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Junichi Sugawara, Noriyuki Iwama, Tetsuro Hoshiai, Hideki Tokunaga, Hidekazu Nishigori, Hirohito Metoki, Kunihiro Okamura, Nobuo Yaegashi
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to analyze post-disaster birth outcomes in coastal and inland regions of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. METHODS: Primary data sets were compiled from birth records of obstetric facilities and 12,808 patients were analyzed for baseline birth outcomes by region. Regional risk analysis of the low-birth-weight rate and premature birth rate were conducted using multi-level logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: From overall baseline birth outcomes, a preterm birth rate was 4...
March 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammad Ahmad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Rajesh Yadav, Dundaiah Somashekar, Samir V Sodha, Kayla F Laserson, Srinivasa Venkatesh, Himanshu Chauhan
OBJECTIVES: Torrential rainfall and flooding from September 2-6, 2014 submerged >350 villages in Jammu and Kashmir state. We conducted rapid needs assessment in capital Srinagar from 27 September to 1 October to assess population health and safety needs. METHODS: Based on Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology, we selected 7 households each from 30 census blocks using 2-stage cluster sampling. We collected information on demographics, needs, and illnesses using structured questionnaire...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Pia Noel, Cliodhna Cork, Ross G White
Social capital (SC) is highlighted as an important factor for post-crisis mental health outcomes. However, the heterogeneous nature of the construct makes it difficult to get a clear picture of the evidence concerning the association between SC indices and mental health. This review examines how SC is conceptualized and measured, and the relationships with other variables in quantitative empirical studies investigating the associations between SC and mental health in post-disaster and post-conflict contexts...
March 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Rui Zhen, Lijuan Quan, Xiao Zhou
This study examined the co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. A sample of 187 victims completed self-report questionnaires after a major flood disaster. Results indicated four classes: low symptoms group (49.7%), mild comorbid symptoms group (24.1%), serious comorbid symptoms group (3.2%), and medium comorbid symptoms group (23.0%). Male victims were less likely and older victims were more likely to belong to the medium comorbid symptoms group; victims with more serious trauma exposure and those using more maladaptive cognition emotional regulation strategies were more likely to belong to both the mild and medium comorbid symptoms groups...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Stephanie Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The country is currently facing a cholera epidemic the world's largest on record, surpassing one million (1,061,548) suspected cases, with 2,373 related deaths since October 2016. Cases were first confirmed in Sana'a city and then spread to almost all governorates except Socotra Island. Continued efforts are being made by the World Health Organization and international partners to contain the epidemic through improving water, sanitation and hygiene, setting up diarrhea treatment centers, and improving the population's awareness about the disease...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
N A Wardrop, W C Jochem, T J Bird, H R Chamberlain, D Clarke, D Kerr, L Bengtsson, S Juran, V Seaman, A J Tatem
Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor settings, recent and reliable demographic data at subnational scales can often be lacking. National population and housing census data can be outdated, inaccurate, or missing key groups or areas, while registry data are generally lacking or incomplete. Moreover, at local scales accurate boundary data are often limited, and high rates of migration and urban growth make existing data quickly outdated...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rasoul Yahyapour, Peyman Amini, Saeed Rezapour, Mohsen Cheki, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Bagher Farhood, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Hengameh Fallah, Masoud Najafi
Currently, ionizing radiation (IR) plays a key role in the agricultural and medical industry, while accidental exposure resulting from leakage of radioactive sources or radiological terrorism is a serious concern. Exposure to IR has various detrimental effects on normal tissues. Although an increased risk of carcinogenesis is the best-known long-term consequence of IR, evidence has shown that other diseases, particularly diseases related to inflammation, are common disorders among irradiated people. Autoimmune disorders are among the various types of immune diseases that have been investigated among exposed people...
