critical for protecting plant industries trade worldwide. Existing post entry quarantine screening protocols rely on time-consuming biological indicators and/or molecular assays that require knowledge of infecting viral pathogens. Plants have developed the ability to recognise and respond to viral infections through Dicer-like enzymes that cleave viral sequences into specific small RNA products. Many studies reported the use of a broad range of small RNAs encompassing the product sizes of several Dicer enzymes involved in distinct biological pathways...
January 11, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074376/synthetic-biology-genome-editing-and-the-risk-of-bioterrorism
#12
Marko Ahteensuu
The SynBioSecurity argument says that synthetic biology introduces new risks of intentional misuse of synthetic pathogens and that, therefore, there is a need for extra regulations and oversight. This paper provides an analysis of the argument, sets forth a new version of it, and identifies three developments that raise biosecurity risks compared to the situation earlier. The developments include (1) a spread of the required know-how, (2) improved availability of the techniques, instruments and biological parts, and (3) new technical possibilities such as "resurrecting" disappeared pathogens...
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068184/antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-flavobacterium-psychrophilum-isolates-from-the-great-lakes-basin-michigan
#13
Danielle Van Vliet, Thomas P Loch, Peter Smith, Mohamed Faisal
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a serious pathogen of salmonids worldwide, a matter that is compounded by the lack of effective vaccine preparations. As a result, biosecurity measures and antimicrobial agents remain the only available methods to control diseases caused by F. psychrophilum. It is feared that antimicrobial use may have led to the development of F. psychrophilum strains with reduced susceptibility. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 50 F...
January 9, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060913/analysis-of-the-spatial-organization-of-pastures-as-a-contact-network-implications-for-potential-disease-spread-and-biosecurity-in-livestock-france-2010
#14
Aurore Palisson, Aurélie Courcoul, Benoit Durand
The use of pastures is part of common herd management practices for livestock animals, but contagion between animals located on neighbouring pastures is one of the major modes of infectious disease transmission between herds. At the population level, this transmission is strongly constrained by the spatial organization of pastures. The aim of this study was to answer two questions: (i) is the spatial configuration of pastures favourable to the spread of infectious diseases in France? (ii) would biosecurity measures allow decreasing this vulnerability? Based on GIS data, the spatial organization of pastures was represented using networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057035/control-and-eradication-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-type-2-using-a-modified-live-type-2-vaccine-in-combination-with-a-load-close-homogenise-model-an-area-elimination-study
#15
Poul H Rathkjen, Johannes Dall
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant animal and economic losses worldwide. The infection is difficult to control and PRRSV elimination at local level requires coordinated intervention among multiple farms. This case study describes a successful elimination of PRRSV from all 12 herds on the Horne Peninsula, Denmark, using a combination of load, close, homogenise (LCH) using PRRSV type 2 modified-live vaccine, optimised pig flow, and'10 Golden Rules' (10GR) for biosecurity management...
January 5, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052113/zoonoses-in-veterinary-students-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
Antonio Sánchez, Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Juan Tatay-Dualde, Ana Paterna, Christian de la Fe, Ángel Gómez-Martín, Juan C Corrales, Antonio Contreras
BACKGROUND: Veterinary students face diverse potential sources of zoonotic pathogens since the first years of their academic degree. Such sources include different animal species and pathologic materials which are used at university facilities as well as commercial clinics, farms and other external facilities. OBJECTIVES: The present study utilizes a systematic review of the literature to identify zoonoses described in veterinary students. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science and PubMed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051966/operational-perspective-of-lessons-learned-from-the-ebola-crisis
#17
Zygmunt F Dembek, Jerry L Mothershead, Tesema Chekol, David B Myers, Ronald G Meris, Dana Meranus, Aiguo Wu
Given its potential to quickly spread internationally and initially uncontrollable nature, the 2014 to 2015 Ebola outbreak has implications for global biosecurity. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Technical Reachback provided near real-time analysis and recommendations as outbreak-relevant events unfolded. Our review of often-conflicting or incomplete information was required to answer policy decision makers about the expanding Ebola epidemic, and enable the formulation of best-possible U.S. Department of Defense and Government response...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039426/yeast-an-overlooked-component-of-bactrocera-tryoni-diptera-tephritidae-larval-gut-microbiota
#18
Ania T Deutscher, Olivia L Reynolds, Toni A Chapman
Yeasts, often in hydrolyzed form, are key ingredients in the larval and adult diets of tephritid fruit fly colonies. However, very little is known about the presence or role of yeasts in the diets of tephritid fruit flies in nature. Previous studies have identified bacteria but not detected yeasts in the gut of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), one of Australia's most economically damaging insect pests of horticultural crops and of significant biosecurity concern domestically and internationally...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025658/microorganisms-good-or-evil-mirri-provides-biosecurity-awareness
#19
David Smith, Dunja Martin, Tatyana Novossiolova
The life-science community is a key stakeholder in the effort to ensure that the advances in biotechnology are not misused. Unfortunately, to date, the engagement of life scientists with issues of biosecurity has been limited. Microorganisms have been harnessed for the benefit of humankind but in the wrong hands could be used in direct or indirect acts against humans, livestock, crops, food, water infrastructure and other economically valuable entities. The Microbial Resources Research Infrastructure in its preparatory phase has addressed the topic implementing a code of conduct as part of its programme of prevention of malicious use and continues to work with the international community to raise awareness of best practice to avoid misuse of microorganisms...
December 26, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025479/housing-of-cull-sows-in-the-hours-before-transport-to-the-abattoir-an-initial-description-of-sow-behaviour-while-waiting-in-a-transfer-vehicle
#20
Mette S Herskin, Katrine K Fogsgaard, Ditte Erichsen, Mia Bonnichsen, Charlotte Gaillard, Karen Thodberg
In modern pig production, sows are transported by road to abattoirs. For reasons of biosecurity, commercial trucks may have limited access to farms. According to Danish regulations, sows can be kept in stationary transfer vehicles away from the farm for up to two hours before being loaded onto the commercial truck. We aimed to describe the behaviour of sows in transfer vehicles. This preliminary, exploratory study included data from 11 loads from a total of six Danish sow herds. Selection of animals to be slaughtered was done by the farmers...
December 22, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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