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Spinal biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822738/a-study-of-the-damage-behaviour-of-porcine-intervertebral-discs-in-a-bioreactor-environment
#1
M Azarnoosh, M Stoffel, B Markert
The intervertebral discs are cartilaginous, articulating structures that lie between vertebral bodies, allowing flexibility, transmission, modification, and also distribution of the forces to the spinal column. Disc degeneration is characterised by progressive loss of disc height and exaggerated radial bulging. Therefore, the spine becomes shorter, stiffer, and less mobile. In the last several decades, there is a strong need for a tissue engineering strategy that alleviates pain and restores spine function by directly addressing the underlying biological causes of disc degeneration...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822474/the-effect-of-augmented-feedback-and-expertise-on-spinal-manipulation-skills-an-experimental-study
#2
Mégane Pasquier, Charlène Cheron, Claude Dugas, Arnaud Lardon, Martin Descarreaux
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of augmented feedback and expertise on the performance and retention of basic motor learning spinal manipulation skills. METHODS: A total of 103 chiropractic students with various training expertise were recruited for the study. Participants were evaluated at baseline, immediately after trials of augmented feedback practice and 1 week later. During all 3 assessments, students were asked to perform several trials of the same spinal manipulation, for which the maximum preload force, onset of thrust, thrust duration, force and peak force, thrust duration, rate of force application, and any drop in preload force were calculated...
July 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822473/influence-of-spinal-manipulative-therapy-force-magnitude-and-application-site-on-spinal-tissue-loading-a-biomechanical-robotic-serial-dissection-study-in-porcine-motion-segments
#3
Martha Funabashi, François Nougarou, Martin Descarreaux, Narasimha Prasad, Greg Kawchuk
OBJECTIVE: In order to define the relation between spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) input parameters and the distribution of load within spinal tissues, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of force magnitude and application site when SMT is applied to cadaveric spines. METHODS: In 10 porcine cadavers, a servo-controlled linear actuator motor provided a standardized SMT simulation using 3 different force magnitudes (100N, 300N, and 500N) to 2 different cutaneous locations: L3/L4 facet joint (FJ), and L4 transverse processes (TVP)...
July 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816827/the-relationship-between-fear-avoidance-and-objective-biomechanical-measures-of-function-in-patients-with-adult-degenerative-scoliosis
#4
Ram Haddas, Isador H Lieberman, Andrew Block
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The current study utilized quantitative gait analysis to examine the relationship of fear-avoidance beliefs to gait patterns in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Among patients with chronic spine pain, fear-avoidance beliefs are predictive of behavioral deficiencies, poor work and surgery outcomes. The impact of such beliefs on patients with major spinal deformity has yet to be investigated...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811992/analysis-of-the-literature-on-cervical-spine-fractures-in-ankylosing-spinal-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Sebastian Hartmann, Anja Tschugg, Christoph Wipplinger, Claudius Thomé
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative literature review. OBJECTIVE: The numbers of low-energy cervical fractures seen in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (also known as Bechterew disease) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (also known as Forestier disease) have greatly increased over recent decades. These fractures tend to be particularly overlooked, leading to delayed diagnosis and secondary neurological deterioration. The aim of the present evaluation was to summarize current knowledge on cervical fractures in patients with ankylosing spinal disorders (ASDs)...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811983/a-novel-spinal-implant-for-fusionless-scoliosis-correction-a-biomechanical-analysis-of-the-motion-preserving-properties-of-a-posterior-periapical-concave-distraction-device
#6
Roderick M Holewijn, Marinus de Kleuver, Albert J van der Veen, Kaj S Emanuel, Arno Bisschop, Agnita Stadhouder, Barend J van Royen, Idsart Kingma
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: Recently, a posterior concave periapical distraction device for fusionless scoliosis correction was introduced. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of the periapical distraction device on spinal range of motion (ROM) in comparison with traditional rigid pedicle screw-rod instrumentation. METHODS: Using a spinal motion simulator, 6 human spines were loaded with 4 N m and 6 porcine spines with 2 N m to induce flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR)...
August 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803852/dynamic-feet-distance-a-new-functional-assessment-during-treadmill-locomotion-in-normal-and-thoracic-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#7
Camila Cardoso Diogo, Luís Maltez da Costa, José Eduardo Pereira, Vítor Filipe, Pedro Alexandre Couto, Luís G Magalhães, Stefano Geuna, Paulo A Armada-da-Silva, Ana Colette Maurício, Artur Severo Varejão
Of all the detrimental effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), one of the most devastating is the disruption of the ability to perform functional movement. Very little is known on the recovery of hindlimb joint kinematics after clinically-relevant contusive thoracic lesion in experimental animal models. A new functional assessment instrument, the dynamic feet distance (DFD) was used to describe the distance between the two feet throughout the gait cycle in normal and affected rodents. The purpose of this investigation was the evaluation and characterization of the DFD during treadmill locomotion in normal and T9 contusion injured rats, using three-dimensional (3D) instrumented gait analysis...
