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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054435/networks-of-phobic-fear-functional-connectivity-shifts-in-two-subtypes-of-specific-phobia
#1
Maria R Stefanescu, Ralph J Endres, Kevin Hilbert, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrike Lueken
Anxiety disorders can be conceptualized by an abnormal interplay of emotion-processing brain circuits; however, knowledge of brain connectivity measures in specific phobia is still limited. To explore functional interactions within selected fear-circuitry structures (anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala, insula), we re-examined three task-based fMRI studies using a symptom provocation approach (n=94 subjects in total) on two different phobia subtypes (animal subtype as represented by snake phobia (SP) and blood-injection-injury subtype as represented by dental phobia (DP)), and a non-phobic healthy control group (HC)...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#2
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053773/less-is-more-neural-mechanisms-underlying-anomia-treatment-in-chronic-aphasic-patients
#3
Davide Nardo, Rachel Holland, Alexander P Leff, Cathy J Price, Jennifer T Crinion
Previous research with aphasic patients has shown that picture naming can be facilitated by concurrent phonemic cueing [e.g. initial phoneme(s) of the word that the patient is trying to retrieve], both as an immediate word retrieval technique, and when practiced repeatedly over time as a long-term anomia treatment. Here, to investigate the neural mechanisms supporting word retrieval, we adopted-for the first time-a functional magnetic resonance imaging task using the same naming procedure as it occurs during the anomia treatment process...
September 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052617/adhd-smoking-withdrawal-and-inhibitory-control-results-of-a-neuroimaging-study-with-methylphenidate-challenge
#4
Maggie M Sweitzer, Scott H Kollins, Rachel V Kozink, Matt Hallyburton, Joseph English, Merideth A Addicott, Jason A Oliver, F Joseph McClernon
Smoking withdrawal negatively impacts inhibitory control, and these effects are greater for smokers with pre-existing attention problems, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study preliminarily evaluated changes in inhibitory control-related behavior and brain activation during smoking withdrawal among smokers with ADHD. Moreover, we investigated the role of catecholamine transmission in these changes by examining effects of 40 mg methylphenidate (MPH) administration. Adult daily smokers with (n=17) and without (n=20) ADHD completed fMRI scanning under each of three conditions: (a) smoking as usual+placebo; (b) 24 hr smoking abstinence+placebo and (c) 24 hr smoking abstinence+MPH...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044205/gender-differences-in-behavioral-and-neural-responses-to-unfairness-under-social-pressure
#5
Li Zheng, Reipeng Ning, Lin Li, Chunli Wei, Xuemei Cheng, Chu Zhou, Xiuyan Guo
Numerous studies have revealed the key role of social pressure on individuals' decision-making processes. However, the impact of social pressure on unfairness-related decision-making processes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated how social pressure modulated men's and women's responses in an ultimatum game. Twenty women and eighteen men played the ultimatum game as responders in the scanner, where fair and unfair offers were tendered by proposers acting alone (low pressure) or by proposers endorsed by three supporters (high pressure)...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041906/from-provocation-to-aggression-the-neural-network
#6
Jonathan Repple, Christina M Pawliczek, Bianca Voss, Steven Siegel, Frank Schneider, Nils Kohn, Ute Habel
BACKGROUND: In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings. RESULTS: Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents...
October 17, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041817/supratentorial-lesions-contribute-to-trigeminal-neuralgia-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Kilian Fröhlich, Klemens Winder, Ralf A Linker, Tobias Engelhorn, Arnd Dörfler, De-Hyung Lee, Max J Hilz, Stefan Schwab, Frank Seifert
Background It has been proposed that multiple sclerosis lesions afflicting the pontine trigeminal afferents contribute to trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. So far, there are no imaging studies that have evaluated interactions between supratentorial lesions and trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study and sought multiple sclerosis patients with trigeminal neuralgia and controls in a local database. Multiple sclerosis lesions were manually outlined and transformed into stereotaxic space...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036358/divergent-effects-of-oxytocin-on-para-limbic-reactivity-to-emotional-and-neutral-scenes-in-females-with-and-without-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
Alexander Lischke, Sabine C Herpertz, Christoph Berger, Gregor Domes, Matthias Gamer
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients' hypersensitivity for emotionally relevant stimuli has been suggested be due to abnormal activity and connectivity in (para-)limbic and prefrontal brain regions during stimulus processing. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to modulate activity and functional connectivity in these brain regions, thereby optimizing the processing of emotional and neutral stimuli. To investigate whether oxytocin would be capable of attenuating BPD patients' hypersensitivity for such stimuli, we recorded brain activity and gaze behavior during the processing of complex scenes in 51 females with and 48 without BPD after intranasal application of either oxytocin or placebo...
September 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034964/hemispheric-asymmetry-of-the-frontolimbic-cortex-in-young-adults-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#9
Q Zhou, M Zhong, S Yao, X Jin, Y Liu, C Tan, X Zhu, J Yi
OBJECTIVE: Although the frontolimbic cortex has been implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), information about possible asymmetries in this region in patients with BPD is limited. This study aimed to examine whether frontolimbic cortex asymmetries differ between patients with BPD and healthy individuals. METHODS: The brains of 30 young adult patients with BPD and 32 healthy control subjects were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The participants completed self-report scales assessing impulsivity, affect intensity and other psychological variables...
