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Spinal biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467606/integrating-brain-and-biomechanical-models-a-new-paradigm-for-understanding-neuro-muscular-control
#1
Sebastian S James, Chris Papapavlou, Alexander Blenkinsop, Alexander J Cope, Sean R Anderson, Konstantinos Moustakas, Kevin N Gurney
To date, realistic models of how the central nervous system governs behavior have been restricted in scope to the brain, brainstem or spinal column, as if these existed as disembodied organs. Further, the model is often exercised in relation to an in vivo physiological experiment with input comprising an impulse, a periodic signal or constant activation, and output as a pattern of neural activity in one or more neural populations. Any link to behavior is inferred only indirectly via these activity patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462730/biomechanical-stability-afforded-by-unilateral-vs-bilateral-pedicle-screw-fixation-with-and-without-interbody-support-using-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#2
Jakub Godzik, Eduardo Martinez-Del-Campo, Anna G U S Newcomb, Marco T Reis, Luis Perez-Orribo, Alexander C Whiting, Vaneet Singh, Brian P Kelly, Neil R Crawford
OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of fusion constructs with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) or bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) fixation with and without an interbody implant using the lateral lumbar interbody (LLIF) approach. METHODS: Standard nondestructive flexibility tests were performed on 13 cadaveric lumbar specimens to assess spinal stability of intact specimens and 5 configurations of posterior and interbody instrumentation. Spinal stability was determined as mean range of motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation...
February 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456918/cervical-disc-arthroplasty-a-comprehensive-review-of-single-level-multilevel-and-hybrid-procedures
#3
REVIEW
Joseph L Laratta, Jamal N Shillingford, Comron Saifi, K Daniel Riew
Study Design: Systematic review. Objectives: Degenerative disc disease and spondylosis resulting in radiculopathy and retrodiscal myelopathy are among the most frequently encountered cervical spinal disorders. Traditionally, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has successfully achieved neural decompression and restored intradiscal height in these conditions. Unfortunately, nonunion and iatrogenic adjacent segment pathology associated with fusion procedures in the cervical spine has led to an interest in motion-preserving procedures...
February 2018: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456172/effect-of-pediatric-growth-on-cervical-spine-kinematics-and-deformations-in-automotive-crashes
#4
Victor S Alvarez, Svein Kleiven
Finite element (FE) models are a powerful tool that can be used to understand injury mechanisms and develop better safety systems. This study aims to extend the understanding of pediatric spine biomechanics, where there is a paucity of studies available. A newly developed and continuously scalable FE model was validated and scaled to 1.5-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 14- and 18-year-old using a non-linear scaling technique, accounting for local topological changes. The oldest and youngest ages were also scaled using homogeneous geometric scaling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452282/load-sharing-through-elastic-micro-motion-accelerates-bone-formation-and-interbody-fusion
#5
Eric H Ledet, Glenn P Sanders, Darryl J DiRisio, Joseph C Glennon
BACKGROUND: Context: Achieving a successful spinal fusion requires the proper biologic and biomechanical environment. Optimizing load-sharing in the interbody space can enhance bone formation. For anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), loading and motion are largely dictated by the stiffness of the plate which can facilitate a balance between stability and load-sharing. The advantages of load-sharing may be substantial for patients with comorbidities and in multi-level procedures where pseudarthrosis rates are significant...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447105/multi-muscle-electrical-stimulation-and-stand-training-effects-on-standing
#6
Kamyar Momeni, Arvind Ramanujam, Erica L Garbarini, Gail F Forrest
OBJECTIVE: To examine the biomechanical and neuromuscular effects of a longitudinal multi-muscle electrical stimulation (submaximal intensities) training of the lower limbs combined with/without activity-based stand training, on the recovery of stability and function for one individual with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Single-subject, longitudinal study. SETTING: Neuroplasticity laboratory. PARTICIPANT: A 34-year-old male, with sensory- and motor-complete SCI (C5/C6)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444669/effects-of-multilevel-posterior-ligament-dissection-after-spinal-instrumentation-on-adjacent-segment-biomechanics-as-a-potential-risk-factor-for-proximal-junctional-kyphosis-a-biomechanical-study
#7
Tobias Lange, Tobias L Schulte, Georg Gosheger, Albert Schulze Boevingloh, Raul Mayr, Werner Schmoelz
BACKGROUND: Spinous processes and posterior ligaments, such as inter- and supraspinous ligaments are often sacrificed either deliberately to harvest osseous material for final spondylodesis e.g. in deformity corrective surgery or accidentally after posterior spinal instrumentation. This biomechanical study evaluates the potential destabilizing effect of a progressive dissection of the posterior ligaments (PL) after instrumented spinal fusion as a potential risk factor for proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444577/classification-of-scapular-body-fractures
#8
J Bartonicek, D Klika, M Tucek
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to present, on the basis of 3D CT reconstructions of 187 of scapular body fractures, a clinically oriented classification respecting the biomechanical architecture of the scapula. METHODS: In a series of 375 scapula fractures we identified 187 body fractures in187 patients (157 men, 30 women) with the mean age of 48 years (range; 16100 years). 3D CT reconstructions were obtainedof all fractures, to allow an objective evaluation of the fracture pattern...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442158/effects-of-human-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-on-bone-loss-and-lumbar-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-in-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Yang Luo, Shu-Yang Li, Fa-Ming Tian, Hui-Ping Song, Ying-Ze Zhang, Liu Zhang
PURPOSE: Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration is a common cause of lower back pain that affects the physical and mental health of patients and increases social burden. Parathyroid hormone has been reported to be effective at inhibiting disc degeneration; however, these effects have not been fully established in vivo in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thus, in this study, we aimed to address this issue and examine the effects of parathyroid hormone treatment in OVX rats. METHODS: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats, three months-old, were subjected to sham or ovariectomy surgery...
