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Biosecurity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786526/application-of-multiple-behaviour-change-models-to-identify-determinants-of-farmers-biosecurity-attitudes-and-behaviours
#1
I F Richens, J Houdmont, W Wapenaar, O Shortall, J Kaler, H O'Connor, M L Brennan
It has been recognised that few cattle farmers undertake biosecurity practices on their farms. Approaches that take into consideration individuals' preparedness for change, alongside beliefs thought to motivate the enactment of certain behaviours, may provide a framework for actuating tangible change. The aim of this study was to use a combination of behaviour change models to link beliefs with behaviour and identify possible key interventions to improve the uptake of biosecurity measures by dairy cattle farmers in Great Britain (GB)...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785480/potential-treatment-options-in-a-post-antibiotic-era
#2
R R Bragg, C M Meyburgh, J-Y Lee, M Coetzee
Following the Golden Age of antibiotic discovery in the previous century, the rate of antibiotic discovery has plummeted during the past 50 years while the incidence of antimicrobial resistance is ever-increasing. Presently, humankind is forced to address a major public health threat in the form of multiple drug resistance and urgent action is required to halt the advent of a post-antibiotic era. This chapter aims to draw the attention to the escalating global crisis of antimicrobial resistance fueled by the irresponsible use of antibiotics in healthcare and animal production sectors...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784074/effects-of-fenbendazole-impregnated-feed-and-topical-moxidectin-during-quarantine-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Scott W Korte, Craig L Franklin, Rebecca A Dorfmeyer, Aaron C Ericsson
To protect the biosecurity of research rodent colonies, research institutions frequently require a quarantine period for live animals transferred into their facilities. Quarantine practices often include antibiotic and antiparasitic treatment with drugs such as fenbendazole and macrolide lactones. The influence of these compounds on the resident gut microbiota of mice is unknown, and any effects might subsequently affect model reproducibility. To test the influence of standard quarantine procedures on the composition of the microbiota, C57BL/6 mice, purchased from 2 different commercial suppliers, were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 12) by vendor and treated with fenbendazole-supplemented feed, topical moxidectin, both treatments, or no treatment (control), according to our institution's standard treatment regimen and duration...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781424/review-analysis-and-impact-of-co-circulating-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-in-bangladesh
#4
Rokshana Parvin, Jahan Ara Begum, Mohammed Nooruzzaman, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Almost the full range of 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been detected either in waterfowl, land-based poultry or in the environment in Bangladesh. AIV infections in Bangladesh affected a wide range of host species of terrestrial poultry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 and low pathogenic AI H9N2 were found to co-circulate and be well entrenched in the poultry population, which has caused serious damage to the poultry industry since 2007...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778187/sensitivity-of-african-swine-fever-virus-asfv-to-heat-alkalinity-and-peroxide-treatment-in-presence-or-absence-of-porcine-plasma
#5
I D Kalmar, A B Cay, M Tignon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly resistant viraemic virus with devastating socio-economic impact. Its present epidemiology in Eastern Europe and Russia warrants increased biosecurity measures in Western Europe. This includes proactive precautions on traffic of pork products within and between areas that are officially free from ASF. Namely, delayed notification of clinical signs or introduction of a low-virulent strain in ASF-free areas could result in presence of ASFV in veterinary inspected pork and pork by-products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770591/surf-an-innovative-framework-in-biosecurity-and-animal-health-surveillance-evaluation
#6
Petra Muellner, Jonathan Watts, Paul Bingham, Mark Bullians, Brendan Gould, Anjali Pande, Tim Riding, Paul Stevens, Daan Vink, Katharina Dc Stärk
Surveillance for biosecurity hazards is being conducted by the New Zealand Competent Authority, the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to support New Zealand's biosecurity system. Surveillance evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance life cycle, as it provides a means to identify and correct problems and to sustain and enhance the existing strengths of a surveillance system. The surveillance evaluation Framework (SurF) presented here was developed to provide a generic framework within which the MPI biosecurity surveillance portfolio, and all of its components, can be consistently assessed...
May 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770325/linking-supply-chain-governance-and-biosecurity-in-the-context-of-hpai-control-in-western-java-a-value-chain-perspective
#7
Dikky Indrawan, Karl M Rich, Peter van Horne, Arief Daryanto, Henk Hogeveen
Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA), focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767154/husbandry-practices-and-gut-health-outcomes-in-weaned-piglets-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Balachandar Jayaraman, Charles M Nyachoti
The immediate post-weaning period is one of the most stressful phases in a pig's life, and during this period, piglets are usually exposed to environmental, social and psychological stressors which have direct or indirect effects on gut health and overall growth performance. In this review, the impact of husbandry practices on gut health outcomes and performance of piglets is discussed. Husbandry practices in the swine barn generally include nutrition and management practices, maintenance of hygienic standards and disease prevention protocols, and animal welfare considerations...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765021/prospective-surveillance-for-influenza-virus-in-chinese-swine-farms
#9
Benjamin D Anderson, Mai-Juan Ma, Guo-Lin Wang, Zhen-Qiang Bi, Bing Lu, Xian-Jun Wang, Chuang-Xin Wang, Shan-Hui Chen, Yan-Hua Qian, Shao-Xia Song, Min Li, Teng Zhao, Meng-Na Wu, Laura K Borkenhagen, Wu-Chun Cao, Gregory C Gray
Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762053/factors-associated-with-salmonella-prevalence-in-u-s-swine-grower-finisher-operations-2012
#10
Kathe E Bjork, Victoria Fields, Lindsey P Garber, Christine A Kopral
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U...
