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Anterior cingulate cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165901/influence-of-ventral-tegmental-area-input-on-cortico-subcortical-networks-underlying-action-control-and-decision-making
#1
Anja Richter, Oliver Gruber
It is argued that the mesolimbic system has a more general function in processing all salient events, including and extending beyond rewards. Saliency was defined as an event that is unexpected due to its frequency of occurrence and elicits an attentional-behavioral switch. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), signals were measured in response to the modulation of salience of rewarding and nonrewarding events during a reward-based decision making task, the so called desire-reason dilemma paradigm (DRD)...
November 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164505/network-level-dysconnectivity-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-early-post-radiotherapy-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Yingwei Qiu, Zheng Guo, Lujun Han, Yadi Yang, Jing Li, Shiliang Liu, Xiaofei Lv
In this study, we seek to longitudinally investigate the network-level functional connectivity (FC) alternations and its association with irradiation dose and cognition changes in the early stage post radiotherapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We performed independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) from 39 newly diagnosed NPC patients before receiving treatment (baseline), and 3 months post-RT. the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN) were extracted with well-validated software (GIFT)...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164115/cross-sectional-associations-of-fatigue-with-cerebral-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#3
Claudie Hooper, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Nicola Coley, Matteo Cesari, Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Fatigue is a common symptom in the elderly and has also been associated with impaired cognition in older adults. Hence, we sought to explore the cross-sectional relationship between fatigue and cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) in 269 elderly individuals reporting subjective memory complaints from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial. Standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were generated by [(18)F] florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) using the cerebellum as a reference. Cortical-to-cerebellar SUVRs (cortical-SUVRs) were obtained using the mean signal from the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, parietal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163801/long-non-coding-rna-ccat1-modulates-neuropathic-pain-progression-through-sponging-mir-155
#4
Lidong Dou, Hongqi Lin, Kaiwei Wang, Guosong Zhu, Xuli Zou, Enqiang Chang, Yongfeng Zhu
Neuropathic pain is caused by dysfunction or primary injury of the somatosensory nervous system. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the development of neuropathic pain. However, the effects of lncRNA colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) in neuropathic pain have not been reported. The model of bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injuries (bCCI) is regarded as long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity and cold allodynia, which is the representative symptom in the human subjects suffering from the neuropathic pain...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163255/positive-emotion-facilitates-cognitive-flexibility-an-fmri-study
#5
Yanmei Wang, Jie Chen, Zhenzhu Yue
Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch rapidly between multiple goals. By using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility and the underlying neural mechanisms. After viewing pictures of different emotional valence (positive, negative, or neutral), participants discriminated whether a target digit in a specific color was odd or even. After a series of trials, the color of target stimuli was changed, i.e., the switch condition. Switch costs were measured by the increase of reaction times (RTs) in the switch trials compared to those in the repeat trials...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163095/the-functional-architecture-of-the-brain-underlies-strategic-deception-in-impression-management
#6
Qiang Luo, Yina Ma, Meghana A Bhatt, P Read Montague, Jianfeng Feng
Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN), which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161906/association-between-pathology-and-electroencephalographic-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
John N Caviness, Thomas G Beach, Joseph G Hentz, Holly A Shill, Erika D Driver-Dunckley, Charles H Adler
INTRODUCTION: The key mechanisms that connect Parkinson's disease pathology with dementia are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the quantitative spectral electroencephalographic measure, delta bandpower, correlates with Lewy type synucleinopathy on pathological examination in Parkinson's disease. As a corollary hypothesis, we analyzed whether there would be delta bandpower electroencephalographic differences between Parkinson's disease dementia cases with and without pathological criteria for Alzheimer's disease...
