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Anterior cingulate cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785582/altered-cerebro-cerebellum-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-hiv-infected-male-patients
#1
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785110/prefrontoparietal-dysfunction-during-emotion-regulation-in-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#2
Hai-Yang Wang, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Cui-Ping Si, Yang Xu, Qian Liu, He-Tao Bian, Bing-Wei Zhang, Xue-Lin Li, Zhong-Rui Yan
Objective: Impairments in emotion regulation, and more specifically in cognitive reappraisal, are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. However, the available evidence on such deficits is inconsistent. To further illustrate the neurobiological underpinnings of anxiety disorder, the present meta-analysis summarizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings for cognitive reappraisal tasks and investigates related brain areas. Methods: We performed a comprehensive series of meta-analyses of cognitive reappraisal fMRI studies contrasting patients with anxiety disorder with healthy control (HC) subjects, employing an anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping approach...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784814/distinct-encoding-of-decision-confidence-in-human-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Dan Bang, Stephen M Fleming
Our confidence in a choice and the evidence pertaining to a choice appear to be inseparable. However, an emerging computational consensus holds that the brain should maintain separate estimates of these quantities for adaptive behavioral control. We have devised a psychophysical task to decouple confidence in a perceptual decision from both the reliability of sensory evidence and the relation of such evidence with respect to a choice boundary. Using human fMRI, we found that an area in the medial prefrontal cortex, the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), tracked expected performance, an aggregate signature of decision confidence, whereas neural areas previously proposed to encode decision confidence instead tracked sensory reliability (posterior parietal cortex and ventral striatum) or boundary distance (presupplementary motor area)...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782956/attentional-engagement-increases-inferior-frontal-gyrus-activity-and-mutes-limbic-activity-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#4
Moon-Soo Lee, Purnima Anumagalla, Prasanth Talluri, Mani N Pavuluri
OBJECTIVES: Attentional deficit has been shown to exist in adult and pediatric bipolar disorder across the life span. Given that emotional dysregulation is central to bipolar disorder, this study hypothesizes that emotional circuitry regions are altered along with anomalies in the attentional systems during cognitive deployment in bipolar disorder. METHODS: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of attentional activities using GingerALE software was completed for adult and pediatric bipolar disorder populations in all published studies till December 2017...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779085/progressive-grey-matter-volume-changes-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-over-6-weeks-of-antipsychotic-treatment-and-their-relationship-to-clinical-improvement
#5
Xiao Zhang, Yuyanan Zhang, Jinmin Liao, Sisi Jiang, Jun Yan, Weihua Yue, Dai Zhang, Hao Yan
Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have identified widespread and progressive grey matter volume (GMV) reductions in schizophrenia, especially in the frontal lobe. In this study, we found a progressive GMV decrease in the rostral medial frontal cortex (rMFC, including the anterior cingulate cortex) in the patient group during a 6-week follow-up of 40 patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls well-matched for age, gender, and education. The higher baseline GMV in the rMFC predicted better improvement in the positive score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and this might be related to the improved reality-monitoring...
May 19, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778276/dissociable-frontostriatal-connectivity-mechanism-and-predictor-of-the-clinical-efficacy-of-capsulotomy-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Dazhi Yin, ChenCheng Zhang, Qiming Lv, Xiaoyu Chen, Kristina Zeljic, Hengfen Gong, Shikun Zhan, Haiyan Jin, Zheng Wang, Bomin Sun
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the neural mechanism and response variability underlying neurosurgical interventions for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Of 81 OCD patients screened for capsulotomy identified in our institutional database, 36 patients with clinical assessment before and after capsulotomy and imaging data (9 of 36 patients without postoperative imaging data used as an independent test group), and 29 healthy control subjects were retrospectively recruited...
