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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161341/distinct-spatiotemporal-accumulation-of-n-truncated-and-full-length-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Mitsuru Shinohara, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Jeremy Nix, Motoko Shinohara, Naoya Aoki, Pritam Das, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Terrone L Rosenberry, Dennis W Dickson, Guojun Bu
Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease; however, it is not clear how individual amyloid-β species accumulate and affect other neuropathological and clinical features in the disease. Thus, we compared the accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β and full-length amyloid-β, depending on disease stage as well as brain area, and determined how these amyloid-β species respectively correlate with clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease...
November 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160088/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-to-limbic-associative-and-motor-networks
#2
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Christina Triantafyllou, Aaron Mattfeld, John D Gabrieli, Maiya Geddes
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small structure situated deep in the mid-brain that exhibits wide-ranging functionality. In addition to its role in motor control, the STN is considered a hub for synchronizing aspects of emotion and cognition including attention, inhibitory control, motivation, and working memory. Evidence from neuroanatomical tracer studies suggests that the medial, ventromedial, and dorsolateral parts of the STN correspond to limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions respectively. While the extent of STN functional anatomical overlap remains unclear, BOLD imaging of the STN may provide complementary information about the diverse functions of this structure...
November 21, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159962/expression-profile-of-n-cadherin-and-protocadherin-19-in-postnatal-mouse-limbic-structures
#3
Anne Schaarschuch, Nicole Hertel
Cadherins are a superfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules that are involved in brain development and organization. Previous genetic studies revealed that mutations in protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) lead to an epilepsy syndrome with a variable degree of cognitive disability. Seizure origins are located in the frontotemporal and limbic structures. Expression studies of Pcdh19 in mouse confirmed a widespread presence during brain development while the function and the pathogenesis of Pcdh19 are still unknown in mammals...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158585/child-abuse-associates-with-an-imbalance-of-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-white-matter
#4
A Tanti, J J Kim, M Wakid, M-A Davoli, G Turecki, N Mechawar
Child abuse (CA) is a major risk factor for depression, and strongly associates with suicidal behavior during adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have reported widespread changes in white matter integrity and brain connectivity in subjects with a history of CA. Although such observations could reflect changes in myelin and oligodendrocyte function, their cellular underpinnings have never been addressed. Using postmortem brain samples from depressed suicides with or without history of CA and matched controls (18 per group), we aimed to characterize the effects of CA on oligodendrocyte-lineage (OL) cells in the ventromedial prefrontal white matter...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158368/anti-hu-associated-autoimmune-limbic-encephalitis-in-a-patient-with-pd-1-inhibitor-responsive-myxoid-chondrosarcoma
#5
Kyriakos P Papadopoulos, Rebecca S Romero, Gabriela Gonzalez, James E Dix, Israel Lowy, Matthew Fury
Autoimmune encephalitis is an uncommon complication of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. This article reports a case of fatal anti-Hu-associated autoimmune limbic encephalitis presenting within 8 weeks following anti-PD1 therapy in a patient with myxoid chondrosarcoma and pre-existing anti-Hu antibodies. Although tumor reduction occurred in response to PD-1 inhibitor therapy, the patient had a rapidly progressive decline in neurologic function despite initial stabilization with immunosuppression. Considering the increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of various malignancies, an increase in the occurrence of neurologic adverse events is likely, requiring prompt intervention and enhanced pharmacovigilance in malignancies associated with onconeuronal antibodies...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155879/subtypes-of-breast-cancer-show-different-spatial-distributions-of-brain-metastases
#6
Sunghyon Kyeong, Yoon Jin Cha, Sung Gwe Ahn, Sang Hyun Suh, Eun Ju Son, Sung Jun Ahn
The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that the spatial distribution of breast cancer brain metastases (BM) differ according to their biological subtypes. MR images of 100 patients with BM from primary breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided according to the biological subtype of the primary tumor, (triple-negative: 24, HER2 positive: 48, luminal: 28). All images marked with BMs were standardized to the human brain MRI atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute 152 database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155719/exploring-deep-space-uncovering-the-anatomy-of-periventricular-structures-to-reveal-the-lateral-ventricles-of-the-human-brain
