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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222526/the-impact-of-alzheimer-s-disease-on-the-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-brain-regions-modulating-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Todd B Monroe, Paul A Beach, Stephen P Bruehl, Mary S Dietrich, Baxter P Rogers, John C Gore, Sebastian W Atalla, Ronald L Cowan
BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown why people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) receive less pain medication and report pain less frequently. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of AD on thermal psychophysics and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among sensory, affective, descending modulatory, and default mode structures. METHODS: Controls (n = 23, 13 = female) and age-matched people with AD (n = 23, 13 = females) underwent psychophysical testing to rate perceptions of warmth, mild, and moderate pain and then completed resting-state fMRI...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222355/neuroimaging-of-major-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-cortical-thickness-cortical-and-subcortical-volume-and-spectroscopy-findings
#2
Marcos Hortes N Chagas, Vitor Tumas, Márcio A Pena-Pereira, João Paulo Machado-de-Sousa, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Rafael Faria Sanches, Jaime E C Hallak, José Alexandre S Crippa
Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to compare PD patients with current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), lifetime MDD, and no MDD using three neuroimaging techniques. A total of 43 PD patients were selected and divided into three groups: (i) current MDD (n = 15), (ii) previous MDD without current MDD (n = 10); and (iii) control group (no current or lifetime MDD; n = 18). All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume, and spectroscopy in the bilateral putamen and cingulate cortex...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220867/other-regarding-attention-focus-modulates-third-party-altruistic-choice-an-fmri-study
#3
Bastian David, Yang Hu, Frank Krüger, Bernd Weber
Third-party altruistic decision-making has been shown to be modulated by other-regarding attention (e.g., focusing on the offender's crime or the victim's situation especially in judicial judgment). However, the neural mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. In this fMRI study, participants voluntarily decided if they wanted to punish the first-party offender or help the second-party victim using their own monetary endowment in an unfair context. Particularly, before deciding they were asked to focus on the (un)fairness of the offender proposing the offer (offender-focused block, OB), the feeling of the victim receiving this offer (victim-focused block, VB), or without any specific focus (baseline block, BB)...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220826/different-brain-structures-associated-with-artistic-and-scientific-creativity-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#4
Baoguo Shi, Xiaoqing Cao, Qunlin Chen, Kaixiang Zhuang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220797/elevated-choline-containing-compound-levels-in-rapid-cycling-bipolar-disorder
#5
Bo Cao, Jeffrey A Stanley, Ives Cavalcante Passos, Benson Mwangi, Sudhakar Selvaraj, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
Previous studies have found increased levels of choline-containing compounds [ie, glycerophosphocholine plus phosphocholine (GPC+PC)] in bipolar disorder using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS), especially in bipolar I disorder (BD-I). Increased levels of GPC+PC suggest alterations in the membrane phospholipids metabolism in bipolar disorder. Rapid cycling (RC) bipolar disorder is considered as a severe course of bipolar disorder, but it is unclear whether rapid cycling bipolar disorder is linked to highly altered membrane phospholipid metabolism...
