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Spinal biomechanics

Andrea Calvo-Echenique, José Cegoñino, Raúl Chueca, Amaya Pérez-Del Palomar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal degeneration and instability are commonly treated with interbody fusion cages either alone or supplemented with posterior instrumentation with the aim to immobilise the segment and restore intervertebral height. The purpose of this work is to establish a tool which may help to understand the effects of intervertebral cage design and placement on the biomechanical response of a patient-specific model to help reducing post-surgical complications such as subsidence and segment instability...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Jacques Bobet, Kei Masani, Milos R Popovic, Albert H Vette
Recent work suggests that functional electrical stimulation can be used to enhance dynamic trunk stability following spinal cord injury. In this context, knowledge of the relation between trunk kinematics and muscle activation in non-disabled individuals may assist in developing kinematics-based neuroprostheses. Our objective was therefore to predict the activation profiles of the major trunk muscles from trunk kinematics following multi-directional perturbations during sitting. Trunk motion and electromyograms (EMG) from ten major trunk muscles were acquired in twelve non-disabled, seated individuals who experienced a force of approximately 200 N applied to the trunk in eight horizontal directions...
June 9, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Jetan H Badhiwala, Farshad Nassiri, Christopher D Witiw, Alireza Mansouri, Naif Alotaibi, Matthew Eagles, Saleh A Almenawer, Leodante da Costa, Jefferson R Wilson, Michael G Fehlings
STUDY DESIGN: Bibliometric analysis. OBJECTIVE: To identify, and summarize the key findings of, the top 100 most highly cited works published in spinal disorder topic-specific journals. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is an abundance of published articles pertaining to spine surgery and spinal disorders. The number of citations a work receives provides a useful measure of its scientific impact. An understanding of the most cited works in spine surgery can identify literature that surgeons and researchers should be familiar with, point to the most active areas of research, inform the design of educational curricula, and help guide future research efforts...
June 8, 2018: Spine
Radoje D Čobeljić, Ksenija Ribarič-Jankes, Antonina Aleksić, Lana Z Popović-Maneski, Laszlo B Schwirtlich, Dejan B Popović
The aim of this study was to determine changes in clinical and biomechanical measures of spasticity after administering galvanic vestibular stimulation in patients with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI). The spasticity in the lower limbs was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the pendulum test in seven SCI patients (grade A on the ASIA Impairment Scale) before (0), immediately after (0), and at 5 and 30 min after the real versus sham galvanic vestibular stimulation (15 s each, anode over the right mastoid)...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Xueke Wang, Steven Bigelow, Kelly E Seagren, Alaina K Preddie, Zimei Wang, Ardiyanto Ardiyanto, W Gary Allread, Steven A Lavender
Floor mats are commonplace in commercial buildings, particularly in entry ways. These mats are routinely handled by delivery personnel as the mats are picked up for cleaning and clean mats are deployed. A new two-part mat design, which eliminates the need to move the rubber base during mat change operations, was hypothesized to reduce the physical demands on delivery personnel. Electromyographic data from back and shoulder muscles and spinal kinematics were obtained as 12 volunteers simulated mat selection, mat deployment, and mat pick-up tasks...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Mark J Pandrich, Andreas K Demetriades
The biomechanical relationship between cranial and spinal structures makes concomitant injury likely. Concomitant cranio-spinal injuries are important to consider following trauma due to the serious consequences of a missed injury. The objective of this review was to estimate the prevalence of concomitant cranio-spinal injury in the adult trauma population. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies reporting the prevalence of concomitant cranio-spinal injury in the general adult trauma population was conducted on 21 March 2017...
June 7, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Akira Hashiguchi, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Toshihiko Taguchi
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study. PURPOSE: We examined the dynamic characteristics of different operative procedures using three-dimensional finite-element models. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Cervical laminoplasty is often selected for patients requiring multilevel spinal decompression. Many laminoplasty techniques have been developed and are continually being improved. METHODS: Images were extracted for the two intervertebral joints between C3 and C5 in domestic rabbits...
June 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Yunfei Huang, Yubo Fan, Michele Salanova, Xiao Yang, Lianwen Sun, Dieter Blottner
The deep fascia of the vertebrate body comprises a biomechanically unique connective cell and tissue layer with integrative functions to support global and regional strain, tension, and even muscle force during motion and performance control. However, limited information is available on deep fascia in relation to bone in disuse. We used rat hindlimb unloading as a model of disuse (21 days of hindlimb unloading) to study biomechanical property as well as cell and tissue changes to deep fascia and bone unloading...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Alisson R Teles, Daniel Yavin, Christos Zafeiris, Kenneth C Thomas, Peter Lewkonia, Fred Nicholls, Ganesh Swamy, W Bradley Jacobs
STUDY DESIGN: Case series. OBJECTIVE: A common belief among many practicing spine surgeons is that instrumentation can be removed during revision surgery in cases of successful posterolateral or anterior spinal fusions, confirmed by computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative exploration. The stress-shielding effect of spinal instrumentation was well-described in the late 80s and 90s, but has not received recent attention. Despite the paucity of recent literature, the concepts underlying the biology and biomechanics of the spinal fusion mass remain particularly salient given the increasing incidence of revision spinal fusion surgery...
