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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684472/reserpine-induced-depression-is-associated-in-female-but-not-in-male-adolescent-rats-with-heightened-fluoxetine-sensitive-ethanol-consumption
#1
Paul Ruiz, Aldo Calliari, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Depression usually emerges during adolescence, is significantly more frequent in women, and exhibits comorbidity with alcohol (ethanol) use disorders. Most of the pre-clinical studies assessing the link between depression and ethanol intake, however, have employed only males or relied on stress-induced depression, or induced the experimentally-induced, depressive-like phenotype, during adolescence yet measured ethanol intake at adulthood. This study assessed, in Wistar male and female adolescent rats, the effects of inducing experimental depression (via administration of 1...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684133/neural-activation-during-delay-discounting-is-associated-with-6-month-change-in-risky-sexual-behavior-in-adolescents
#2
Casey K Gardiner, Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Arielle S Gillman, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Angela D Bryan
Background: Identifying cognitive and neural mechanisms of decision making in adolescence can enhance understanding of, and interventions to reduce, risky health behaviors in adolescence. Delay discounting, or the propensity to discount the magnitude of temporally distal rewards, has been associated with diverse health risk behaviors, including risky sex. This cognitive process involves recruitment of reward and cognitive control brain regions, which develop on different trajectories in adolescence and are also implicated in real-world risky decision making...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684132/prefrontal-cortical-activity-during-the-stroop-task-new-insights-into-the-why-and-the-who-of-real-world-risky-sexual-behavior
#3
Emily Barkley-Levenson, Feng Xue, Vita Droutman, Lynn C Miller, Benjamin J Smith, David Jeong, Zhong-Lin Lu, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
Background: Research suggests that deficits in both executive functioning and trait impulsivity may play a role in risky sexual behavior. At the neural level, differences in regulation of the prefrontal cortex have been linked to impulsivity, measured neurocognitively and through self-report. The relationship between neurocognitive measures of executive control and trait impulsivity in predicting risky sexual behavior has not been investigated. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between neural functioning during the Stroop task and risky sexual behavior, as well as the effect of individual differences in urgent (positive and negative) impulsivity on this relationship...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683371/hippocampal-related-memory-network-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-structural-connectivity-analysis
#4
Sara Llufriu, Maria A Rocca, Elisabetta Pagani, Gianna C Riccitelli, Elisabeth Solana, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi
BACKGROUND: We used graph theoretical analysis to quantify structural connectivity of the hippocampal-related episodic memory network and its association with memory performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Brain diffusion and T1-weighted sequences were obtained from 71 MS patients and 50 healthy controls (HCs). A total of 30 gray matter regions (selected a priori) were used as seeds to perform probabilistic tractography and create connectivity matrices...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682732/a-morphometric-signature-of-depressive-symptoms-in-unmedicated-patients-with-mood-disorders
#5
T Wise, L Marwood, A M Perkins, A Herane-Vives, S C R Williams, A H Young, A J Cleare, D Arnone
OBJECTIVE: A growing literature indicates that unipolar depression and bipolar depression are associated with alterations in grey matter volume. However, it is unclear to what degree these patterns of morphometric change reflect symptom dimensions. Here, we aimed to predict depressive symptoms and hypomanic symptoms based on patterns of grey matter volume using machine learning. METHOD: We used machine learning methods combined with voxel-based morphometry to predict depressive and self-reported hypomanic symptoms from grey matter volume in a sample of 47 individuals with unmedicated unipolar and bipolar depression...