April 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777819/7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-caudal-anterior-cingulate-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-atrophy-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#7
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Chan-A Park, Yeong-Jae Jeon, Soon Tae You, Hyun Man Baek, Youn Joo Lee, Chul Beom Cho, Chae Joon Cheong, Young Seok Park
The cingulate cortex (CC) is a brain region that plays a key role in pain processing, but CC abnormalities are not unclear in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The purpose of this study was to determine the central causal mechanisms of TN and the surrounding brain structure in healthy controls and patients with TN using 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain parcellation in gray matter volume and thickness was assessed in 15 patients with TN and 16 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and regional variability using T1-weighted imaging...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777003/impact-of-reference-target-region-selection-on-amyloid-pet-standard-uptake-value-ratios-in-the-phase-1b-prime-study-of-aducanumab
#8
Ping Chiao, Barry J Bedell, Brian Avants, Alex P Zijdenbos, Marilyn Grand'Maison, Paul O'Neill, John O'Gorman, Tianle Chen, Robert Koeppe
Standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) are commonly used to quantify tracer uptake in amyloid beta positron emission tomography (Aβ-PET). Here, we explore the impact of target and reference region of interest (ROI) selection on SUVR effect size using interventional data from the ongoing Phase Ib PRIME study (NCT01677572) of aducanumab (BIIB037) in patients with prodromal or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Florbetapir PET SUVR was calculated at baseline (screening) and Weeks 26 and 54 for patients randomized to placebo and each of four aducanumab doses (1, 3, 6, and 10 mg/kg), using whole cerebellum, cerebellar grey matter, cerebellar white matter, pons, and subcortical white matter as reference regions...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#9
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773923/brain-activity-low-self-control-and-delinquency-an-fmri-study-of-at-risk-adolescents
#10
Ryan Charles Meldrum, Elisa M Trucco, Lora M Cope, Robert A Zucker, Mary M Heitzeg
Purpose: A vast literature finds that low self-control is associated with a myriad of antisocial behaviors. Consequently, increasing attention has focused on the causes of low self-control. While criminologists have directed significant attention to studying its social causes, fewer studies have considered its neural bases. Methods: We add to this nascent body of research by using data collected on an at-risk sample of adolescents participating in the ongoing Michigan Longitudinal Study...
May 2018: Journal of Criminal Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773153/differential-electrophysiological-correlates-of-panic-disorder-in-non-pulsatile-tinnitus
#11
T Pattyn, S Vanneste, D De Ridder, V Van Rompaey, D J Veltman, P Van de Heyning, Bcg Sabbe, F Van Den Eede
AIMS: The prevalence of panic disorder (PD) reportedly is up to fivefold higher in people with tinnitus than it is in the general population. The brain networks in the two conditions overlap but the pathophysiological link remains unclear. In this study the electrophysiological brain activity is investigated in adults with non-pulsatile tinnitus with and without concurrent PD. METHODS: Resting-state EEGs of 16 participants with non-pulsatile tinnitus and PD were compared with those of 16 peers with non-pulsatile tinnitus without PD and as many healthy controls...
June 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769646/long-term-impacts-of-prenatal-synthetic-glucocorticoids-exposure-on-functional-brain-correlates-of-cognitive-monitoring-in-adolescence
#12
Liesa Ilg, Manousos Klados, Nina Alexander, Clemens Kirschbaum, Shu-Chen Li
The fetus is highly responsive to the level of glucocorticoids in the gestational environment. Perturbing glucocorticoids during fetal development could yield long-term consequences. Extending prior research about effects of prenatally exposed synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) on brain structural development during childhood, we investigated functional brain correlates of cognitive conflict monitoring in term-born adolescents, who were prenatally exposed to sGC. Relative to the comparison group, behavioral response consistency (indexed by lower reaction time variability) and a brain correlate of conflict monitoring (the N2 event-related potential) were reduced in the sGC exposed group...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767303/the-neural-signatures-of-egocentric-bias-in-normative-decision-making
#13
Chunliang Feng, Xue Feng, Li Wang, Lili Wang, Ruolei Gu, Aiping Ni, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Zhihao Li, Yue-Jia Luo
Bargaining parties often disagree on what fair is, due to the reason that people are prone to believe that what favors oneself is fair, i.e., an egocentric bias. In this study, we investigated the neural signatures underlying egocentric bias in fairness decision-making, conjoining an adapted ultimatum game (UG) with event-related fMRI and functional connectivity. Participants earned monetary rewards with a partner in a production stage, wherein their contributions to the earnings were manipulated. Afterwards, the joint earnings were randomly divided, and the distribution was presented simultaneously with contribution information to participants, who accepted/rejected distributions of earnings as the same manner in standard UG...