August 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777063/comprehensive-biomechanical-analysis-of-three-reconstruction-techniques-following-total-sacrectomy-an-in-vitro-human-cadaveric-model
#8
Mohamed Macki, Rafael De la Garza-Ramos, Ashley A Murgatroyd, Kenneth P Mullinix, Xiaolei Sun, Bryan W Cunningham, Brandon A McCutcheon, Mohamad Bydon, Ziya L Gokaslan
OBJECTIVE Aggressive sacral tumors often require en bloc resection and lumbopelvic reconstruction. Instrumentation failure and pseudarthrosis remain a clinical concern to be addressed. The objective in this study was to compare the biomechanical stability of 3 distinct techniques for sacral reconstruction in vitro. METHODS In a human cadaveric model study, 8 intact human lumbopelvic specimens (L2-pelvis) were tested for flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), lateral bending, and axial rotation with a custom-designed 6-df spine simulator as well as axial compression stiffness with the MTS 858 Bionix Test System...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770402/kinematic-efficacy-of-supplemental-anterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-at-lumbosacral-levels-in-thoracolumbosacral-deformity-correction-with-and-without-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-at-l3-an-in-vitro-cadaveric-study
#9
Benny T Dahl, Jonathan A Harris, Manasa Gudipally, Mark Moldavsky, Saif Khalil, Brandon S Bucklen
PURPOSE: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is performed to treat rigid, sagittal spinal deformities, but high rates of implant failure are reported. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion has been proposed to reduce this risk, but biomechanical investigation is lacking. The goal of this study was to quantify the (1) destabilizing effects of a lumbar osteotomy and (2) contribution of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) at the lumbosacral junction as recommended in literature. METHODS: Fourteen fresh human thoracolumbosacral spines (T12-S1) were tested in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR)...
August 2, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765802/clinical-gait-analysis-on-a-patient-undergoing-surgical-correction-of-kyphosis-from-severe-ankylosing-spondylitis
#10
Ram Haddas, Theodore Belanger
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the axial skeleton, including the sacroiliac joints, costovertebral joints, and the spine. Patients with AS found to have an alter gait pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate biomechanical alterations in gait after surgical correction in a patient with severe kyphosis from AS. METHODS: A case report in controlled laboratory study, a pretest-posttest design...
2017: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761530/contribution-of-the-xenograft-bone-plate-screw-system-in-lumbar-transpedicular-stabilization-an-in-vivo-study-in-dogs
#11
Sani Sarigul, Hakan Salci, Huseyin Lekesiz, Seref Dogan, Resat Ozcan, Osman Sacit Gorgul, Kaya Aksoy
OBJECTIVES: Xenograft bone plate-screws (XBPSs) can be alternative tools in lumbar transpedicular stabilization (TS). The aim of this study was to show biomechanical and histopathological contribution of the XBPSs system in lumbar TS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen (n = 15) hybrid dog and ten (n = 10) L2-4 cadaveric specimens were included in the study. The dogs were separated according to surgical techniques: L3 laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy (LBF) in Group I (experimental group [EG I] (n = 5), L3 LBF plus TS with metal plate-screws (MPSs) in Group II (EG II) (n = 5), and L3 LBF plus TS with XBPSs in Group III (EG III) (n = 5)...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754114/the-effect-of-different-screw-rod-design-on-the-anti-rotational-torque-a-biomechanical-comparison-of-three-conventional-screw-rod-constructs
#12
Zifang Huang, Chongwen Wang, Hengwei Fan, Wenyuan Sui, Xueshi Li, Qifei Wang, Junlin Yang
BACKGROUND: Screw-rod constructs have been widely used to correct spinal deformities, but the effects of different screw-rod systems on anti-rotational torque have not been determined. This study aimed to analyze the biomechanical effect of different rod-screw constructs on anti-rotational torque. METHODS: Three conventional spinal screw-rod systems (Legacy, RF-F-10 and USSII) were used to test the anti-rotational torque in the material test machine. ANOVA was performed to evaluate the anti-rotational capacity of different pedicle screws-rod constructs...
July 28, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751242/evaluation-of-a-peek-titanium-composite-interbody-spacer-in-an-ovine-lumbar-interbody-fusion-model-a-biomechanical-micro-computed-tomography-and-histologic-analyses
#13
Kirk C McGilvray, Erik I Waldorff, Jeremiah Easley, Howard B Seim, Nianli Zhang, Raymond J Linovitz, James T Ryaby, Christian M Puttlitz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The most commonly used materials used for interbody cages are titanium metal and polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Both of these materials have demonstrated good biocompatibility. A major disadvantage associated with solid titanium cages is their radiopacity, limiting post-operative monitoring of spinal fusion via standard imaging modalities. However, PEEK is radiolucent, allowing for temporal assessment of the fusion mass by clinicians. On the other hand, PEEK is hydrophobic, which can limit bony in-growth...