February 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160930/brain-responses-to-social-norms-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#8
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158177/granger-causal-connectivity-dissociates-navigation-networks-that-subserve-allocentric-and-egocentric-path-integration
#9
Chin-Teng Lin, Te-Cheng Chiu, Yu-Kai Wang, Chun-Hsiang Chuang, Klaus Gramann
Studies on spatial navigation demonstrate a significant role of the retrosplenial complex (RSC) in the transformation of egocentric and allocentric information into complementary spatial reference frames (SRFs). The tight anatomical connections of the RSC with a wide range of other cortical regions processing spatial information support its vital role within the human navigation network. To better understand how different areas of the navigational network interact, we investigated the dynamic causal interactions of brain regions involved in solving a virtual navigation task...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156413/anterior-posterior-gradient-differences-in-lobar-and-cingulate-cortex-cerebral-blood-flow-in-late-life-depression
#10
Margarita Abi Zeid Daou, Brian D Boyd, Manus J Donahue, Kimberly Albert, Warren D Taylor
Vascular pathology is common in late-life depression, contributing to changes in cerebral function. We examined whether late-life depression was associated with differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and whether such differences were related to vascular risk and cerebrovascular pathology, specifically white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes. Twenty-three depressed elders and 20 age- and sex-matched elders with no psychiatric history completed cranial 3T MRI. MRI procedures included a pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pcASL) acquisition obtained while on room air and during a hypercapnia challenge allowing for calculation of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154804/event-related-brain-potentials-and-the-study-of-reward-processing-methodological-considerations
#11
REVIEW
Olave E Krigolson
There is growing interest in using electroencephalography and specifically the event-related brain potential (ERP) methodology to study human reward processing. Since the discovery of the feedback related negativity (Miltner et al., 1997) and the development of theories associating the feedback related negativity and more recently the reward positivity with reinforcement learning, midbrain dopamine function, and the anterior cingulate cortex (i.e., Holroyd and Coles, 2002) researchers have used the ERP methodology to probe the neural basis of reward learning in humans...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154365/is-neural-processing-of-negative-stimuli-altered-in-addiction-independent-of-drug-effects-findings-from-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-youth-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#12
Sarah W Yip, James J Gross, Megha Chawla, Shan-Shan Ma, Xing-Hui Shi, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Lei Zhu, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jintao Zhang
Difficulties in emotion regulation are commonly reported among individuals with alcohol and drug addictions and contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Alterations in neural processing of negative affective stimuli have further been demonstrated among individuals with addictions. However, it is unclear whether these alterations are a general feature of addictions or are a result of prolonged exposure to drugs-of-abuse. To test the hypothesis of altered negative affect processing independent of drug effects, this study assessed neural function among drug-naïve youth with a behavioral addiction-Internet gaming disorder (IGD)...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154155/the-dynamic-characteristics-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-resting-state-fmri-of-patients-with-depression
#13
Hongna Zheng, Feng Li, Qijing Bo, Xianbin Li, Li Yao, Zhijun Yao, Chuanyue Wang, Xia Wu
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is part of the limbic system of the brain. It is a bridge between attentional and emotional processing, which is responsible for the integration of visceral, attentional, and affective information. Lesioning of the ACC, which produces striking changes, is used to treat major depression disorder (MDD). Moreover, the brain dynamically integrates and coordinates functions of its different subparts to realize its cognitive capability. Hence, the spatio-temporal community distribution of the ACC is necessary to completely understand MDD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#14
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150145/neuroimaging-biomarkers-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-in-major-depressive-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Trehani M Fonseka, Glenda M MacQueen, Sidney H Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Current practice for selecting pharmacological and non-pharmacological antidepressant treatments has yielded low response and remission rates in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Neuroimaging biomarkers of brain structure and function may be useful in guiding treatment selection by predicting response vs. non-response outcomes. METHODS: In this review, we summarize data from studies examining predictors of treatment response using structural and functional neuroimaging modalities, as they pertain to pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and stimulation treatment strategies...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#16
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145203/evaluation-of-mental-disorders-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-dialysis-and-predialysis-patients
#17
Chun-Yun Zhang, Ying Chen, Shan Chen, Xiang-Chuang Kong, Yuan Liu, Chao-Qun You, Cheng Wan, Philip A Bondzie, Hua Su, Chun Zhang, Fang-Fang He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Psychological complications are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to investigate mental disorders in stage 4-5 CKD patients, to detect metabolite concentrations in the brain by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and to compare the effects of different dialysis therapies on mental disorders in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: The sample population was made up of predialysis (13), hemodialysis (HD) (13), and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients (12)...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143702/association-between-altered-neurochemical-metabolites-and-apathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Yi-Chun Yeh, Chun-Wei Li, Yu-Ting Kuo, Mei-Feng Huang, Tai-Ling Liu, Twei-Shiun Jaw, Yi-Hsin Yang, Kuang-Che Kuo, Cheng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)...
November 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141002/correlates-of-decisional-dynamics-in-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#19
Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden
We hypothesized that during binary economic choice, decision makers use the first option they attend as a default to which they compare the second. To test this idea, we recorded activity of neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of macaques choosing between gambles presented asynchronously. We find that ensemble encoding of the value of the first offer includes both choice-dependent and choice-independent aspects, as if reflecting a partial decision. That is, its responses are neither entirely pre- nor post-decisional...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137828/differentiating-between-clinical-and-behavioral-phenotypes-in-first-episode-psychosis-during-maintenance-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#20
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P Murty, Patricia L Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna
INTRODUCTION: We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. METHODS: FEP (N=35) and matched controls (N=25) performed a visuospatial working memory task during fMRI acquisition. We isolated neural activity during the maintenance period and examined neural activity within regions typically engaged during a working memory task...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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