#7
Alexandru S Colibaba, Aicee Dawn B Calma, Alexandra L Webb, Krisztina Valter
Anatomy students are typically provided with two-dimensional (2D) sections and images when studying cerebral ventricular anatomy and students find this challenging. Because the ventricles are negative spaces located deep within the brain, the only way to understand their anatomy is by appreciating their boundaries formed by related structures. Looking at a 2D representation of these spaces, in any of the cardinal planes, will not enable visualisation of all of the structures that form the boundaries of the ventricles...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154684/brain-functional-connectivity-in-headache-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-mri-investigations
#8
Catherine D Chong, Todd J Schwedt, Anders Hougaard
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is used to interrogate the functional connectivity and network organization amongst brain regions. Functional connectivity is determined by measuring the extent of synchronization in the spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we review current rs-fMRI studies in headache disorders including migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and medication overuse headache. We discuss (1) brain network alterations that are shared amongst the different headache disorders and (2) network abnormalities distinct to each headache disorder...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154389/latent-autoimmune-diabetes-and-limbic-encephalitis-with-antibodies-against-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase
#9
Stoyan Popkirov, Seena Sebastian, Fatme Seval Ismail, Jörg Wellmer
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are a hallmark of type 1 diabetes and its late-onset variant, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA).(1) While cerebrovascular disease and dementia are common causes of cognitive dysfunction and neurological deficits in diabetic patients,(2,3) rare autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system such as stiff-person syndrom or limbic encephalits can also occur on the basis of shared GAD autoimmunity.(4,5).
November 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154155/the-dynamic-characteristics-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-resting-state-fmri-of-patients-with-depression
#10
Hongna Zheng, Feng Li, Qijing Bo, Xianbin Li, Li Yao, Zhijun Yao, Chuanyue Wang, Xia Wu
BACKGROUND: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is part of the limbic system of the brain. It is a bridge between attentional and emotional processing, which is responsible for the integration of visceral, attentional, and affective information. Lesioning of the ACC, which produces striking changes, is used to treat major depression disorder (MDD). Moreover, the brain dynamically integrates and coordinates functions of its different subparts to realize its cognitive capability. Hence, the spatio-temporal community distribution of the ACC is necessary to completely understand MDD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153990/cell-type-dependent-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotypes-probing-the-biology-of%C3%A2-selective-neuronal-vulnerability
#11
Christina R Muratore, Constance Zhou, Meichen Liao, Marty A Fernandez, Walter M Taylor, Valentina N Lagomarsino, Richard V Pearse, Heather C Rice, Joseph M Negri, Amy He, Priya Srikanth, Dana G Callahan, Taehwan Shin, Monica Zhou, David A Bennett, Scott Noggle, J Christopher Love, Dennis J Selkoe, Tracy L Young-Pearse
Alzheimer's disease (AD) induces memory and cognitive impairment in the absence of motor and sensory deficits during its early and middle course. A major unresolved question is the basis for this selective neuronal vulnerability. Aβ, which plays a central role in AD pathogenesis, is generated throughout the brain, yet some regions outside of the limbic and cerebral cortices are relatively spared from Aβ plaque deposition and synapse loss. Here, we examine neurons derived from iPSCs of patients harboring an amyloid precursor protein mutation to quantify AD-relevant phenotypes following directed differentiation to rostral fates of the brain (vulnerable) and caudal fates (relatively spared) in AD...
November 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153447/abnormal-brain-activation-during-threatening-face-processing-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#12
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xiaoyan Jia, Yingjia Li, Xuebin Chang, Marie Vandekerckhove, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Impairment of face perception in schizophrenia is a core aspect of social cognitive dysfunction. This impairment is particularly marked in threatening face processing. Identifying reliable neural correlates of the impairment of threatening face processing is crucial for targeting more effective treatments. However, neuroimaging studies have not yet obtained robust conclusions. Through comprehensive literature search, twenty-one whole brain datasets were included in this meta-analysis. Using seed-based d-Mapping, in this voxel-based meta-analysis, we aimed to: 1) establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions related to threating face processing in schizophrenia; 2) address task-type heterogeneity in this impairment; 3) explore the effect of potential demographic or clinical moderator variables on this impairment...