April 22, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681804/neurophysiological-effects-of-trait-empathy-in-music-listening
#6
Zachary Wallmark, Choi Deblieck, Marco Iacoboni
The social cognitive basis of music processing has long been noted, and recent research has shown that trait empathy is linked to musical preferences and listening style. Does empathy modulate neural responses to musical sounds? We designed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to address this question. In Experiment 1, subjects listened to brief isolated musical timbres while being scanned. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to excerpts of music in four conditions (familiar liked (FL)/disliked and unfamiliar liked (UL)/disliked)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674268/frequency-dependent-functional-connectivity-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-continuous-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Zengjian Wang, Jiliang Fang, Jun Liu, Peijing Rong, Kristen Jorgenson, Joel Park, Courtney Lang, Yang Hong, Bing Zhu, Jian Kong
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) may be a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In this exploratory study, fMRI scans were acquired during continuous real or sham tVNS from 41 MDD patients. Then, all patients received real or sham tVNS treatment for four weeks. We investigated the functional connectivity (FC) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at different frequency bands during real and sham tVNS and explored their associations with depressive symptom changes after one month of treatment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673322/the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-deviance-and-target-detection-in-the-passive-and-active-auditory-oddball-paradigm-a-sloreta-study
#8
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672876/regional-brain-volume-changes-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-during-short-term-and-long-term-abstinence
#9
Xiaowei Zou, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
BACKGROUND: Widespread brain atrophy in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) has been consistently documented in pathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Longitudinal MRI studies have shown that the regional brain volume losses in ALC are partially reversible during abstinence from alcohol. The goal of this study was to determine volume reductions in cortical and subcortical regions functionally important to substance use behavior and their changes during short-term (1 week to 1 month) and long-term abstinence (1 month to 7 months) from alcohol...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672301/neurobiological-mechanisms-mediating-emotion-dysregulation-as-targets-of-change-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#10
Sabine C Herpertz, Isabella Schneider, Christian Schmahl, Katja Bertsch
Emotion dysregulation is a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Most interventions for patients with BPD, therefore, aim at the improvement of emotion regulation. In the current paper, we provide an overview of studies investigating the effects of psychotherapeutic or pharmacological interventions on neurobiological correlates of various aspects of emotion regulation. In fact, studies suggest that the prefrontal-limbic circuit may play a major role in mediating effects of clinically efficacious psychotherapeutic treatments, i...
April 19, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670821/amphetamine-but-not-methylphenidate-increases-ethanol-intake-in-adolescent-male-but-not-in-female-rats
#11
Paul Ruiz, Aldo Calliari, Patricia Genovese, Cecilia Scorza, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Introduction: There has been an increasing interest in analyzing the interactions between stimulants and ethanol during childhood and adolescence. Stimulants are used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in these developmental stages, during which ethanol initiation and escalation often occur. Methods: This study assessed the effects of repeated d-amphetamine (AMPH) or methylphenidate (MPH) treatment during adolescence [male and female Wistar rats, between postnatal day (PD) 28 to PD34, approximately] on the initiation of ethanol intake during a later section of adolescence (PD35 to PD40)...
April 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670166/the-salience-of-self-not-social-pain-is-encoded-by-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-and-insula
#12
Irene Perini, Per A Gustafsson, J Paul Hamilton, Robin Kämpe, Maria Zetterqvist, Markus Heilig
The human neural correlates of social rejection have attracted significant research interest, but remain subject to vigorous debate. Specifically, it has been proposed that a matrix of brain regions overlapping with the classical pain matrix, and including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AI) is critical for processing of social rejection. The present study expands on this conceptualization, by showing that these areas are involved in processing of self-relevant social evaluation, irrespective of valence...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668395/do-words-stink-neural-reuse-as-a-principle-for-understanding-emotions-in-reading
#13
Johannes C Ziegler, Marie Montant, Benny B Briesemeister, Tila T Brink, Bruno Wicker, Aurélie Ponz, Mireille Bonnard, Arthur M Jacobs, Mario Braun
How do we understand the emotional content of written words? Here, we investigate the hypothesis that written words that carry emotions are processed through phylogenetically ancient neural circuits that are involved in the processing of the very same emotions in nonlanguage contexts. This hypothesis was tested with respect to disgust. In an fMRI experiment, it was found that the same region of the left anterior insula responded whether people observed facial expressions of disgust or whether they read words with disgusting content...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667267/the-cerebellum-after-trauma-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#14
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667212/breathlessness-amplifies-amygdala-responses-during-affective-processing
#15
M Cornelia Stoeckel, Roland W Esser, Matthias Gamer, Andreas von Leupoldt
Breathlessness is an aversive symptom in many prevalent somatic and psychiatric diseases and is usually experienced as highly threatening. It is strongly associated with negative affect, but the underlying neural processes remain poorly understood. Therefore, using fMRI, the present study examined the effects of breathlessness on the neural processing of affective visual stimuli within candidate brain areas including the amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). During scanning, 42 healthy volunteers, mean (SD) age: 29...