May 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764396/functional-connectivity-of-hippocampal-subregions-in-ptsd-relations-with-symptoms
#14
Bailee L Malivoire, Todd A Girard, Ronak Patel, Candice M Monson
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal hippocampal activity; however, the functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus with other brain regions in PTSD and its relations with symptoms warrants further attention. We investigated subregional hippocampal FC in PTSD during a resting state compared with a trauma-exposed control (TEC) group. Based on extant research, we targeted the FCs of the anterior and posterior hippocampal subregions with the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the posterior cingulate (PCC)...
May 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761060/loss-anticipation-and-outcome-during-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task-a-neuroimaging-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Jules R Dugré, Alexandre Dumais, Nathalie Bitar, Stéphane Potvin
Background: Reward seeking and avoidance of punishment are key motivational processes. Brain-imaging studies often use the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) to evaluate motivational processes involved in maladaptive behavior. Although the bulk of research has been done on the MIDT reward events, little is known about the neural basis of avoidance of punishment. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain activations during anticipation and receipt of monetary losses in healthy controls...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760484/top-down-descending-facilitation-of-spinal-sensory-excitatory-transmission-from-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#16
Tao Chen, Wataru Taniguchi, Qi-Yu Chen, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Qian Song, Ren-Hao Liu, Kohei Koga, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Yae Kaito-Sugimura, Jian Wang, Zhi-Hua Li, Ya-Cheng Lu, Kazuhide Inoue, Makoto Tsuda, Yun-Qing Li, Terumasa Nakatsuka, Min Zhuo
Spinal sensory transmission is under descending biphasic modulation, and descending facilitation is believed to contribute to chronic pain. Descending modulation from the brainstem rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) has been the most studied, whereas little is known about direct corticospinal modulation. Here, we found that stimulation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) potentiated spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and this modulation is independent of the RVM. Peripheral nerve injury enhanced the spinal synaptic transmission and occluded the ACC-spinal cord facilitation...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760060/corticoinsular-circuits-encode-subjective-value-expectation-and-violation-for-effortful-goal-directed-behavior
#17
Amanda R Arulpragasam, Jessica A Cooper, Makiah R Nuutinen, Michael T Treadway
We are presented with choices each day about how to invest our effort to achieve our goals. Critically, these decisions must frequently be made under conditions of incomplete information, where either the effort required or possible reward to be gained is uncertain. Such choices therefore require the development of potential value estimates to guide effortful goal-directed behavior. To date, however, the neural mechanisms for this expectation process are unknown. Here, we used computational fMRI during an effort-based decision-making task where trial-wise information about effort costs and reward magnitudes was presented separately over time, thereby allowing us to model distinct effort/reward computations as choice-relevant information unfolded...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758439/subgenual-anterior-cingulate-insula-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-neural-correlate-to-trait-and-state-stress-resilience
#18
Robin Shao, Way K W Lau, Mei-Kei Leung, Tatia M C Lee
Accumulating evidence indicates important roles of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and rostral limbic regions such as the anterior insula, in regulating stress-related affective responses and negative affect states in general. However, research is lacking in simultaneously assessing the inter-relations between trait and state affective responses to stress, and the functional connectivity between the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula. This preliminary research involved matched healthy participants with high (N = 10) and low (N = 10) self-reported trait stress resilience, and assessed their affective and subgenual anterior cingulate-anterior insula resting-state functional connectivity patterns before and after a psychosocial stress task...
May 11, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756082/altered-cortical-gaba-in-female-veterans-with-suicidal-behavior-sex-differences-and-clinical-correlates
#19
Andrew Prescot, Chandni Sheth, Margaret Legarreta, Perry F Renshaw, Erin McGlade, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Background: Suicide is a public health concern in the civilian and veteran populations. Stressful life events are precipitating factors for suicide. The neurochemical underpinnings of the association between stress/trauma and suicide risk are unclear, especially in regards to sex differences. We hypothesized that gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter may be a neurochemical candidate that is critical in the association between stress and suicide risk in veterans...
April 6, 2018: Chronic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755373/bidirectional-causal-connectivity-in-the-cortico-limbic-cerebellar-circuit-related-to-structural-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-somatization-disorder
#20
Ranran Li, Feng Liu, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Jin Zhao, Ying Wang, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Background: Anatomical and functional deficits in the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit are involved in the neurobiology of somatization disorder (SD). The present study was performed to examine causal connectivity of the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit related to structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD at rest. Methods: A total of 25 first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis (GCA) were used to analyze the data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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