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Alice Y Hua, Isabel J Sible, David C Perry, Katherine P Rankin, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Howard J Rosen, Virginia E Sturm
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by profound changes in emotions and empathy. Although most patients with bvFTD become less sensitive to negative emotional cues, some patients become more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli. We investigated whether dysregulated positive emotions in bvFTD undermine empathy by making it difficult for patients to share (emotional empathy), recognize (cognitive empathy), and respond (real-world empathy) to emotions in others...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
F Petzke, K B Jensen, E Kosek, E Choy, S Carville, P Fransson, S C R Williams, H Marcus, Y Mainguy, M Ingvar, R H Gracely
Background In recent years, the prescription of serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) has increased with reports of their efficacy. The SNRI milnacipran is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of FM, yet, the mechanisms by which milnacipran reduces FM symptoms are unknown. A large number of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated altered brain function in patients with FM but the effect of milnacipran on central pain processing has not been investigated...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Andra Sorina Boldea, Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff, Anne Lund Krarup, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Georg Dimcevski, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Background and aims In functional chest pain (FCP) of presumed esophageal origin central nervous system hyperexcitability is generally believed to play an important role in pain pathogenesis. However, this theory has recently been challenged. Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, the aim was to characterize any microstructural reorganization of the pain neuromatrix in FCP patients. Methods 13 FCP patients and 20 matched healthy controls were studied in a 3T MR scanner. Inclusion criteria were relevant chest pain, normal coronary angiogram and normal upper gastrointestinal evaluation...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Alejandro Daniel Meruelo, Joanna Jacobus, Erick Idy, Tam Nguyen-Louie, Gregory Brown, Susan Frances Tapert
Academic performance in adolescence strongly influences adult prospects. Intelligence quotient (IQ) has historically been considered a strong predictor of academic performance. Less objectively explored have been morphometric features. We analyzed brain MRI morphometry metrics in early adolescence (age 12-14 years) as quantitative predictors of academic performance over high school using a naïve Bayesian classifier approach with n = 170 subjects. Based on the mean GPA, subjects were divided into high (GPA ≥3...
June 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xiaoping Ying, Jing Luo, Chi-Yue Chiu, Yanhong Wu, Yan Xu, Jin Fan
The insula is thought to be involved in disgust. However, the roles of the posterior insula (PI) and anterior insula (AI) in moral disgust have not been clearly dissociated in previous studies. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, the participants evaluated the degree of disgust using sentences related to mild moral violations with different types of behavioral agents (mother and stranger). The activation of the PI in response to the stranger agent was significantly higher than that in response to the mother agent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kristen K Ellard, Aishwarya G Gosai, Emily E Bernstein, Navneet Kaur, Lousia G Sylvia, Joan A Camprodon, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
BACKGROUND: Anxiety in bipolar disorder (BD) exacerbates emotion dysregulation and reduces treatment response. We recently conducted a pilot trial of transdiagnostic CBT to target anxiety and emotion dysregulation in BD adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly predicted by baseline levels of neuroticism and perceived affective control, as well as changes over time in emotion regulation skills. The present study investigates mechanism of treatment response by examining the relationship between baseline emotion regulation-related neural circuitry and trial outcomes...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jidan Zhong, David Qixiang Chen, Peter S P Hung, Dave J Hayes, Kevin E Liang, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe form of chronic facial neuropathic pain. Increasing interest in the neuroimaging of pain has highlighted changes in the root entry zone in TN, but also group level CNS grey and white matter abnormalities. Group differences in neuroimaging data are frequently evaluated with univariate statistics, however this approach is limited because it is based on single, or clusters of, voxels. In contrast, multivariate pattern analyses consider all the model's neuroanatomical features to capture a specific distributed spatial pattern...