April 17, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666588/increased-insular-cortical-thickness-associated-with-symptom-severity-in-male-youths-with-internet-gaming-disorder-a-surface-based-morphometric-study
#16
Shuai Wang, Jing Liu, Lin Tian, Limin Chen, Jun Wang, Qunfeng Tang, Fuquan Zhang, Zhenhe Zhou
With the rising increase in Internet-usage, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has gained massive attention worldwide. However, detailed cerebral morphological changes remain unclear in youths with IGD. In the current study, our aim was to investigate cortical morphology and further explore the relationship between the cortical morphology and symptom severity in male youths with IGD. Forty-eight male youths with IGD and 32 age- and education-matched normal controls received magnetic resonance imaging scans. We employed a recently proposed surface-based morphometric approach for the measurement of cortical thickness (CT)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665711/is-rest-really-rest-resting-state-functional-connectivity-during-rest-and-motor-task-paradigms
#17
Michael T Jurkiewicz, Adrian P Crawley, David J Mikulis
Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665467/influence-of-task-instructions-and-stimuli-on-the-neural-network-of-face-processing-an-ale-meta-analysis
#18
Veronika I Müller, Yvonne Höhner, Simon B Eickhoff
Many neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of face processing. However, the location of face-preferential regions differs considerably between studies, possibly due to the use of different stimuli or tasks. By using Activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, we aimed to a) delineate regions consistently involved in face processing and b) to assess the influence of stimuli and task on convergence of activation patterns. In total, we included 77 neuroimaging experiments in healthy subjects comparing face processing to a control condition...
March 22, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663451/association-of-prolonged-qtc-interval-with-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-a-neurocardiac-syndrome-inside-the-mystery-of-the-insula-of-reil
#19
REVIEW
Vincenzo Marafioti, Giulia Turri, Vincenzo Carbone, Salvatore Monaco
The Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is often considered autochthonous to the heart, although the primary problem may be not in the heart muscle itself. Instead, similar to several Takotsubo-like cardiac pathologies seen in acute neurological diseases, it may reflect the capacity of the nervous system to injure the heart. Persuasive evidence exists that shocking emotional stress promotes direct heart injuries. Moreover, clinical and laboratory research shows that cardiac structural damage can occur in the presence of a normal heart, especially in the context of seizures, stroke, and traumatic brain injury or under conditions of psychological stress...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663353/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-and-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-availability-during-temporal-lobe-epileptogenesis-in-the-amygdala-kindling-model-in-rhesus-monkeys
#20
Evy Cleeren, Cindy Casteels, Karolien Goffin, Michel Koole, Koen Van Laere, Peter Janssen, Wim Van Paesschen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in the endocannabinoid system and glucose metabolism during temporal lobe epileptogenesis. METHODS: Because it is rarely possible to study epileptogenesis in humans, we applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in nonhuman primates to image longitudinal changes in type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) binding and cerebral glucose metabolism. Two rhesus monkeys received [18 F]-MK-9470 and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ([18 F]-FDG -PET) scans in each of the 4 kindling stages to quantify relative changes over time of CB1R binding and cerebral glucose metabolism in vivo...
April 17, 2018: Epilepsia
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