October 16, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033311/brain-gray-matter-changes-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis-of-whole-brain-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#10
Guangyao Wu, Lin Lin, Qing Zhang, Jianlin Wu
AIMS: We aimed to identify alterations in global gray matter volumes (GMV) and consistent regional abnormalities in T2DM patients via meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic search for relevant studies indexed in the PubMed and Embase databases was conducted. A quantitative meta-analysis of volumetric and whole-brain VBM data was conducted using STATA v.12.0 and AES-SDM software packages, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 15 volumetric studies and five VBM studies of GM in T2DM patients vs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032323/neural-activity-during-traumatic-film-viewing-is-linked-to-endogenous-estradiol-and-hormonal-contraception
#11
Stephan F Miedl, Melanie Wegerer, Hubert Kerschbaum, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Women are at higher risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and recent research has highlighted a modulating role of female sex hormones for cognitive and emotional processes potentially underlying PTSD symptoms. However, studies combining fMRI recordings of brain activity during trauma film viewing with assessment of female sex hormones are missing. The trauma film paradigm - a widely used experimental analogue for trauma exposure - confronts healthy participants with traumatic film clips and thus allows studying peritraumatic processing under laboratory conditions...
October 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#13
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029313/subjective-objective-sleep-discrepancy-is-associated-with-alterations-in-regional-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-insomnia-and-good-sleeper-controls
#14
Daniel B Kay, Helmet T Karim, Adriane M Soehner, Brant P Hasler, Jeffrey A James, Anne Germain, Martica H Hall, Peter L Franzen, Julie C Price, Eric A Nofzinger, Daniel J Buysse
Objectives: Sleep discrepancies are common in primary insomnia (PI), and include reports of longer sleep onset latency (SOL) than measured by polysomnography (PSG), or "negative SOL discrepancy." We hypothesized that negative SOL discrepancy in PI would be associated with higher relative glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in brain networks involved in conscious awareness, including the salience, left executive control, and default mode networks. Methods: PI (n=32) and good sleeper controls (GS; n=30) completed [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans during NREM sleep and relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was measured...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028955/gamma-band-oscillations-preferential-for-nociception-can-be-recorded-in-the-human-insula
#15
Giulia Liberati, Anne Klöcker, Maxime Algoet, Dounia Mulders, Marta Maia Safronova, Susana Ferrao Santos, José-Géraldo Ribeiro Vaz, Christian Raftopoulos, André Mouraux
Transient nociceptive stimuli elicit robust phase-locked local field potentials (LFPs) in the human insula. However, these responses are not preferential for nociception, as they are also elicited by transient non-nociceptive vibrotactile, auditory, and visual stimuli. Here, we investigated whether another feature of insular activity, namely gamma-band oscillations (GBOs), is preferentially observed in response to nociceptive stimuli. Although nociception-evoked GBOs have never been explored in the insula, previous scalp electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography studies suggest that nociceptive stimuli elicit GBOs in other areas such as the primary somatosensory and prefrontal cortices, and that this activity could be closely related to pain perception...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027866/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-as-treatment-for-intractable-insular-epilepsy-in-children
#16
M Scott Perry, David J Donahue, Saleem I Malik, Cynthia G Keator, Angel Hernandez, Rohit K Reddy, Freedom F Perkins, Mark R Lee, Dave F Clarke
OBJECTIVE Seizure onset within the insula is increasingly recognized as a cause of intractable epilepsy. Surgery within the insula is difficult, with considerable risks, given the rich vascular supply and location near critical cortex. MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) provides an attractive treatment option for insular epilepsy, allowing direct ablation of abnormal tissue while sparing nearby normal cortex. Herein, the authors describe their experience using this technique in a large cohort of children undergoing treatment of intractable localization-related epilepsy of insular onset...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025878/elevated-postoperative-endogenous-glp-1-levels-mediate-effects-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-neural-responsivity-to-food-cues
#17
Jennifer S Ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Victor E A Gerdes, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Frederik Barkhof, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Madeleine L Drent, Michaela Diamant, Richard G IJzerman
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and weight reduction, mediated via effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Secretion of GLP-1 is greatly enhanced after RYGB. We hypothesized that postoperative elevated GLP-1 levels contribute to the improved satiety regulation after RYGB via effects on the CNS...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025005/correlation-of-pain-reduction-with-fmri-bold-response-in-osteoarthritis-patients-treated-with-paracetamol-randomized-double-blind-crossover-clinical-efficacy-study
#18
Yong Yue, Agron Collaku
Objective: To assess the relationship between the analgesic efficacy of extended-release paracetamol (ER-APAP) and brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal activation in response to painful stimulation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, randomized trial (N = 25) comprised three treatment periods in which patients received four doses of an eight-hour ER-APAP caplet (2 x 665 mg), four doses of matched placebo, and no treatment...
August 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024818/differential-cortical-contribution-of-syntax-and-semantics-an-fmri-study-on-two-word-phrasal-processing
#19
Marianne Schell, Emiliano Zaccarella, Angela D Friederici
Linguistic expressions consist of sequences of words combined together to form phrases and sentences. The neurocognitive process handling word combination is drawing increasing attention among the neuroscientific community, given that the underlying syntactic and semantic mechanisms of such basic combinations-although essential to the generation of more complex structures-still need to be consistently determined. The current experiment was conducted to disentangle the neural networks supporting syntactic and semantic processing at the level of two-word combinations...
September 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024235/topography-and-timing-of-activity-in-right-inferior-frontal-cortex-and-anterior-insula-for-stopping-movement
#20
Eleonora Bartoli, Adam R Aron, Nitin Tandon
Stopping incipient action activates both the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) and the anterior insula (rAI). Controversy has arisen as to whether these comprise a unitary cortical cluster-the rIFC/rAI-or whether rIFC is the primary stopping locus. To address this, we recorded directly from these structures while taking advantage of the high spatiotemporal resolution of closely spaced stereo-electro-encephalographic (SEEG) electrodes. We studied 12 patients performing a stop-signal task. On each trial they initiated a motor response (Go) and tried to stop to an occasional stop signal...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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