June 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Tarun Arora, Alison Oates, Kaylea Lynd, Kristin E Musselman
Context Comprehensive balance measures with high clinical utility and sound psychometric properties are needed to inform the rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective To identify the balance measures used in the SCI population, and to evaluate their clinical utility, psychometric properties and comprehensiveness. Methods Medline, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database were searched from the earliest record to October 19/16. Two researchers independently screened abstracts for articles including a balance measure and adults with SCI...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Ming-Lun Lu, Jonathan S Dufour, Eric B Weston, William S Marras
Information on spinal loading for using lift assist systems for airport baggage handling is lacking. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate a vacuum lift system for reducing lumbar spinal loads during baggage loading/unloading tasks. Ten subjects performed the tasks using the industry average baggage weight of 14.5 kg on a typical two-shelved baggage cart with or without using the lift system (i.e. lifting technique). Repeated measures analysis of variance (2 tasks × 2 shelf heights x 2 techniques) was used...
July 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Xu Wei, Li Gengwu, Chen Chao, Li Yifan, Sang Shang, Hu Ruixi, Ji Yunhan, Zhu Xiaodong, Li Zhikun
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that lumbar disc herniation, degenerative lumbar instability, and other degenerative lumbar spinal diseases are often secondary to disc degeneration. By studying the intervertebral disc, researchers have clarified the pathological changes involved in intervertebral disc degeneration but have ignored the roles of biomechanical factors in the development of disc degeneration. This study aims to investigate the relationships among the location, scope, and extent of lumbar disc degeneration and sagittal spinal-pelvic parameters...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Maurizio Domenicucci, Lorenzo Nigro, Roberto Delfini
BACKGROUND: In 1981, Roy-Camille et al. have firstly reported the total en-bloc spondylectomy (TES) through a posterior approach for cases of malignant spine tumors in order to reduce the local recurrence and to increase the patient's survival. By then, this surgery has been increasingly gaining recognition. However, it requires a high level of technical ability and knowledge of spinal anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics. METHOD: Herein, we report the patient's selection and technique to execute the TES for cases of thoracic metastasis...
July 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Siyi Huang, Tao Ji, Wei Guo
Objective: To review the development of the reconstruction methods following total sacrectomy, and to provide reference for finding a better reconstruction method following total sacrectomy. Methods: The case reports and biomechanical and finite element studies of reconstruction following total sacrectomy at home and abroad were searched. Development and current situation were summarized. Results: After developing for nearly 30 years, great progress has been made in the reconstruction concept and fixation techniques...
May 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Burhan Fatih Kocyigit, Ejder Berk
Objective: Lumbosacral alignment is a crucial factor for an appropriate spinal function. Changes in spinal alignment lead to diminished body biomechanics. Additionally, lumbosacral alignment may affect quality of life, sagittal balance and fall risk in elderly. In this study, we aimed to compare lumbosacral alignment in geriatric and non-geriatric patients suffering from low back pain. Methods: A total of 202 (120 male and 82 female) patients who visited to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic with low back pain between January 2017 and August 2017 were enrolled in this study...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Matthias Jäger
Measures of human physical capacity are required in ergonomic work design. To avoid biomechanical low-back overload, criteria are needed to differentiate load and overload. With respect to the evaluation of manual materials handling and similar physical exposures regarding potential overload, the compression component of the forces transferred via lumbar discs or vertebrae are compared with the ultimate compressive strength of lumbar-spine segments in a common biomechanical approach. As mechanical load-bearing capacity cannot be quantified directly in vivo , forces are applied to dissected spinal elements up to failure, which is interpreted as a measure of ultimate strength or tolerance to compression...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Raghu N Natarajan, Kei Watanabe, Kazuhiro Hasegawa
Examine the biomechanical effect of material properties, geometric variables, and anchoring arrangements in a segmental pedicle screw with connecting rods spanning the entire lumbar spine using finite element models (FEMs). The objectives of this study are (1) to understand how different variables associated with posterior instrumentation affect the lumbar spine kinematics and stresses in instrumentation, (2) to compare the multidirectional stability of the spinal instrumentation, and (3) to determine how these variables contribute to the rigidity of the long-segment fusion in a lumbar spine...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Tian Wang, Matthew H Pelletier, Chris Christou, Rema Oliver, Ralph J Mobbs, William R Walsh
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common, widespread socio-economic problem. Appropriate large animal models of DDD are required for improved understanding and to serve as pre-clinical test beds for therapeutic strategies PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of short and medium duration immobilization on the sheep lumbar intervertebral disc and facet joints, to establish a large animal model for DDD research. STUDY DESIGN: An in vivo sheep model evaluating the effect of short and medium term immobilization on disc degeneration...
May 22, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Vineet Tyagi, Russell Strom, Omar Tanweer, Anthony K Frempong-Boadu
Fusion and rigid instrumentation have been the mainstay for the surgical treatment of degenerative diseases of the spine for many years. Dynamic stabilization provides a theoretical advantage of decreased biomechanical stress on adjacent spinal segments and decreased fatigue failure of implants. Artificial discs provide an alternative treatment and have been well-studied in the literature. Another technology that is currently used in Europe but rarely in the USA is flexible rods attached to pedicle screws instead of rigid rods or bone fusion...
June 2018: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
Qiang Liu, Huizhen Yang, Jinxue Zhang, Jingzhuo Wang
A salamander is an ideal animal for studying the spinal locomotor network mechanism of vertebrates from an evolutionary perspective since it represents the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial animal. However, little is known about the spinal locomotor network of a salamander. A spinal locomotor network model is a useful tool for exploring the working mechanism of the spinal networks of salamanders. A new spinal locomotor network model for a salamander is built for a three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical model of the salamander using a novel locomotion-controlled neural network model...
May 22, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
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