March 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
Mersedeh TariVerdi, Elise Miller-Hooks, Thomas Kirsch
Mass casualty incidents are a concern in many urban areas. A community's ability to cope with such events depends on the capacities and capabilities of its hospitals for handling a sudden surge in demand of patients with resource-intensive and specialized medical needs. This paper uses a whole-hospital simulation model to replicate medical staff, resources, and space for the purpose of investigating hospital responsiveness to mass casualty incidents. It provides details of probable demand patterns of different mass casualty incident types in terms of patient categories and arrival patterns, and accounts for related transient system behavior over the response period...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Scott A Goldberg, Jeremy Maggin, Michael S Molloy, Olesya Baker, Ritu Sarin, Michael Kelleher, Kevin Mont, Adedeji Fajana, Eric Goralnick
OBJECTIVE: Mass gathering events can substantially impact public safety. Analyzing patient presentation and transport rates at various mass gathering events can help inform staffing models and improve preparedness. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients seeking medical attention across a variety of event types at a single venue with a capacity of 68,756 from January 2010 through September 2015. RESULTS: We examined 232 events with a total of 8,260,349 attendees generating 8157 medical contacts...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Joan M King, Chetan Tiwari, Armin R Mikler, Martin O'Neill
Ebola is a high consequence infectious disease-a disease with the potential to cause outbreaks, epidemics, or pandemics with deadly possibilities, highly infectious, pathogenic, and virulent. Ebola's first reported cases in the United States in September 2014 led to the development of preparedness capabilities for the mitigation of possible rapid outbreaks, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) providing guidelines to assist public health officials in infectious disease response planning...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Jie Chen, Jian Yang, Fen Hu, Si-Hong Yu, Bing-Xiang Yang, Qian Liu, Xiao-Ping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based curriculum has been demonstrated as crucial to nursing education in the development of students' critical thinking and complex clinical skills during a resuscitation simulation. Few studies have comprehensively examined the effectiveness of a standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum on the performance of students in a resuscitation simulation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a standardised simulation-based emergency and intensive care nursing curriculum on nursing students' response time in a resuscitation simulation...
March 14, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Hiromi Nagashima, Itaru Fujimura, Yutaka Nakamura, Yu Utsumi, Kohei Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Takikawa, Yukari Yokoyama, Kiyomi Sakata, Seiichirou Kobayashi, Akira Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Residents in the district struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami (GEJET) suffered from adverse living conditions and various pulmonary diseases. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of GEJET, we performed serial assessment of pulmonary function of approximately 10,000 residents in the district struck by GEJET. METHODS: Using a spirometer, we assessed the pulmonary function of approximately 10,000 residents older than 18 years in the Sanriku seacoast, which was struck by the tsunami...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Nicola Banwell, Shannon Rutherford, Brendan Mackey, Roger Street, Cordia Chu
Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Curtis Harris, Kelli McCarthy, E Liang Liu, Kelly Klein, Raymond Swienton, Parker Prins, Tawny Waltz
2017 was a record year for disasters and disaster response in the U.S. Redefining and differentiating key response roles like "immediate responders" and "first responders" is critical. Traditional first responders are not and cannot remain the only cadre of expected lifesavers following a mass casualty event. The authors argue that the U.S. needs to expand its understanding of response roles to include that of the immediate responders, or those individuals who find themselves at the incident scene and are able to assist others...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Alicia R Gable, Claudia Der-Martirosian, Laura N Pinnock, Aram Dobalian
OBJECTIVE: To identify the communication preferences of homeless (H) and nonhomeless (NH) Veterans Affairs (VA) patients for receiving information about the impact of natural disasters on VA healthcare services. DESIGN: Probability-based sampling design stratified on age categories, urban/rural, coastal/noncoastal, and homelessness. SETTING: Northeast United States. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible NH and H participants included those who lived in and had at least one healthcare visit to a VA medical center/clinic in the region in the previous 24 months...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Randy McCamey, Jennifer Yeager
During natural disasters, communications can be disrupted, which negatively impacts response time of first responders thus diminishing the level of care provided to disaster victims. In the fall of 2014, as part of a larger community-based participatory research study, the Tarleton Area Amateur Radio Club (TAARC) joined the Department of Nursing, Tarleton State University, and provided amateur radio communications during a disaster preparedness simulation. The simulation was conducted to determine the ability of the university to provide rapid response and render quality, acute healthcare to its neighbors during a natural disaster...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
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