February 13, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437305/adjustment-of-antidiabetic-treatment-regimens-on-discharge-from-the-emergency-department-effect-on-90-day-outcomes-in-patients-admitted-to-a-short-stay-unit
#10
Rafael Cuervo Pinto, Sol Hernández López, Nerea Aguirre Juaristi, David Chaparro Pardo, Juan Jorge González Armengol, Francisco Javier Martín-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To measure cervical spine movement during removal of a motorcycle helmet by health care professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational study using biomechanical inertial sensors to detect movement in the spinal column during removal of helmets. RESULTS: Thirty-four emergency medicine specialists and nurses participated. The mean (SD) rotation was 1.14° (0.82°) to the left and 3.30° (1.69°) to the right (P<.001). Mean flexion was 9...
February 2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436145/accumulated-spinal-axial-biomechanical-loading-induces-degeneration-in-intervertebral-disc-of-mice-lumbar-spine
#11
Yang-Jun Lao, Tao-Tao Xu, Hong-Ting Jin, Hong-Feng Ruan, Ji-Tao Wang, Li Zhou, Ping-Er Wang, Jian Wang, Jun Ying, Yuan-Bin Zhang, Cheng Luo, Fang-da Fu, Pei-Jian Tong, Lu-Wei Xiao, Cheng-Liang Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of accumulated spinal axial biomechanical loading on mice lumbar disc and the feasibility of applying this method to establish a mice intervertebral disc degeneration model using a custom-made hot plate cage. In previous studies, we observed that the motion pattern of mice was greatly similar to that of humans when they were standing and jumping on their lower limbs. There is little data to demonstrate whether or not accumulated spinal axial biomechanical loading could induce intervertebral disc degeneration in vivo...
February 12, 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434794/biomechanical-analysis-of-brachial-plexus-injury-availability-of-three-dimensional-finite-element-model-of-the-brachial-plexus
#12
Atsushi Mihara, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Haruki Tagawa, Junji Ohgi, Hidenori Suzuki, Yasuaki Imajo, Masahiro Funaba, Daisuke Nakashima, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
Adult brachial plexus injuries frequently lead to significant and permanent physical disabilities. Investigating the mechanism of the injury using biomechanical approaches may lead to further knowledge with regard to preventing brachial plexus injuries. However, there are no reports of biomechanical studies of brachial plexus injuries till date. Therefore, the present study used a complex three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM) of the brachial plexus to analyze the mechanism of brachial plexus injury and to assess the validity of the model...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426267/biomechanical-evaluations-of-bed-to-wheelchair-transfer-gait-belt-versus-walking-belt
#13
Ruoliang Tang, Margaret Holland, Michelle Milbauer, Elise Olson, Janelle Skora, Jay M Kapellusch, Arun Garg
Nursing personnel, particularly caregivers who frequently perform manual patient transfer tasks, are at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The purpose of this study was to perform biomechanical evaluations of bed-to-wheelchair transfer using two low-cost assistive devices: walking belt and gait belt. Twenty-eight college students, serving as caregivers, transferred 14 students, serving as patients. "Caregiver" spinal loading and strength requirements at major joints were measured using a 3D Static Strength Prediction Model...
February 1, 2018: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421491/development-of-a-finite-element-model-of-the-ligamentous-cervical-vertebral-column-of-a-great-dane
#14
Marília de Albuquerque Bonelli, Anoli Shah, Vijay Goel, Fabiano Séllos Costa, Ronaldo Casimiro da Costa
Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies. To our knowledge, no specific ligamentous spine models have been developed to investigate naturally occurring canine myelopathies and possible surgical treatments...
