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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227768/measures-of-the-brain-functional-network-that-correlate-with-alzheimer-s-neuropsychological-test-scores-an-fmri-and-graph-analysis-study
#1
Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Neural degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to structural topology deformation that in turn changes brain functionality. The main aim of the present study is to find the brain's functional connectivity network (FCN) correlates of Alzheimer's psychological test scores. To this end, the brain's FCN is extracted from the resting state functional magnetic resonance images (rs-fMRI) of healthy controls and patients with AD and represented as a graph. Then, network measures are calculated from the graphs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225716/divergent-functions-of-the-left-and-right-central-amygdala-in-visceral-nociception
#2
Katelyn E Sadler, Neal A McQuaid, Abigail C Cox, Marissa N Behun, Allison M Trouten, Benedict J Kolber
The left and right central amygdala (CeA) are limbic regions involved in somatic and visceral pain processing. These two nuclei are asymmetrically involved in somatic pain modulation; pain-like responses on both sides of the body are preferentially driven by the right CeA, and in a reciprocal fashion, nociceptive somatic stimuli on both sides of the body predominantly alter molecular and physiological activity in the right CeA. Unknown however, is whether this lateralization also exists in visceral pain processing, and furthermore, what function the left CeA has in modulating nociceptive information...
December 29, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224079/altered-structural-brain-changes-and-neurocognitive-performance-in-pediatric-hiv
#3
Santosh K Yadav, Rakesh K Gupta, Ravindra K Garg, Vimala Venkatesh, Pradeep K Gupta, Alok K Singh, Sheema Hashem, Asma Al-Sulaiti, Deepak Kaura, Ena Wang, Francesco M Marincola, Mohammad Haris
Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3 T clinical scanner...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223808/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-could-be-a-cause-of-catatonic-symptoms-in-psychiatric-patients-case-reports-and-methods-for-detection
#4
Ko Tsutsui, Takashi Kanbayashi, Manabu Takaki, Yuki Omori, Yumiko Imai, Seiji Nishino, Keiko Tanaka, Tetsuo Shimizu
The symptoms of catatonia have been reported to be similar to the initial symptoms of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Subsequently, this autoimmune limbic encephalitis has been noticed by many psychiatrists. For a differential diagnosis of catatonic state, it is important to detect anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This encephalitis is expected to be in remission by early detection and treatment. We should be more cautious about catatonic symptoms of schizophrenia. When a patient is suspected of having encephalitis, we should screen for anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid samples using a cell-based assay...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223240/carbachol-induced-network-oscillations-in-an-in-vitro-limbic-system-brain-slice
#5
Maxime Lévesque, Mauro Cataldi, Li-Yuan Chen, Shabnam Hamidi, Massimo Avoli
We employed simultaneous field potential recordings from CA3, subiculum and entorhinal cortex in an in vitro brain slice preparation to understand the involvement of these limbic areas in the generation of the field potential oscillations that are induced by bath application of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol. Regularly spaced oscillations that mainly presented at theta frequency range (5-12 Hz) occurred synchronously in all three structures in the presence of carbachol. These oscillations, which disappeared when slices were perfused with pirenzepine or with glutamatergic receptor antagonists, were categorized as short (< 4 s) and long (> 4s) with short events oscillating at higher frequencies than long events...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223098/cannabis-and-alcohol-use-and-the-developing-brain
#6
REVIEW
A D Meruelo, N Castro, C I Cota, S F Tapert
Sex hormones and white (and grey) matter in the limbic system, cortex and other brain regions undergo changes during adolescence. Some of these changes include ongoing white matter myelination and sexually dimorphic features in grey and white matter. Adolescence is also a period of vulnerability when many are first exposed to alcohol and cannabis, which appear to influence the developing brain. Neuropsychological studies have provided considerable understanding of the effects of alcohol and cannabis on the brain...
February 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223097/the-roles-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-via-the-habenula-in-non-reward-and-depression-and-in-the-responses-of-serotonin-and-dopamine-neurons
#7
Edmund T Rolls
Cortical regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex involved in reward and in non-reward and which are implicated in depression, and the amygdala, are connected to the habenula via the striatum and pallidum, and via subcortical limbic structures. The habenula in turn projects to the raphe nuclei, the source of the serotonin-containing neurons that project to the forebrain. It is proposed that this provides a route for cortical signals related to reward, and to not obtaining expected rewards, to influence the serotonin-containing neuronal system that is influenced by many antidepressant treatments...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223096/the-habenula-in-psychiatric-disorders-more-than-three-decades-of-translational-investigation
#8
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have also implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222692/hashimoto-s-encephalitis-associated-with-ampar2-antibodies-a-case-report
#9
Mingqin Zhu, Xuefan Yu, Caiyun Liu, Chenchen Duan, Chunxiao Li, Jie Zhu, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's encephalitis (HE) is a rare neurological complication of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), while limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder frequently associated with anti-neuronal antibodies. The glutamate receptor α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is important for synaptic transmission, memory, and learning. The etiology of HE remains unclear. We present a case of HE with antibodies to AMPAR2 both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
February 21, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220796/beyond-the-classic-vta-extended-amygdala-projections-to-da-striatal-paths-in-the-primate
#10
Julie L Fudge, Emily A Kelly, Ria Pal, Joseph L Bedont, Lydia Park, Brian Ho
The central extended amygdala (CEA) has been conceptualized as a 'macrosystem' that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine (DA) system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA-striatal pathways...
