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Suho Ryu, Chulmin Joo
We present a novel design approach for a binary phase mask with depth-of-focus (DoF) extension ability. Our method considers that the binarized version of an axisymmetric continuous phase pupil generates twin-intensity profiles that are symmetric with respect to the focal plane, each of which resembles the focal behavior of its continuous original. The DoF extension is realized by repositioning and coherently summing the twin foci to achieve an elongated focus along the axial direction. The shift of the two foci towards the focal plane can be handled by superimposing the defocus term in the continuous pupil function...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Gabry W Mies, Karin J H Verweij, Jorien L Treur, Lannie Ligthart, Iryna O Fedko, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma, Jacqueline M Vink
BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental factors contribute about equally to alcohol-related phenotypes in adulthood. In the present study, we examined whether more stress at home or low satisfaction with life might be associated with heavier drinking or more alcohol-related problems in individuals with a high genetic susceptibility to alcohol use. METHODS: Information on polygenic scores and drinking behavior was available in 6705 adults (65% female; 18-83 years) registered with the Netherlands Twin Register...
December 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Guodong Li, Sergey I Morozov, Qingjie Zhang, Qi An, Pengcheng Zhai, G Jeffrey Snyder
The conversion efficiency (zT) of thermoelectric (TE) materials has been enhanced over the last two decades, but their engineering applications are hindered by the poor mechanical properties, especially the low strength at working conditions. Here we used density functional theory (DFT) to show a strength enhancement in the TE semiconductor InSb arising from the twin boundaries (TBs). This strengthening effect leads to an 11% enhancement of the ideal shear strength in flawless crystalline InSb where this theoretical strength is considered as an upper bound on the attainable strength for a realistic material...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Gang Chen, Paul A Taylor, Simone P Haller, Katharina Kircanski, Joel Stoddard, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman, Robert W Cox
Intraclass correlation (ICC) is a reliability metric that gauges similarity when, for example, entities are measured under similar, or even the same, well-controlled conditions, which in MRI applications include runs/sessions, twins, parent/child, scanners, sites, and so on. The popular definitions and interpretations of ICC are usually framed statistically under the conventional ANOVA platform. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of ICC analysis in its prior usage in neuroimaging, and we show that the standard ANOVA framework is often limited, rigid, and inflexible in modeling capabilities...
December 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Åshild Bjørnerem, Xiaofang Wang, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, John L Hopper, Roger Zebaze, Ego Seeman
After menopause, remodeling becomes unbalanced and rapid. Each of the many remodeling transactions deposits less bone than it resorbed, producing microstructural deterioration. Trabecular bone is said to be lost more rapidly than cortical bone. However, because 80% of the skeleton is cortical, we hypothesized that most menopause-related bone loss and changes in bone microstructure are cortical, not trabecular in origin, and are the result of intracortical remodeling. Distal tibial and distal radial microstructure were quantified during 3...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Annick P Baur, Cyril Cayron, Roland E Logé
A significant variant selection is reported in isothermal martensite formed on the surface of an Fe-30% Ni sample. The selection phenomenon is modelled using different descriptions of the martensitic phase transformation. In particular, matrices based on the phenomenological theory of martensite crystallography, the Jaswon and Wheeler distortion, and the continuous face centred cubic-body centred cubic distortion are compared. All descriptions allow good predictions of the variant selection. However, the Jaswon and Wheeler distortion and the continuous distortion better account for other features of the surface martensite, such as the {225}γ habit plane and the accommodation mechanism by twin-related variant pairing...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Alan R Sanders, Gary W Beecham, Shengru Guo, Khytam Dawood, Gerulf Rieger, Judith A Badner, Elliot S Gershon, Ritesha S Krishnappa, Alana B Kolundzija, Jubao Duan, Pablo V Gejman, J Michael Bailey, Eden R Martin
Family and twin studies suggest that genes play a role in male sexual orientation. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of male sexual orientation on a primarily European ancestry sample of 1,077 homosexual men and 1,231 heterosexual men using Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. We identified several SNPs with p < 10-5, including regions of multiple supporting SNPs on chromosomes 13 (minimum p = 7.5 × 10-7) and 14 (p = 4.7 × 10-7). The genes nearest to these peaks have functions plausibly relevant to the development of sexual orientation...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luca Marozio, Elisa Picardo, Claudia Filippini, Erika Mainolfi, Paola Berchialla, Franco Cavallo, Annalisa Tancredi, Chiara Benedetto
OBJECTIVE: Increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes with advancing maternal age has been described but the strength of association remains debated, particularly in presence of confounding factors such as parity, twin pregnancy and pregnancy from assisted reproductive technologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of women aged over 40 years. The hypothesis was that advanced maternal age may be an independent risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Anita Arenas-M, Enrique González-Durán, Isabel Gómez, Matthias Burger, Axel Brennicke, Mizuki Takenaka, Xavier Jordana
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute the largest family of proteins in angiosperms and most members are predicted to play roles in the maturation of organellar RNAs. Here we describe the novel Mitochondrial Editing Factor 31 (MEF31), an E-PPR protein involved in editing at two near sites in the same transcript encoding subunit C of the twin-arginine translocation (tat) pathway. MEF31 is essential for editing at site tatC-581 and application of the recently proposed amino acid code for RNA recognition by PPR proteins supports the view that MEF31 directly targets this site by recognizing its cis sequence...