June 13, 2018: Pain
Yong Pang, Huimei Liu, Gaoxiong Duan, Hai Liao, Yanfei Liu, Zhuo Feng, Jien Tao, Zhuocheng Zou, Guoxiang Du, Rongchao Wan, Peng Liu, Demao Deng
Background : Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle-related disorder which causes physical and mood changes prior to menstruation and is associated with the functional dysregulation of the brain. Acupuncture is an effective alternative therapy for treating PMS, and sanyinjiao (SP6) is one of the most common acupoints used for improving the symptoms of PMS. However, the mechanism behind acupuncture's efficacy for relieving PMS symptoms remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the brain response patterns induced by acupuncture at acupoint SP6 in patients with PMS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Pankush Kalgotra, Ramesh Sharda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Because examining correlated (vs. individual) brain activity is a superior method for locating neural correlates of a stimulus, using a network approach for analyzing brain activity is gaining interest. In this study, we propose and illustrate the use of association rule mining (ARM) to analyze brain regions that are activated simultaneously. ARM is commonly used in marketing and other disciplines to help determine items that might be purchased together. We apply this technique toward identifying correlated brain regions that may respond simultaneously to specific stimuli...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Qiwei Yu, Weixin Yang, Yi Liu, Hong Wang, Zhuoming Chen, Jiajian Yan
RATIONALE: The corpus callosum, which is the most important fiber pathway linking the bilateral hemispheres, plays a key role in information access, as well as the functional coordination and reorganization between the bilateral hemispheres. However, whether the corpus callosum will undergo structural changes during the recovery of aphasia is still unclear. In the current study, a Chinese aphasic patient with stroke was reported to develop changes in the corpus callosum after speech therapy...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
W Kyle Simmons, Kaiping Burrows, Jason A Avery, Kara L Kerr, Ashlee Taylor, Jerzy Bodurka, William Potter, T Kent Teague, Wayne C Drevets
There exists little human neuroscience research to explain why some individuals lose their appetite when they become depressed, while others eat more. Answering this question may reveal much about the various pathophysiologies underlying depression. The present study combined neuroimaging, salivary cortisol, and blood markers of inflammation and metabolism collected prior to scanning. We compared the relationships between peripheral endocrine, metabolic, and immune signaling and brain activity to food cues between depressed participants experiencing increased (N = 23) or decreased (N = 31) appetite and weight in their current depressive episode and healthy control participants (N = 42)...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Lisa J M van den Berg, Marieke S Tollenaar, Katharina Pittner, Laura H C G Compier-de Block, Renate S M Buisman, M H van IJzendoorn, Bernet M Elzinga
Rejection by parents is an important aspect of child maltreatment. Altered neural responses to social rejection have been observed in maltreated individuals. The current study is the first to examine the impact of experienced and perpetrated abuse and neglect on neural responses to social exclusion by strangers versus family using a multi-generational family design, including 144 participants. The role of neural reactivity to social exclusion in the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment was also examined...
June 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Sheng H Wang, Muriel Lobier, Felix Siebenhühner, Tuomas Puoliväli, Satu Palva, J Matias Palva
It has not been well documented that MEG/EEG functional connectivity graphs estimated with zero-lag-free interaction metrics are severely confounded by a multitude of spurious interactions (SI), i.e., the false-positive "ghosts" of true interactions [1], [2]. These SI are caused by the multivariate linear mixing between sources, and thus they pose a severe challenge to the validity of connectivity analysis. Due to the complex nature of signal mixing and the SI problem, there is a need to intuitively demonstrate how the SI are discovered and how they can be attenuated using a novel approach that we termed hyperedge bundling...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Ho Namkung, Sun-Hong Kim, Akira Sawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Natalia Chechko, Edna C Cieslik, Veronika I Müller, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat, Birgit Derntl, Lydia Kogler, André Aleman, Renaud Jardri, Iris E Sommer, Oliver Gruber, Simon B Eickhoff
In schizophrenia (SCZ), dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior) based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Melanie Segado, Avrum Hollinger, Joseph Thibodeau, Virginia Penhune, Robert J Zatorre
This research uses an MR-Compatible cello to compare functional brain activation during singing and cello playing within the same individuals to determine the extent to which arbitrary auditory-motor associations, like those required to play the cello, co-opt functional brain networks that evolved for singing. Musical instrument playing and singing both require highly specific associations between sounds and movements. Because these are both used to produce musical sounds, it is often assumed in the literature that their neural underpinnings are highly similar...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Olivia K Faull, Pete J Cox, Kyle T S Pattinson
Athletes regularly endure large increases in ventilation and accompanying perceptions of breathlessness. Whilst breathing perceptions often correlate poorly with objective measures of lung function in both health and clinical populations, we have previously demonstrated closer matching between subjective breathlessness and changes in ventilation in endurance athletes, suggesting that athletes may be more accurate during respiratory interoception. To better understand the link between exercise and breathlessness, we sought to identify the mechanisms by which the brain processing of respiratory perception might be optimised in athletes...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Andrew Zalesky, Graeme D Jackson
Correlation-based sliding window analysis (CSWA) is the most commonly used method to estimate time-resolved functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity. However, instantaneous phase synchrony analysis (IPSA) is gaining popularity mainly because it offers single time-point resolution of time-resolved fMRI connectivity. We aim to provide a systematic comparison between these two approaches, on both temporal and topological levels. For this purpose, we used resting-state fMRI data from two separate cohorts with different temporal resolutions (45 healthy subjects from Human Connectome Project fMRI data with repetition time of 0...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Nuria K Mackes, Dennis Golm, Owen G O'Daly, Sagari Sarkar, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Graeme Fairchild, Mitul A Mehta
Many empathy tasks lack ecological validity due to their use of simplistic stimuli and static analytical approaches. Empathic accuracy tasks overcome these limitations by using autobiographical emotional video clips. Usually, a single measure of empathic accuracy is computed by correlating the participants' continuous ratings of the narrator's emotional state with the narrator's own ratings. In this study, we validated a modified empathic accuracy task. A valence-independent rating of the narrator's emotional intensity was added to provide comparability between videos portraying different primary emotions and to explore changes in neural activity related to variations in emotional intensity over time...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
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