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Spinal biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649655/bone-mineral-density-changes-over-time-in-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-of-the-thoracic-spine
#1
Jonneke S Kuperus, Lima Samsour, Constantinus F Buckens, F Cumhur Oner, Pim A de Jong, Jorrit-Jan Verlaan
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is an increasingly prevalent ankylosing condition. Patients with DISH have an increased risk of spinal fractures, hypothetically the result of biomechanical changes in the spine. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of biomechanical stress shielding in patients with DISH. To do this, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured longitudinally in the vertebral bodies of subjects with and without DISH and in the newly formed bone of subjects with DISH...
April 9, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629580/current-concepts-in-the-surgical-management-of-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#2
A D Tambe, S J Panikkar, P A Millner, A I Tsirikos
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex 3D deformity of the spine. Its prevalence is between 2% and 3% in the general population, with almost 10% of patients requiring some form of treatment and up to 0.1% undergoing surgery. The cosmetic aspect of the deformity is the biggest concern to the patient and is often accompanied by psychosocial distress. In addition, severe curves can cause cardiopulmonary distress. With proven benefits from surgery, the aims of treatment are to improve the cosmetic and functional outcomes...
April 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625748/engineering-approaches-to-understanding-mechanisms-of-spinal-column-injury-leading-to-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Claire F Jones, Elizabeth C Clarke
BACKGROUND: The mechanical interactions occurring between the spinal column and spinal cord during an injury event are complex and variable, and likely have implications for the clinical presentation and prognosis of the individual. METHODS: The engineering approaches that have been developed to better understand spinal column and cord interactions during an injury event are discussed. These include injury models utilising human and animal cadaveric specimens, in vivo anaesthetised animals, finite element models, inanimate physical systems and combinations thereof...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609266/-biomechanical-behaviors-of-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-related-to-various-bone-fragment-impact-velocities-a-finite-element-study
#4
S Duan, Z Q Zhu, K F Wang, C J Liu, S Xu, W W Xia, H Y Liu
Objective: To establish a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the whole cervical spinal cord (WSCS) and explore the biomechanical behaviors of cervical spinal cord injury related to different bone fragment impact velocities by FE analysis. Methods: A 3D FE model of WCSC was established based on the morphologic data of each segment of the human cervical cord. The reconstruction structures, which included the dura mater, the cerebrospinal fluid, the gray and white matter in the C(2) to C(7) cervical vertebrae, were validated...
March 20, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600908/pedicle-screws-with-a-thin-hydroxyapatite-coating-for-improving-fixation-at-the-bone-implant-interface-in-the-osteoporotic-spine-experimental-study-in-a-porcine-model
#5
Makoto Ohe, Hiroshi Moridaira, Satoshi Inami, Daisaku Takeuchi, Yutaka Nohara, Hiroshi Taneichi
OBJECTIVE Instrumentation failure caused by the loosening of pedicle screws (PSs) in patients with osteoporosis is a serious problem after spinal surgery. The addition of a thin hydroxyapatite (HA) surface coating applied by using a sputtering process was reported recently to be a promising method for providing bone conduction around an implant without a significant risk of coating-layer breakage. In this study, the authors evaluated the biomechanical and histological features of the bone-implant interface (BII) of PSs with a thin HA coating in an in vivo porcine osteoporotic spine model...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599828/age-related-changes-of-the-spinal-cord-a-biomechanical-study
#6
Tomoya Okazaki, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Kazuhiko Ichihara, Itsuo Sakuramoto, Junji Ohgi, Masahiro Funaba, Yasuaki Imajo, Hidenori Suzuki, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