February 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220069/effects-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-interregional-relation-of-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-major-depression
#6
Gregory M James, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Cecile Philippe, Georg S Kranz, Thomas Vanicek, Andreas Hahn, Gregor Gryglewski, Marius Hienert, Marie Spies, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate serotonergic neurotransmission by blocking reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. Up to now, it remains unclear how SSRIs achieve their antidepressant effect. However, task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have demonstrated connectivity changes between brain regions. Here, we use positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify SSRI's main target, the serotonin transporter (SERT), and assess treatment-induced molecular changes in the interregional relation of SERT binding potential (BPND)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215391/childhood-trauma-related-alterations-in-brain-function-during-a-theory-of-mind-task-in-schizophrenia
#7
Yann Quidé, Xin H Ong, Sebastian Mohnke, Knut Schnell, Henrik Walter, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
Childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia that affects brain functions associated with higher cognitive processes, including social cognition. Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM), or mentalizing skills, are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia, and are also evident in individuals exposed to childhood trauma. However, the impact of childhood trauma exposure on brain function during social cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear. We thus examined the association between childhood trauma and brain function during the performance of a ToM task in 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
February 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213065/requiring-collaboration-hippocampal-prefrontal-networks-needed-in-spatial-working-memory-and-ageing-a-multivariate-analysis-approach
#8
C Zancada-Menendez, P Alvarez-Suarez, P Sampedro-Piquero, M Cuesta, A Begega
Ageing is characterized by a decline in the processes of retention and storage of spatial information. We have examined the behavioural performance of adult rats (3months old) and aged rats (18months old) in a spatial complex task (delayed match to sample). The spatial task was performed in the Morris water maze and consisted of three sessions per day over a period of three consecutive days. Each session consisted of two trials (one sample and retention) and inter-session intervals of 5min. Behavioural results showed that the spatial task was difficult for middle aged group...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207733/beyond-negative-valence-2-week-administration-of-a-serotonergic-antidepressant-enhances-both-reward-and-effort-learning-signals
#9
Jacqueline Scholl, Nils Kolling, Natalie Nelissen, Michael Browning, Matthew F S Rushworth, Catherine J Harmer
To make good decisions, humans need to learn about and integrate different sources of appetitive and aversive information. While serotonin has been linked to value-based decision-making, its role in learning is less clear, with acute manipulations often producing inconsistent results. Here, we show that when the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) are studied over longer timescales, learning is robustly improved. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in volunteers as they performed a concurrent appetitive (money) and aversive (effort) learning task...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205606/differential-abnormal-pattern-of-anterior-cingulate-gyrus-activation-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-an-fmri-and-pattern-classification-approach
#10
Christian Bürger, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Susanne Meinert, Katharina Dohm, Ilona Schneider, Dario Zaremba, Katharina Förster, Judith Alferink, Jens Bölte, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
Distinguishing bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder is a major challenge in psychiatric treatment. Consequently, there has been growing interest in identifying neuronal biomarkers of disorder-specific pathophysiological processes to differentiate affective disorders. Thirty-six depressed bipolar patients, 36 depressed unipolar patients and 36 matched healthy controls participated in an fMRI-experiment. Emotional faces served as stimuli in a matching task. We investigated neural activation towards angry, fearful and happy faces focusing on prototypical regions related to emotion processing, ie the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG)...
February 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205280/within-and-between-session-reproducibility-of-gaba-measurements-with-mr-spectroscopy
#11
Maiken K Brix, Lars Ersland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Gerard E Dwyer, Renate Grüner, Ralph Noeske, Mona K Beyer, Alexander R Craven
PURPOSE: The reproducibility of the MEGA-PRESS (MEshcher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) MR spectroscopy sequence for the measurement of gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) is addressed, focusing on optimizing the number of repetitions at two voxel locations in the human brain and associated possibilities in analysis tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two 20-min MEGA-PRESS acquisitions were run (echo time = 68 ms, repetition time = 1800 ms, repetitions = 328): one from a 21 mL volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and one from a 22 mL volume in the left Broca's area in 21 healthy male volunteers (age 32 years ± 6[SD])...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203143/pregenual-anterior-cingulate-gyrus-involvement-in-spontaneous-social-interactions-in-primates-evidence-from-behavioral-pharmacological-neuropsychiatric-and-neurophysiological-findings
#12