July 24, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750946/changes-in-the-axial-orientation-of-the-zygapophyseal-joint-in-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-from-childhood-to-middle-age-and-the-biomechanical-implications-of-these-changes
#14
Mao-Yu Chen, Yu-Tse Liu, Wen-Hsing Hsu
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on facet orientation (FO) of the cervical spine during development, maturation, and degeneration. Computed tomography (CT) data of the cervical spine of 131 subjects without pathology of the cervical spine were analyzed. Subjects were categorized as: pediatric (n=36, 8-16years old), young adult (n=33, 18-24years old), and middle-age (n=62, 40-59years old). Serial CT scans were reconstructed by image processing. The FO in the axial plane was measured bilaterally at each vertebral level from C3/4 to C6/7...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746125/comparison-of-pedicle-screw-fixation-strength-among-different-transpedicular-trajectories-a-finite-element-study
#15
Keitaro Matsukawa, Yoshiyuki Yato, Richard A Hynes, Hideaki Imabayashi, Naobumi Hosogane, Yasuo Yoshihara, Takashi Asazuma, Koichi Nemoto
STUDY DESIGN: Comparative biomechanical study by finite element (FE) method. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pullout strength of pedicle screws using different insertional trajectories. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pedicle screw fixation has become the gold standard for spinal fusion, however, not much has been done to clarify how the fixation strength of pedicle screws are affected by insertional trajectories and bone properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional FE models of 20 L4 vertebrae were constructed from the computed tomographic data...
August 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743003/patterned-disordered-cell-motion-ensures-vertebral-column-symmetry
#16
Dipjyoti Das, Veena Chatti, Thierry Emonet, Scott A Holley
The biomechanics of posterior embryonic growth must be dynamically regulated to ensure bilateral symmetry of the spinal column. Throughout vertebrate trunk elongation, motile mesodermal progenitors undergo an order-to-disorder transition via an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and sort symmetrically into the left and right paraxial mesoderm. We combine theoretical modeling of cell migration in a tail-bud-like geometry with experimental data analysis to assess the importance of ordered and disordered cell motion...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736113/titanium-vs-polyetheretherketone-peek-interbody-fusion-meta-analysis-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Scott Seaman, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Mohamad Bydon, James C Torner, Patrick W Hitchon
Spinal interbody fusion is a standard and accepted method for spinal fusion. Interbody fusion devices include titanium (Ti) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages with distinct biomechanical properties. Titanium and PEEK cages have been evaluated in the cervical and lumbar spine, with conflicting results in bony fusion and subsidence. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we reviewed the available literature evaluating Ti and PEEK cages to assess subsidence and fusion rates...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733037/efficient-probabilistic-finite-element-analysis-of-a-lumbar-motion-segment
#18
Dana J Coombs, Paul J Rullkoetter, Peter J Laz
Finite element models of the lumbar spine are useful in assessing biomechanics and performance of implants. Models are often developed using the anatomy of an individual subject. Average mechanical property values for the annulus and other soft tissue structures are typically utilized from the literature, as data for the same subject are not available. However, these properties can have significant variability. While probabilistic methods enable the impact of soft tissue property variability on spine mechanics to be assessed, they often require lengthy computation times...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728077/comparison-of-spinal-stability-following-motor-control-and-general-exercises-in-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain-patients
#19
MohammadBagher Shamsi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Aliashraf Jamshidi, Navid Arjmand, Farshid Ghezelbash
BACKGROUND: Motor control exercise was claimed to improve spinal stability in patients with chronic non-specific back pain, but to investigate the effectiveness of this exercise, other outcome measures have been used rather than spinal stability itself. The aim of our study is to assess motor control exercise effects on spinal stability using a biomechanical model. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were assigned to either motor control or general exercises. Before and after trainings, participants were tested for spinal stability at seven isometric tasks...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719806/effect-of-cage-design-supplemental-posterior-instrumentation-and-approach-on-primary-stability-of-a-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-biomechanical-in-vitro-study
#20
Werner Schmoelz, Sabrina Sandriesser, Oded Loebl, Marlies Bauer, Dietmar Krappinger
BACKGROUND: There are various techniques and approaches for lumbar interbody fusion differing in access, cage type and type of supplemental posterior instrumentation. While a transforaminal access usually includes a hemifacetectomy, the facet joint can be preserved with a more lateral extraforaminal access. The supplemental posterior instrumentation required for both fusion techniques is still debated. The purpose of the present study was to compare primary stability of the two accesses for two different cage types with none, unilateral and bilateral supplemental posterior instrumentation...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
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