December 4, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Se In Sung, So Yoon Ahn, Hye Soo Yoo, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
The decision whether or not to resuscitate extremely low gestational age (GA) infants is recommended to be individualized according to antenatal counseling with parents, neonatologists, and obstetricians. A GA of 22⁰/₇-23⁶/₇ weeks is generally considered as the lower end of the range where infants can be candidates for selective resuscitation. Below this lower end of periviable gestation, resuscitation is usually not considered and survivors are rarely reported. To date, the youngest survivor is an infant with a GA of 21⁶/₇ weeks reported in the English medical literature...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Ali Behroozfar, Soheil Daryadel, S Reza Morsali, Salvador Moreno, Mahmoud Baniasadi, Rodrigo A Bernal, Majid Minary-Jolandan
Nanotwinned (nt)-metals exhibit superior mechanical and electrical properties compared to their coarse-grained and nanograined counterparts. nt-metals in film and bulk forms are obtained using physical and chemical processes including pulsed electrodeposition (PED), plastic deformation, recrystallization, phase transformation, and sputter deposition. However, currently, there is no process for 3D printing (additive manufacturing) of nt-metals. Microscale 3D printing of nt-Cu is demonstrated with high density of coherent twin boundaries using a new room temperature process based on localized PED (L-PED)...
December 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
Azim Mehrvar, Maryam Tashvighi, Amir Abbas Hedayati Asl, Naghmeh Niktoreh-Mofrad, Narjes Mehrvar, Negar Afsar, Ali Naderi, Mardawig Allebouyeh, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Mohammad Faranoush
PURPOSE: The clinical management of pediatric medulloblastoma requires a multidisciplinary approach, which can be challenging, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to identify current challenges and describe the treatment and outcomes of Iranian pediatric patients with medulloblastoma who were referred to our center in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Our retrospective review included 126 patient records from April 2007 to May 2015. The records were analyzed for epidemiologic features, treatment modalities, overall survival, and progression-free survival...
December 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Nicola Yuen, Shaun P Brennecke, Mark P Umstad, Hannah E J Yong, Anthony J Borg, Gayathri Rajaraman, Bill Kalionis, Padma Murthi
A discordant twin gestation, in which one fetus is significantly growth restricted, compared to the other normal twin, is a unique model that can be used to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the intrauterine environment affects fetal growth. In many model systems, placental transcription factor genes regulate fetal growth. Transcription factors regulate growth through their activation or repression of downstream target genes that mediate important cell functions. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of the placental HLX homeobox gene transcription factor and its downstream target genes in dizygotic twins with growth discordance...
December 7, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Aifang Yu, Xiong Pu, Rongmei Wen, Mengmeng Liu, Tao Zhou, Ke Zhang, Yang Zhang, Junyi Zhai, Weiguo Hu, Zhong Lin Wang
Although textile-based triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) are highly promising as they scavenging energy from their working environment for sustainable powering wearable/mobile electronics, it remains a challenge to simultaneously possess the qualities of cloths. In this work, we propose strategy for TENG textiles as energy harvesting cloths that core-shell yarns, with core conductive fibers as the electrode and artificial polymer fibers or natural fibrous materials tightly twinning around core conductive fibers as the triboelectrification layer, are applied as the building blocks...
December 6, 2017: ACS Nano
Charles E Roselli
Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jennifer Deanna, Omar Abuzied, Fahmi Islam, Ivana Vettriano, Frederico Rocha, Mostafa Abuzeid
Introduction: It is well known that cervical incompetence and associated preterm birth confers greater morbidity and mortality on birth outcomes, with an additional increased risk of cervical incompetence in higher order gestations. While the pathophysiology of cervical incompetence has yet to be elucidated, research has identified risk factors and assessed outcomes of numerous interventions. Cervical cerclage has been shown, in certain situations involving singleton pregnancies, to improve outcomes...
June 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Lynnea Myers, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Ann Nordgren, Charlotte Willfors, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Kristiina Tammimies, Sven Bölte
Background: Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are subtle anatomical deviations in one's appearance and may suggest altered embryogenesis. MPAs have been shown to be more common in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) compared with typical development. Still, further studies are needed on MPAs in NDDs, especially using twins to adjust for confounding familial factors. Methods: Clinical assessments were conducted on 116 twins (61 NDD, 55 controls) from 51 monozygotic and 7 dizygotic pairs to examine MPAs and their association with DSM-5 defined NDDs...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Rikke Beck Jensen, Ajay Thankamony, Klaus K Holst, Joseph A M J L Janssen, Anders Juul, David P Dunger, Pernille Poulsen, Thomas Scheike
OBJECTIVE: IGF-I may be a marker of later metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The interactions between IGF-I and glucose metabolism are multifactorial and there is potential confounding from several secondary effects. In this study we examined the interaction between IGF-I and glucose metabolism in a large cohort of clinically well-characterised elderly twins. DESIGN: A total of 303 twin pairs of the same gender (606 twins) were included in the study; 125 monozygotic and 178 dizygotic twin pairs...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
Monique E De Paepe, Füsun Gündoğan, Quanfu Mao, Sharon Chu, Svetlana Shapiro
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest redness (color) discordance of the placental basal plate may be a marker for twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS), a recently described complication of diamniotic-monochorionic twinning characterized by marked intertwin hemoglobin (Hb) discordance in the absence of oligohydramnios-polyhydramnios. In this study, we determined the clinicoplacental and choriovascular correlates of basal plate color discordance in monochorionic twin placentas, and assessed its value as postnatal indicator of TAPS...
December 2017: Placenta
Mia Kibel, Michael Kahn, Christopher Sherman, John Kingdom, Arthur Zaltz, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
OBJECTIVE: Twin fetuses grow slower during the third trimester compared with singletons. However, the extent to which the relative smallness of twins is the result of placenta-mediated factors similar to those associated with fetal growth restriction in singletons remains unclear. Our aim was to address this question by comparing placental findings between small for gestational age (SGA) twins and SGA singletons. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all SGA non-anomalous newborns from singleton and dichorionic twin pregnancies in a single tertiary referral center between 2002 and 2015...
December 2017: Placenta
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