January 29, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415014/buttock-tissue-response-to-loading-in-men-with-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Sharon Eve Sonenblum, Stephen H Sprigle
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that most people with a spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for mobility are considered at-risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development, there still exists a spectrum of risk amongst this group. Efforts to differentiate risk level would benefit from clinical tools that can measure or predict the buttocks response to loading. Therefore, the goal of this study was to identify how tissue compliance and blood flow were impacted by clinically-measurable risk factors in young men with SCI...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414477/effect-of-porous-orthopaedic-implant-material-and-structure-on-load-sharing-with-simulated-bone-ingrowth-a-finite-element-analysis-comparing-titanium-and-peek
#16
R Dana Carpenter, Brett S Klosterhoff, F Brennan Torstrick, Kevin T Foley, J Kenneth Burkus, Christopher S D Lee, Ken Gall, Robert E Guldberg, David L Safranski
Osseointegration of load-bearing orthopaedic implants, including interbody fusion devices, is critical to long-term biomechanical functionality. Mechanical loads are a key regulator of bone tissue remodeling and maintenance, and stress-shielding due to metal orthopaedic implants being much stiffer than bone has been implicated in clinical observations of long-term bone loss in tissue adjacent to implants. Porous features that accommodate bone ingrowth have improved implant fixation in the short term, but long-term retrieval studies have sometimes demonstrated limited, superficial ingrowth into the pore layer of metal implants and aseptic loosening remains a problem for a subset of patients...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409622/biomechanical-evaluation-of-exoskeleton-use-on-loading-of-the-lumbar-spine
#17
Eric B Weston, Mina Alizadeh, Gregory G Knapik, Xueke Wang, William S Marras
The objective of this study was to investigate biomechanical loading to the low back as a result of wearing an exoskeletal intervention designed to assist in occupational work. Twelve subjects simulated the use of two powered hand tools with and without the use of a Steadicam vest with an articulation tool support arm in a laboratory environment. Dependent measures of peak and mean muscle forces in ten trunk muscles and peak and mean spinal loads were examined utilizing a dynamic electromyography-assisted spine model...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402261/biomechanical-effects-of-metastasis-in-the-osteoporotic-lumbar-spine-a%C3%A2-finite-element-analysis
#18
Giuseppe Salvatore, Alessandra Berton, Hugo Giambini, Mauro Ciuffreda, Pino Florio, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Vincenzo Denaro, Andrew Thoreson, Kai-Nan An
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are likely to undergo osteoporosis as consequence of hormone manipulation and/or chemotherapy. Little is known about possible increased risk of fracture in this population. The aim of this study was to describe the biomechanical effect of a metastatic lesion in an osteoporotic lumbar spine model. METHODS: A finite element model of two spinal motion segments (L3-L5) was extracted from a previously developed L3-Sacrum model and used to analyze the effect of metastasis size and bone mineral density (BMD) on Vertebral bulge (VB) and Vertebral height (VH)...
February 5, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397109/adaptation-of-a-clinical-fixation-device-for-biomechanical-testing-of-the-lumbar-spine
#19
Kevin M Bell, Adrianna Oh, Harold A Cook, Yiguo Yan, Joon Y Lee
In-vitro biomechanical testing is widely performed for characterizing the load-displacement characteristics of intact, injured, degenerated, and surgically repaired osteoligamentous spine specimens. Traditional specimen fixture devices offer an unspecified rigidity of fixation, while varying in the associated amounts and reversibility of damage to and "coverage" of a specimen - factors that can limit surgical access to structures of interest during testing as well as preclude the possibility of testing certain segments of a specimen...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395226/three-dimensional-primary-and-coupled-range-of-motions-and-movement-coordination-of-the-pelvis-lumbar-and-thoracic-spine-in-standing-posture-using-inertial-tracking-device
#20
M Narimani, N Arjmand
Evaluation of spinal range of motions (RoMs) and movement coordination between its segments (thorax, lumbar, and pelvis) has clinical and biomechanical implications. Previous studies have not recorded three-dimensional primary/coupled motions of all spinal segments simultaneously. Moreover, magnitude/direction of the coupled motions of the thorax/pelvis in standing posture and lumbopelvic rhythms in the frontal/transverse planes have not been investigated. This study, hence, used an inertial tracking device to measure T1, T5, T12, total (T1-T12) thoracic, lower (T5-T12) and upper (T1-T5) thoracic, lumbar (T12-S1), and pelvis primary and coupled RoMs as well as their movement coordination in all anatomical planes/directions in twenty-two healthy individuals...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
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