February 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219492/microstructural-white-matter-alterations-in-the-corpus-callosum-of-girls-with-conduct-disorder
#11
Willeke Martine Menks, Reto Furger, Claudia Lenz, Lynn Valérie Fehlbaum, Christina Stadler, Nora Maria Raschle
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in adolescent conduct disorder (CD) have demonstrated white matter alterations of tracts connecting functionally distinct fronto-limbic regions, but only in boys or mixed-gender samples. So far, no study has investigated white matter integrity in girls with CD on a whole-brain level. Therefore, our aim was to investigate white matter alterations in adolescent girls with CD. METHOD: We collected high-resolution DTI data from 24 girls with CD and 20 typically developing control girls using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging system...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214332/comparison-of-several-white-matter-tracts-in-feline-and-canine-brain-by-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
Olivier Jacqmot, Bert Van Thielen, Alex Michotte, Inneke Willekens, Filip Verhelle, Peter Goossens, Filip De Ridder, Jan Pieter Clarys, Anne Vanbinst, Cindy Peleman, Johan de Mey
Recently, we published a first anatomical Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) atlas regarding white matter tracts in the canine brain. The purpose of this study was to show the significance of DTI in the revelation of the white matter fibres in the feline brain (i.e. to obtain an anatomical DTI atlas of images) and to descriptively compare these to previously obtained white matter fibre images of the canine brain. DTI MR Images of 4 cats euthanised for reasons other than neurological disorders were obtained with a 3 T system...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#13
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211789/the-cortical-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-the-conditioned-response-to-the-threat-of-breathlessness
#14
Olivia K Faull, Kyle Ts Pattinson
Previously we observed differential activation in individual columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) during breathlessness and its conditioned anticipation (Faull et al., 2016). Here, we have extended this work by determining how the individual columns of the PAG interact with higher cortical centres, both at rest and in the context of breathlessness threat. Activation was observed in ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) and lateral PAG (lPAG), where activity scaled with breathlessness intensity ratings, revealing a potential interface between sensation and cognition during breathlessness...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#15
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209423/constitutive-increases-in-amygdalar-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-drive-an-anxious-phenotype
#16
Luis A Natividad, Matthew W Buczynski, Melissa A Herman, Dean Kirson, Christopher S Oleata, Cristina Irimia, Ilham Polis, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Marisa Roberto, Loren H Parsons
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mediates anxiogenic responses by activating CRF type 1 (CRF1) receptors in limbic brain regions. Anxiety is further modulated by the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system that attenuates the synaptic effects of stress. In the amygdala, acute stress activates the enzymatic clearance of the eCB N-arachidonoylethanolamine via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), although it is unclear whether chronic dysregulation of CRF systems induces maladaptive changes in amygdalar eCB signaling...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208069/neural-activity-during-production-of-rorschach-responses-an-fmri-study
#17
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
Recently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limbic system...
February 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194064/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-patients-with-neurologic-disorders-review-of-63-cases
#19
Anil Tombak, Mehmet Ali Uçar, Aydan Akdeniz, Arda Yilmaz, Hakan Kaleagası, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Eyup Naci Tiftik
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure that reduces circulating autoantibodies of the patients. TPE is commonly used in neurological disorders where autoimmunity plays a major role. We report our experience with regard to the indications, adverse events and outcomes of plasma exchange in neurological disorders. Sixty-three patients were included to this retrospective study. Median age was 48 years (range 1-85), there was a predominance of males. Neurological indications included Guillain-Barrè syndrome (n = 22), myasthenia gravis (n = 21), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 7), polymyositis (n = 3), multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 2), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2), neuromyelitis optica (n = 2), multiple sclerosis (n = 2), limbic encephalitis (n = 1) and transverse myelitis (n = 1)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190643/left-habenula-mediates-light-preference-behavior-in-zebrafish-via-an-asymmetrical-visual-pathway
#20
Bai-Bing Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Yao, He-Fei Zhang, Koichi Kawakami, Jiu-Lin Du
Habenula (Hb) plays critical roles in emotion-related behaviors through integrating inputs mainly from the limbic system and basal ganglia. However, Hb also receives inputs from multiple sensory modalities. The function and underlying neural circuit of Hb sensory inputs remain unknown. Using larval zebrafish, we found that left dorsal Hb (dHb, a homolog of mammalian medial Hb) mediates light-preference behavior by receiving visual inputs from a specific subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through eminentia thalami (EmT)...
February 3, 2017: Neuron
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