May 15, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761571/frequency-of-shedding-of-respiratory-pathogens-in-horses-recently-imported-to-the-united-states
#11
Fauna Leah Smith, Johanna L Watson, Sharon J Spier, Isabelle Kilcoyne, Samantha Mapes, Claudia Sonder, Nicola Pusterla
BACKGROUND: Imported horses that have undergone recent long distance transport might represent a serious risk for spreading infectious respiratory pathogens into populations of horses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of shedding of respiratory pathogens in recently imported horses. ANIMALS: All imported horses with signed owner consent (n = 167) entering a USDA quarantine for contagious equine metritis from October 2014 to June 2016 were enrolled in the study...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758045/the-microbial-killing-capacity-of-aqueous-and-gaseous-ozone-on-different-surfaces-contaminated-with-dairy-cattle-manure
#12
Ameer Megahed, Brian Aldridge, James Lowe
A high reactivity and leaving no harmful residues make ozone an effective disinfectant for farm hygiene and biosecurity. Our objectives were therefore to (1) characterize the killing capacity of aqueous and gaseous ozone at different operational conditions on dairy cattle manure-based pathogens (MBP) contaminated different surfaces (plastic, metal, nylon, rubber, and wood); (2) determine the effect of microbial load on the killing capacity of aqueous ozone. In a crossover design, 14 strips of each material were randomly assigned into 3 groups, treatment (n = 6), positive-control (n = 6), and negative-control (n = 2)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755989/assessing-biosecurity-risks-for-the-introduction-and-spread-of-diseases-among-commercial-sheep-properties-in-new-south-wales-australia-using-foot-and-mouth-disease-as-a-case-study
#13
Jake Fountain, Robert Woodgate, Luzia Rast, Marta Hernández-Jover
Sheep production systems are a major industry in Australia, with a gross value of roughly $4.66 billion; 87.3% of which is attributable to export markets. Exotic diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are a potential threat to the viability of Australia's export market. Previous outbreaks of FMD in developed countries, and challenges in the management of onshore biosecurity, signify the importance of on-farm biosecurity in controlling disease transmission. This study aims to investigate the risk of disease introduction and spread among New South Wales (NSW) sheep properties using FMD as a case study and draw recommendation for the industry...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755987/low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-exposure-risk-assessment-in-australian-commercial-chicken-farms
#14
Angela Bullanday Scott, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
This study investigated the pathways of exposure to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus among Australian commercial chicken farms and estimated the likelihood of this exposure occurring using scenario trees and a stochastic modeling approach following the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk assessment. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature and an on-farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 among Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales and Queensland...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755727/antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-e-coli-isolated-from-raw-cow-milk-and-fresh-fruit-juice-in-mekelle-tigray-ethiopia
#15
Haftay Abraha Tadesse, Netsenet Berhe Gidey, Kidane Workelule, Hagos Hailu, Seyfe Gidey, Abrha Bsrat, Habtamu Taddele
Aim: Foodborne illnesses represent a public health problem in developed and developing countries. They cause great suffering and are transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans and circulate in the global environment . E. coli are among them, causing a major public health problem. The aim of this study was therefore to study the antimicrobial resistance profile of E. coli from raw cow milk and fruit juice. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2016 to June 2017 on 258 samples collected from milk shops ( n = 86), dairy farms ( n = 86), and fruit juice ( n = 86) in different subcities of Mekelle...
2018: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755187/using-a-computer-simulation-model-to-examine-the-impact-of-biosecurity-measures-during-a-facility-level-outbreak-of-equine-influenza
#16
Kelsey L Spence, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Amy L Greer
On-farm biosecurity measures are an important part of a control plan to minimize the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, such as equine influenza, in an equine facility. It can be challenging, however, to evaluate the efficacy of biosecurity measures under field conditions. We used an agent-based computer simulation model to describe the impact of: i) preventive vaccination; ii) reduced horse-to-horse contact; and iii) a combination of vaccination and reduced contact during an outbreak of equine influenza in a simulated horse facility...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753469/isolation-of-mycoplasma-spp-and-serological-responses-in-bulls-prior-to-and-following-their-introduction-into-mycoplasma-bovis-infected-dairy-herds
#17
M S Hazelton, J M Morton, K L Bosward, P A Sheehy, A M Parker, C J Dwyer, P G Niven, J K House
With the common use of bulls for breeding following a period of artificial insemination in seasonally bred dairy herds, it is important to consider the potential role of the bull in transmission of Mycoplasma spp. within and between herds. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in a population of bulls before and after use in Mycoplasma bovis-infected herds. The frequency of subclinical infection was also measured serologically postbreeding, and the association of Mycoplasma spp. on semen quality was evaluated...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753340/parasite-dispersal-from-the-ornamental-goldfish-trade
#18
Alejandro Trujillo-González, Joy A Becker, Kate S Hutson
Goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, are immensely popular ornamental cyprinid fish, traded in more than 100 countries. For more than 500 years, human translocation has facilitated the spread of goldfish globally, which has enabled numerous and repeated introductions of parasite taxa that infect them. The parasite fauna assemblage of goldfish is generally well documented, but few studies provide evidence of parasite coinvasion following the release of goldfish. This review provides a comprehensive synopsis of parasites that infect goldfish in farmed, aquarium-held, native, and invasive populations globally and summarises evidence for the cointroduction and coinvasion of goldfish parasites...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752353/keepers-urged-to-bee-aware-of-hive-disease
#19
(no author information available yet)
Recent outbreaks of European foulbrood in honey bee colonies emphasise the importance of good hive biosecurity, as Georgina Mills reports.
May 12, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747454/serological-evidence-for-influenza-a-virus-exposure-in-wild-birds-in-trinidad-tobago
#20
Arianne Brown Jordan, Darshan Narang, Steve C Essen, Sharon M Brookes, Ian H Brown, Christopher Oura
Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection...
May 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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