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E Saralidze, L Khuchua, I Kobaidze
The interaction between different brain structures could be crucial to predicting seizure occurrence, threshold and spread. Moreover, the sleep-wake cycle and electrical activity of brain structures in different phases of sleep could significantly affect the pattern and extent of seizure spread, and therefore the characteristics of epileptic activity. In this animal model using 15 Wistar rats, we show that the duration of hippocampal seizures, induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus, is significantly increased during slow sleep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Yaling Yang, Shantanu H Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Laura A Baker
Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i...
October 21, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Chuanjun Zhuo, Jiajia Zhu, Chunli Wang, Hongru Qu, Xiaolei Ma, Wen Qin
Alterations in grey matter structure and functional connectivity (FC) are pathological features of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between brain structural and functional impairments in MDD remains uncertain. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) and resting-state global functional connectivity density (rs-gFCD) in MDD. Forty-five patients with MDD and 48 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 20, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Y Kimura, J Maeda, M Yamada, K Takahata, K Yokokawa, Y Ikoma, C Seki, H Ito, M Higuchi, T Suhara
RATIONALE: The beneficial effects of psychostimulant drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders occur because they increase the extracellular dopamine concentration by inhibiting re-uptake of extracellular dopamine at dopamine transporters. However, the psychological effects at low dopamine transporter occupancy have not been well demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the psychological effects, dopamine transporter occupancy, and dopamine release induced by a single oral administration of a clinical dose of mazindol...
October 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Douglas Senna Engelke, Renato Filev, Luiz E Mello, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior
Addiction is a multifactorial disease that comprises physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. Addict subjects have intense plasticity in cortical and limbic circuits during intoxication, abstinence or even in drug seeking behavior. Locomotor sensitization is a classic animal model of drug addiction that mimics the changes that occur in the transition from drug use to drug addiction. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of contextual associative processes in this task. However, whether the mechanisms of sensitization are maintained and precise over the time remain an open question...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Benedetta Vai, Chiara Bulgarelli, Beata R Godlewska, Philip J Cowen, Francesco Benedetti, Catherine J Harmer
The timely selection of the optimal treatment for depressed patients is critical to improve remission rates. The detection of pre-treatment variables able to predict differential treatment response may provide novel approaches for treatment selection. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate the fronto-limbic functional response and connectivity, an effect preceding the overt clinical antidepressant effects. Here we investigated whether the cortico-limbic connectivity associated with emotional bias measured before SSRI administration predicts the efficacy of antidepressant treatment in MDD patients...
October 15, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A Kibleur, G Gras-Combe, D Benis, J Bastin, T Bougerol, S Chabardès, M Polosan, O David
High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can be used to treat severe obsessive-compulsive disorders that are refractory to conventional treatments. The mechanisms of action of this approach possibly rely on the modulation of associative-limbic subcortical-cortical loops, but remain to be fully elucidated. Here in 12 patients, we report the effects of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on behavior, and on electroencephalographic responses and inferred effective connectivity during motor inhibition processes involved in the stop signal task...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Astrid Kibleur, Mircea Polosan, Pauline Favre, David Rudrauf, Thierry Bougerol, Stéphan Chabardès, Olivier David
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate gyrus (area CG25) is beneficial in treatment resistant depression. Though the mechanisms of action of Cg25 DBS remain largely unknown, it is commonly believed that Cg25 DBS modulates limbic activity of large networks to achieve thymic regulation of patients. To investigate how emotional attention is influenced by Cg25 DBS, we assessed behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to an emotional Stroop task in 5 patients during ON and OFF stimulation conditions...
October 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Jiaolong Qin, Haiyan Liu, Maobin Wei, Ke Zhao, Jianhuai Chen, Jingyu Zhu, Xiangyu Shen, Rui Yan, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu
BACKGROUND: The role of abnormal communications among large-scale brain networks have been given increasing attentions in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have investigated the effect of antidepressant medication treatment on the information communication of structural brain networks, especially converged from the individual analysis. METHODS: Nineteen unipolar MDD patients completed two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans before and after 8-week treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Mickael Dinomais, Sebastien Celle, Guillaume T Duval, Frederic Roche, Samir Henni, Robert Bartha, Olivier Beauchet, Cedric Annweiler
The clinical utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its shorter version (SMMSE) is still debated. There is a need to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of these cognitive tests. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether lower MMSE and SMMSE scores correlated with focal brain volume reduction in older adults. Participants from the GAIT study (n = 207; mean, 70.9±5.9 years; 57% female; mean MMSE 26.2±3.9; mean SMMSE 5.1±1.1) were evaluated using the MMSE and SMMSE and received a 1...
2016: PloS One
Deepa Dash, Madhavi Tripathi, Kavish Ihtisham, Manjari Tripathi
Limbic encephalitis is a group of immune-mediated disorders that includes the classic paraneoplastic encephalitic syndrome and the recently described non-paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis most of which target the extracellular antigens. We present a case of 70-year-old man who presented with rapidly progressive cognitive decline and refractory faciobrachial dystonic seizures and demonstrated seropositivity for leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein 1 antibodies. After immunomodulation, the patient had dramatic improvement in the cognitive functioning and in seizure control...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Masatsugu Moriwaki, Shuji Iritani, Chikako Habuchi, Youta Torii, Kentaro Umeda, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Mari Yoshida, Kiyoshi Fujita
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old male who had shown many psychiatric symptoms, but whose autopsy disclosed the presence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). When he was 70 years old, the patient had presented with stereotyped behavior, dietary changes, and a decline in social interpersonal conduct in clinical settings, and it was thought that these symptoms were consistent with a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and he lacked the core features of DLB. Nevertheless, this case was pathologically defined as the limbic type of DLB after he died at the age of 75 years...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
Dana van Son, Reinout W Wiers, Andrés Catena, Miguel Perez-Garcia, Antonio Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence has been associated with alterations in the brain's white matter integrity, yet relevant questions remain about what alterations are linked to cocaine use and/or polysubstance use, and whether they are amenable to abstinence. METHODS: This study applied a single measurement session of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter structure in male cocaine polysubstance users (n=37) versus male healthy controls (n=38), along with correlations between DTI measures and patterns of polysubstance use and duration of abstinence...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Sarah K B Bick, Bradley S Folley, Jutta S Mayer, Sohee Park, P David Charles, Corrie R Camalier, Srivatsan Pallavaram, Peter E Konrad, Joseph S Neimat
OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease. STN DBS may also affect emotion, possibly by impacting a parallel limbic cortico-striatal circuit. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in prefrontal cortical activity related to DBS during an emotion induction task. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used near infrared spectroscopy to monitor prefrontal cortex hemodynamic changes during an emotion induction task...
October 12, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Saul Martinez-Horta, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Ramón Fernandez-Bobadilla, Juan Marin-Lahoz, Jordi Riba, Jaime Kulisevsky
Apathy is a common but poorly understood neuropsychiatric disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD). In a recent study using event-related brain potentials we demonstrated impaired reward processing and compromised mesocortico-limbic pathways in PD patients with clinical symptoms of apathy. Here we aimed to further investigate the involvement of reward circuits in apathetic PD patients by assessing potential differences in brain structure. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we quantified grey matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 18 non-demented and non-depressed PD patients with apathy, and 18 matched non-apathetic patients...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kanchana S Pillai, Pratik Padole, Uma Sundar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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