November 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152735/6%C3%A2-hz-corneal-kindling-in-mice-triggers-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-accompanied-by-relevant-changes-in-c-fos-immunoreactivity-throughout-the-brain
#13
Giulia Albertini, Laura Walrave, Thomas Demuyser, Ann Massie, Dimitri De Bundel, Ilse Smolders
OBJECTIVE: Besides seizures, patients with epilepsy are affected by a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. The present study provides an in-depth characterization of the behavioral alterations induced by 6 Hz corneal kindling. Furthermore, we correlate these behavioral changes to alterations in c-Fos protein expression throughout the brain following kindling. METHODS: Adolescent male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice were kindled via repetitive subconvulsive 6 Hz corneal stimulations until they reached the fully kindled state (defined as 10 consecutive generalized seizures)...
November 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151536/bilateral-hippocampal-infarction-mimicking-limbic-encephalitis
#14
Satoshi Hosoki, Hitoshi Satoi, Sadayuki Matsumoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151092/conversion-factitious-disorder-and-malingering-a-distinct-pattern-or-a-continuum
#15
Silvio Galli, Laurent Tatu, Julien Bogousslavsky, Selma Aybek
This chapter is aimed at highlighting the recent findings concerning physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of conversion, factitious disorder, and malingering. Conversion disorder is the unintentional production of neurological symptom, whereas malingering and factitious disorder represent the voluntary production of symptoms with internal or external incentives. They have a close history and this has been frequently confounded. Practitioners are often confronted to medically unexplained symptoms; they represent almost 30% of neurologist's consultation...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#16
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148122/altered-frontal-interhemispheric-and-fronto-limbic-structural-connectivity-in-unmedicated-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Xiaofu He, Emily Steinberg, Mihaela Stefan, Martine Fontaine, H Blair Simpson, Rachel Marsh
BACKGROUND: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have primarily used voxel- or tract-based methods to assess white matter microstructure in medicated patients. This is the first probabilistic tractography study to assess the structural connectivity of all major white matter tracts in unmedicated adults with OCD without comorbid psychopathology. We hypothesized that OCD compared to healthy participants would show reduced integrity in frontal interhemispheric and fronto-limbic tracts...
November 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145186/the-kl%C3%A3-ver-bucy-syndrome
#18
Douglas J Lanska
In 1937, Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy described a dramatic behavioral syndrome in monkeys after bilateral temporal lobectomy. The full Klüver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) - hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis, dietary changes, altered sexual behavior, and visual agnosia - is evident within 3 weeks following operation. Some KBS features (i.e., hyperorality, placidity, hypermetamorphosis) persist indefinitely, whereas others gradually resolve over several years. Klüver and Bucy were initially unaware of an earlier report of KBS by Sanger Brown and Edward Schäfer in 1888...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140534/divergent-effects-of-oxytocin-on-para-limbic-reactivity-to-emotional-and-neutral-scenes-in-females-with-and-without-borderline-personality-disorder
#19
Alexander Lischke, Sabine C Herpertz, Christoph Berger, Gregor Domes, Matthias Gamer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138510/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-characterized-by-differential-beta-oscillatory-signaling-of-the-limbic-cortico-basal-ganglia-loop
#20
Lukas Maurer, Hui Tang, Jens K Haumesser, Jennifer Altschüler, Andrea A Kühn, Joachim Spranger, Christoph van Riesen
The concept of brain circuit disorders has been proposed for a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, characterized by pathological disturbances of neuronal networks including changes in oscillatory signaling of re-entrant cortico-subcortical loops in the basal ganglia system. Parts of this circuitry play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We therefore investigated whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity is associated with changes in oscillatory signaling in the limbic cortico-basal ganglia loop. We performed multi-site in-vivo electrophysiological recordings of local field potentials within this network under urethane anesthesia in adult rats after 4 weeks of HFD feeding compared to age-matched controls...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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