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Anterior cingulate cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#1
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#2
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424396/-the-center-of-sadness-pain-and-recognition
#3
Richi Niida, Masaru Mimura
The posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area, BA 23) is the hub of the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, its network connectivity decreases early in Alzheimer disease. The anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) is connected to networks such as the DMN, working memory network (WMN), and salience network (SN) and plays a role in network coordination. The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) on the rostral region of the anterior cingulated cortex is suggested to be associated with depression.
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423021/trait-impulsivity-components-correlate-differently-with-proactive-and-reactive-control
#4
Shihua Huang, Zude Zhu, Wei Zhang, Yu Chen, Shuangju Zhen
The relationship between impulsivity and cognitive control is still unknown. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity would differentially correlate with specific cognitive control processes. Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, which assesses motor, attention, and non-planning impulsiveness components. Cognitive control was measured by a hybrid-designed Stroop task, which distinguishes proactive and reactive control. Thirty-three participants performed the Stroop task while they were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422818/inhibition-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-1-alters-the-excitability-of-the-commissural-pyramidal-neuron-in-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-after-chronic-constriction-injury-to-the-sciatic-nerve
#5
Shi-Hao Gao, Lin-Lin Shen, Hui-Zhong Wen, Yan-Dong Zhao, Huai-Zhen Ruan
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 in the anterior cingulate cortex has an analgesic effect during sustained nociceptive hypersensitivity. However, the specific changes in different subtypes of anterior cingulate cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as the distinct effect of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 inhibition on different neuronal subtypes, have not been well studied. METHODS: Retrograde labeling combined with immunofluorescence, whole cell clamp recording, and behavioral tests combined with RNA interference were performed in a rat model of chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve...
April 19, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420981/age-related-difference-in-functional-brain-connectivity-of-mastication
#6
Chia-Shu Lin, Ching-Yi Wu, Shih-Yun Wu, Hsiao-Han Lin, Dong-Hui Cheng, Wen-Liang Lo
The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420309/a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-study-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-a-3-tesla-clinical-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-system-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-the-left-cerebellum
#7
Hiromichi Ito, Kenji Mori, Masafumi Harada, Sonoka Hisaoka, Yoshihiro Toda, Tatsuo Mori, Aya Goji, Yoko Abe, Masahito Miyazaki, Shoji Kagami
The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate metabolite concentration ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex and left cerebellum in ASD. In the ACC and left cerebellum studies, the ASD group and intelligence quotient- and age-matched control group consisted of 112 and 114 subjects and 65 and 45 subjects, respectively. In the ASD group, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)+/ creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex, and glutamate (Glu)/Cr was significantly increased and GABA+/Cr was significantly decreased in the left cerebellum compared to those in the control group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419641/neural-correlates-of-experimental-trauma-memory-retrieval
#8
Geraldine A Gvozdanovic, Philipp Stämpfli, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic memories such as intrusions and flashbacks play a major role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying traumatic memories is indispensable for precise diagnosis, for personalized treatment and prevention. In particular, the identification of early neural predictor variables for intrusion development shortly after trauma exposure requires detailed investigation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here, we examined the neural correlates of early experimental trauma memory retrieval in a traumatic film paradigm in 42 young healthy females, using both implicit and explicit retrieval tasks...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419607/subjective-and-objective-sleep-quality-modulate-emotion-regulatory-brain-function-in-anxiety-and-depression
#9
Heide Klumpp, Julia Roberts, Mary C Kapella, Amy E Kennedy, Anand Kumar, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in emotion regulation and sleep are shared across anxiety and mood disorders. Poor sleep has been shown to impair cognitive processes which may undermine cognitive regulatory function. However, it remains unknown if sleep quality impacts regulatory mechanisms in clinical anxiety and depression. METHODS: During fMRI, 78 patients with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or major depressive disorder completed a validated emotion regulation task, which involved reappraisal (i...
April 18, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419056/response-characteristics-of-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-to-ultrasonic-communicative-vocalizations
#10
Yumi Saito, Kazuo Okanoya
Emotional communication involves transmitting information on affective states. Rat 50- and 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emotional communication signals that reflect positive or negative states, respectively. In general, emotional communication signals that elicit changes in event-related potentials (ERPs), suggesting a specific mechanism for processing these signals. As this is observed in several communication systems including humans, we hypothesized that rat USVs can also trigger such changes...