Can Van Mao, Mariana F P Araujo, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Ahn Hai Tran, Etsuro Hori, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in different aspects of cognition and decision making, including social cognition. Several studies suggest that this region is actually formed by sub-regions concerned with distinct cognitive functions. The ACC is usually divided in its rostro-caudal axis, with the caudal ACC playing a major role in processing own actions, and the rostral ACC being related to social cognition. Recently, it has been suggested that the ACC can also be functionally divided in its dorso-ventral axis into ACC gyrus (ACCg) and ACC sulcus (ACCs), with the ACCg having a central role in processing social information...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203104/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment-of-metabolite-status-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-chronic-pain-patients-and-healthy-controls
#13
Takahiro Ito, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Narihito Iwashita, Ikuo Tooyama, Akihiko Shiino, Katsuyuki Miura, Sei Fukui
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common cause of reduced quality of life. Recent studies suggest that chronic pain patients have a different brain neurometabolic status to healthy people. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can determine the concentrations of metabolites in a specific region of the brain without being invasive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 56 chronic pain patients and 60 healthy controls to compare brain metabolic characteristics...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198813/increased-anterior-cingulate-cortex-response-precedes-behavioural-adaptation-in-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Daniel Geisler, Franziska Ritschel, Joseph A King, Fabio Bernardoni, Maria Seidel, Ilka Boehm, Franziska Runge, Thomas Goschke, Veit Roessner, Michael N Smolka, Stefan Ehrlich
Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195568/military-deployment-correlates-with-smaller-prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-and-psychological-symptoms-in-a-subclinical-population
#15
O Butler, J Adolf, T Gleich, G Willmund, P Zimmermann, U Lindenberger, J Gallinat, S Kühn
Research investigating the effects of trauma exposure on brain structure and function in adults has mainly focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whereas trauma-exposed individuals without a clinical diagnoses often serve as controls. However, this assumes a dichotomy between clinical and subclinical populations that may not be supported at the neural level. In the current study we investigate whether the effects of repeated or long-term stress exposure on brain structure in a subclinical sample are similar to previous PTSD neuroimaging findings...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195205/paracingulate-sulcus-asymmetry-in-the-human-brain-effects-of-sex-handedness-and-race
#16
Xuehu Wei, Yan Yin, Menglin Rong, Jinfeng Zhang, Lijie Wang, Yan Wu, Qing Cai, Chunshui Yu, Jiaojian Wang, Tianzi Jiang
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is thought to play a key role in cognitive and affective regulation, has been widely reported to have a high degree of morphological inter-individual variability and asymmetry. An obvious difference is in the morphology of the paracingulate sulcus (PCS). Three types of PCS have been identified: prominent, present, and absent. In this study, we examined the relationship between PCS asymmetry and whether the asymmetry of the PCS is affected by sex, handedness, or race...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194128/disrupted-resting-state-default-mode-network-in-betel-quid-dependent-individuals
#17
Xueling Zhu, Qiuling Zhu, Canhua Jiang, Huaizhen Shen, Furong Wang, Weihua Liao, Fulai Yuan
Recent studies have shown that substance dependence (addiction) is accompanied with altered activity patterns of the default mode network (DMN). However, the neural correlates of the resting-state DMN and betel quid dependence (BQD)-related physiopathological characteristics still remain unclear. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging images were obtained from 26 BQD individuals and 28 matched healthy control subjects. Group independent component analysis was performed to analyze the resting state images into spatially independent components...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193583/nicotinic-modulation-of-salience-network-connectivity-and-centrality-in-schizophrenia
#18
Jason Smucny, Korey P Wylie, Eugene Kronberg, Kristina T Legget, Jason R Tregellas
Although functional abnormalities of the salience network are associated with schizophrenia, the acute effects of nicotine on its function and network dynamics during the resting state in patients are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of a 7 mg nicotine patch (vs. placebo) on salience network connectivity were examined in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy subjects. We hypothesized abnormal connectivity between the salience network and other major networks (e.g. executive network) in patients under placebo administration and amelioration of this difference after nicotine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188914/connectivity-based-parcellation-reveals-distinct-cortico-striatal-connectivity-fingerprints-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Joshua H Balsters, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183367/selective-functional-disconnection-of-the-orbitofrontal-subregions-in-schizophrenia
#20
Y Xu, W Qin, C Zhuo, L Xu, J Zhu, X Liu, C Yu
BACKGROUND: As a disconnection syndrome, schizophrenia has shown impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); however, the OFC is a rather heterogeneous region and the rsFC changes in the OFC subregions remain unknown. METHOD: A total of 98 schizophrenia patients and 102 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence (SENSE-SPIRAL) to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion...
February 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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