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R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, V S Lekha, Sunitha Justus, P Sankara Sarma, Ramshekhar Menon
Context: Annually 10-12% of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are likely to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The morphometric profile in stable non-converters has not been adequately characterized. Aims: To determine the structural differences between amnestic MCI and early AD using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with neuropsychological test performances. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case-control study...
March 2018: Neurology India
Mikael Tiger, Katarina Varnäs, Yoshiro Okubo, Johan Lundberg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The serotonin hypothesis may be the model of MDD pathophysiology with the most support. The majority of antidepressants enhance synaptic serotonin levels quickly, while it usually takes weeks to discern MDD treatment effect. It has been hypothesized that the time lag between serotonin increase and reduction of MDD symptoms is due to downregulation of inhibitory receptors such as the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). The research on 5-HT1BR has previously been hampered by a lack of selective ligands for the receptor...
March 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Dana Crooks, Nathaniel E Anderson, Matthew Widdows, Nia Petseva, Michael Koenigs, Charles Pluto, Kent A Kiehl
Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a neuroanatomical variant of the septum pellucidum that is considered a marker for disrupted brain development. Several small sample studies have reported CSP to be related to disruptive behavior, persistent antisocial traits, and even psychopathy. However, no large-scale samples have comprehensively examined the relationship between CSP, psychopathic traits, and antisocial behavior in forensic samples. Here we test hypotheses about the presence of CSP and its relationship to psychopathic traits in incarcerated males (N=1432)...
March 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Granville James Matheson, Petter Gustavsson, Per Stenkrona, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde, Simon Cervenka
BACKGROUND: Associations between dopamine receptor levels and pro- and antisocial behavior have previously been demonstrated in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and self-rated measures of personality traits. So far, only one study has focused on the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R), finding a positive correlation with the trait social desirability, which is characterized by low dominant and high affiliative behavior, while physical aggression showed a negative correlation...
2018: PloS One
Bei-Bei Wu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Zhi-Duo Hou, Rui-Wei Guo, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shou-Xing Duan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yao-Xie, Dan-Miao Sun, Chun-Min Zhu, Shu-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE. SUBJECTS: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jonas Kneer, Viola Borchardt, Christian Kärgel, Christopher Sinke, Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Jorge Ponseti, Henrik Walter, Klaus M Beier, Boris Schiffer, Kolja Schiltz, Martin Walter, Tillmann H C Kruger
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. METHODS AND SAMPLE: This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Emily A Boeke, Stefan Ehrlich, Stephanie N DeCross, Shahin Nasr, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Delusions are a defining and common symptom of psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that subclinical and clinical delusions may represent distinct stages on a phenomenological and biological continuum. However, few studies have tested whether subclinical psychotic experiences are associated with neural changes that are similar to those observed in clinical psychosis. For example, it is unclear if overactivity of the hippocampus, a replicated finding of neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia, is also present in individuals with subclinical psychotic symptoms...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
T G Adams, B Kelmendi, C A Brake, P Gruner, C L Badour, C Pittenger
Individuals with OCD often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and OCD remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of OCD symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate OCD along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Stefania Evangelisti, Claudia Testa, Lorenzo Ferri, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, David Neil Manners, Giovanni Rizzo, Daniel Remondini, Gastone Castellani, Ilaria Naldi, Francesca Bisulli, Caterina Tonon, Paolo Tinuper, Raffaele Lodi
Objectives: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) in patients with sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) compared to healthy controls. Methods: Resting state fMRI was performed in 13 patients with a clinical diagnosis of SHE (age = 38.3 ± 11.8 years, 6 M) and 13 matched healthy controls (age = 38.5 ± 10.8 years, 6 M).Data were first analysed using probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA), then a graph theoretical approach was applied to assess topological and organizational properties at the whole brain level...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
E J Marijke Achterberg, Ruth Damsteegt, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Social play behaviour is a vigorous, highly rewarding social activity abundant in the young of most mammalian species, including humans. Social play is thought to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development, yet its neural underpinnings are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that low doses of methylphenidate suppress social play behaviour through a noradrenergic mechanism of action, and that methylphenidate exerts its effect within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and habenula...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Lídia Cantacorps, Héctor González-Pardo, Jorge L Arias, Olga Valverde, Nélida M Conejo
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time...
March 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Seok Jong Chung, Han Soo Yoo, Jungsu S Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young H Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the relationship between the sub-regional pattern of striatal dopamine depletion and cognitive impairment in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD), and determine the effect of striatal dopamine density on cognitive prognosis. METHODS: Patients with drug-naïve non-demented PD were divided into mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 129) and cognitively normal (PD-CogN; n = 182) groups. Using quantification of the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in each striatal sub-region with18 F-FP-CIT PET scans, we performed inter-group comparative analysis of DAT availability and multivariate linear regression analysis to assess the association between DAT availability and cognitive performance...
March 2, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Jiajia Wu, Yechen Lu, Xuyun Hua, Shujie Ma, Jianguang Xu
OBJECTIVE: We utilized fMRI to provide a longitudinal description of cortical plasticity caused by electroacupuncture(EA) of sciatic nerve transection and direct anastomosis rats. METHODS: Sixteen rats of sciatic nerve transection and direct anastomosis model were randomly divided into intervention and control group. EA intervention in the position of ST-36, GB-30 was conducted continuously for 4 months in the intervention group. Functional MRI and gait assessment was performed every one month after intervention...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
David E Fleck, Jeffrey A Welge, James C Eliassen, Caleb M Adler, Melissa P DelBello, Stephen M Strakowski
BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Luis Garcia-Larrea, François Mauguière
Pain was considered to be integrated subcortically during most of the 20th century, and it was not until 1956 that focal injury to the parietal opercular-insular cortex was shown to produce selective loss of pain senses. The parietal operculum and adjacent posterior insula are the main recipients of spinothalamic afferents in primates. The innermost operculum appears functionally associated with the posterior insula and can be segregated histologically, somatotopically and neurochemically from the more lateral S2 areas...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ji-Kyung Choi, Grewo Lim, Iris Y Chen, Bruce G Jenkins
Methamphetamine (meth), and other psychostimulants such as cocaine, present a persistent problem for society with chronic users being highly prone to relapse. We show, in a chronic methamphetamine administration model, that discontinuation of drug for more than a week produces much larger changes in overall meth-induced brain connectivity and cerebral blood volume (CBV) response than changes that occur immediately following meth administration. Areas showing the largest changes were hippocampal, limbic striatum and sensorimotor cortical regions as well as brain stem areas including the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and pontine nuclei - regions known to be important in mediating reinstatement of drug-taking after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Marcus A Gray, Che-Yung Chao, Heidi M Staudacher, Natasha A Kolosky, Nicholas J Talley, Gerald Holtmann
BACKGROUND: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), immune activation with increased circulating TNF-α is linked to the intensity of gastrointestinal symptoms and depression or anxiety. A central feature of depression is cognitive biases linked to negative attributions about self, the world and the future. We aimed to assess the effects of anti-TNFα therapy on the central processing of self-attribution biases and visceral afferent information in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: We examined 9 patients with Crohn's disease (age 26...
2018: PloS One
Liying Yang, Hongyan Wang, Lijun Liu, Anmu Xie
Dementia, a condition that frequently afflicts patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), results in decreased quality of life and survival time. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are not completely understood. The symptoms characteristic of PDD may be the result of functional and structural deficiencies. The present study implicates the accumulation of Lewy bodies in the cortex and limbic system as a potent trigger in the development of PDD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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