April 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418404/a-pathway-linking-reward-circuitry-impulsive-sensation-seeking-and-risky-decision-making-in-young-adults-identifying-neural-markers-for-new-interventions
#11
H W Chase, J C Fournier, M A Bertocci, T Greenberg, H Aslam, R Stiffler, J Lockovich, S Graur, G Bebko, E E Forbes, M L Phillips
High trait impulsive sensation seeking (ISS) is common in 18-25-year olds, and is associated with risky decision-making and deleterious outcomes. We examined relationships among: activity in reward regions previously associated with ISS during an ISS-relevant context, uncertain reward expectancy (RE), using fMRI; ISS impulsivity and sensation-seeking subcomponents; and risky decision-making in 100, transdiagnostically recruited 18-25-year olds. ISS, anhedonia, anxiety, depression and mania were measured using self-report scales; clinician-administered scales also assessed the latter four...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416565/cingulo-insular-structural-alterations-associated-with-psychogenic-symptoms-childhood-abuse-and-ptsd-in-functional-neurological-disorders
#12
David L Perez, Nassim Matin, Arthur Barsky, Victor Costumero-Ramos, Sara J Makaretz, Sigrid S Young, Jorge Sepulcre, W Curt LaFrance, Matcheri S Keshavan, Bradford C Dickerson
OBJECTIVE: Adverse early-life events are predisposing factors for functional neurological disorder (FND) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cingulo-insular regions are implicated in the biology of both conditions and are sites of stress-mediated neuroplasticity. We hypothesised that functional neurological symptoms and the magnitude of childhood abuse would be associated with overlapping anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular volumetric reductions, and that FND and PTSD symptoms would map onto distinct cingulo-insular areas...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415008/bipolar-mood-state-reflected-in-cortico-amygdala-resting-state-connectivity-a-cohort-and-longitudinal-study
#13
Roscoe O Brady, Allison Margolis, Grace A Masters, Matcheri Keshavan, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413778/family-history-and-apoe4-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-impact-the-neural-correlates-of-episodic-memory-by-early-midlife
#14
M N Rajah, L M K Wallace, E Ankudowich, E H Yu, A Swierkot, R Patel, M M Chakravarty, D Naumova, J Pruessner, R Joober, S Gauthier, S Pasvanis
Episodic memory impairment is a consistent, pronounced deficit in pre-clinical stages of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with risk factors for AD exhibit altered brain function several decades prior to the onset of AD-related symptoms. In the current event-related fMRI study of spatial context memory we tested the hypothesis that middle-aged adults (MA; 40-58 yrs) with a family history of late onset AD (MA+ FH), or a combined + FH and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele risk factors for AD (MA+ FH + APOE4), will exhibit differences in encoding and retrieval-related brain activity, compared to - FH - APOE4 MA controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411274/posterior-orbitofrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-pathways-to-the-amygdala-target-inhibitory-and-excitatory-systems-with-opposite-functions
#15
Basilis Zikopoulos, Malin Hoistad, Yohan John, Helen Barbas
The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys we found that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411159/in-vivo-visualization-of-connections-among-revised-papez-circuit-hubs-using-full-q-space-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-tractography
#16
Peng-Hu Wei, Zhi-Qi Mao, Fei Cong, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Bo Wang, Zhi-Pei Ling, Shu-Li Liang, Lin Chen, Xin-Guang Yu
Structural connections among the hubs of the revised Papez circuit remain to be elucidated in the human brain. As the original Papez circuit failed to explain functional imaging findings, a more detailed investigation is needed to delineate connections among the circuit's key hubs. Here we acquired diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) from eight normal subjects and used data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to elucidate connections among hubs in the retrosplenial gyrus, hippocampus, mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nuclei...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411154/neural-mechanisms-of-individual-differences-in-temporal-discounting-of-monetary-and-primary-rewards-in-adolescents
#17
Erik de Water, Gabry W Mies, Bernd Figner, Yuliya Yoncheva, Wouter van den Bos, F Xavier Castellanos, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Adolescents are generally characterized as impulsive. However, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that involves multiple component processes. Which of these components contribute to adolescent impulsivity is currently unclear. This study focused on the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in distinct components of temporal discounting (TD), i.e., the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Participants were 58 adolescents (12-16 years-old) who performed an fMRI TD task with both monetary and snack rewards...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409563/glutamate-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Joseph O'Neill, John Piacentini, Susanna Chang, Ronald Ly, Tsz M Lai, Casey C Armstrong, Lindsey Bergman, Michelle Rozenman, Tara Peris, Allison Vreeland, Ross Mudgway, Jennifer G Levitt, Noriko Salamon, Stefan Posse, Gerhard S Hellemann, Jeffry R Alger, James T McCracken, Erika L Nurmi
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but non-response is common. Brain glutamate (Glu) signaling may contribute to OCD pathophysiology and moderate CBT outcomes. We assessed whether Glu measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was associated with OCD and/or CBT response. Youths aged 8-17 with DSM-IV OCD and typically-developing controls underwent 3T proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) MRS scans of pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and ventral posterior cingulate cortex (vPCC)-regions possibly affected by OCD-at baseline...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408292/threat-distractor-and-perceptual-load-modulate-test-retest-reliability-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-response
#19
Nora Bunford, Kerry L Kinney, Jamie Michael, Heide Klumpp
Accumulating data from fMRI studies implicate the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in inhibition of attention to threat distractors that compete with task-relevant goals for processing resources. However, little data is available on the reliability of rACC activation. Our aim in the current study was to examine test-retest reliability of rACC activation over a 12-week period, in the context of a validated emotional interference paradigm that varied in perceptual load. During functional MRI, 23 healthy volunteers completed a task involving a target letter in a string of identical letters (low load) or in a string of mixed letters (high load) superimposed on angry, fearful, and neutral face distractors...
April 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#20
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
April 13, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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