Although it is known that aging plays an important role in the incidence and progression of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), the underlying mechanism is unclear. Studies that used fresh bovine cervical spinal cord report the gray matter of the cervical spinal cord as being more rigid and fragile than the white matter. However, there are no reports regarding the association between aging an tensile and Finite Element Method (FEM). Therefore, FEM was used based on the data pertaining to the mechanical features of older bovine cervical spinal cord to explain the pathogenesis of CSM in elderly patients...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599041/between-day-reliability-of-myotonpro-for-the-non-invasive-measurement-of-muscle-material-properties-in-the-lower-extremities-of-patients-with-a-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Chang-Yong Ko, Hyuk-Jae Choi, Jeicheong Ryu, Gyoosuk Kim
Measuring the muscle properties of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) is important to better understand their biomechanical features. In this study, we sought to evaluate the between-day reliability of MyotonPRO, a handheld device that can measure muscle mechanical properties, and assess whether it is reliable to measure muscle properties over time in patients with SCI. Thirteen men with complete SCIs (age 53.9 ± 6.3 years, height 171.0 ± 5.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 5.8 kg), and injury levels ranging from L1 to T12, were enrolled...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590636/vangl2-disruption-alters-the-biomechanics-of-late-spinal-neurulation-leading-to-spina-bifida-in-mouse-embryos
#8
Gabriel L Galea, Oleksandr Nychyk, Matteo A Mole, Dale Moulding, Dawn Savery, Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Deborah J Henderson, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Human mutations in the planar cell polarity component VANGL2 are associated with the neural tube defect spina bifida. Homozygous Vangl2 mutation in mice prevents initiation of neural tube closure, precluding analysis of its subsequent roles in neurulation. Spinal neurulation involves rostral-to-caudal 'zippering' until completion of closure is imminent, when a caudal-to-rostral closure point, 'Closure 5', arises at the caudal-most extremity of the posterior neuropore (PNP). Here, we used Grhl3Cre to delete Vangl2 in the surface ectoderm (SE) throughout neurulation and in an increasing proportion of PNP neuroepithelial cells at late neurulation stages...
March 21, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589046/-surgical-therapy-of-ischiofemoral-impingement-by-lateralizing-intertrochanteric-osteotomy
#9
REVIEW
C Suren, R Burgkart, I J Banke, G Hertel, J Schauwecker, R von Eisenhart-Rothe, H Gollwitzer
OBJECTIVE: Lateralizing, derotating intertrochanteric varus osteotomy to increase the ischiofemoral space to counter painful impingement of the lesser trochanter and the os ischium with resulting entrapment of quadratus femoris muscle. INDICATIONS: Symptomatic ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) caused by Coxa valga et antetorta, Coxa valga or Coxa antetorta, or a short femoral neck. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Anatomic configuration suggestive of IFI in asymptomatic patients...
March 27, 2018: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581974/biomechanical-evaluation-of-a-novel-apatite-wollastonite-ceramic-cage-design-for-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-finite-element-model-study
#10
Celal Bozkurt, Alpaslan Şenköylü, Erdem Aktaş, Baran Sarıkaya, Serkan Sipahioğlu, Rıza Gürbüz, Muharrem Timuçin
Objectives: Cage design and material properties play a crucial role in the long-term results, since interbody fusions using intervertebral cages have become one of the basic procedures in spinal surgery. Our aim is to design a novel Apatite-Wollastonite interbody fusion cage and evaluate its biomechanical behavior in silico in a segmental spinal model. Materials and Methods: Mechanical properties for the Apatite-Wollastonite bioceramic cages were obtained by fitting finite element results to the experimental compression behavior of a cage prototype...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569970/spinal-dura-mater-biophysical-characteristics-relevant-to-medical-device-development
#11
Sean J Nagel, Chandan G Reddy, Leonardo A Frizon, Matthieu K Chardon, Marshall Holland, Andre G Machado, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard, Saul Wilson
Understanding the relevant biophysical properties of the spinal dura mater is essential to the design of medical devices that will directly interact with this membrane or influence the contents of the intradural space. We searched the literature and reviewed the pertinent characteristics for the design, construction, testing, and imaging of novel devices intended to perforate, integrate, adhere or reside within or outside of the spinal dura mater. The spinal dura mater is a thin tubular membrane composed of collagen and elastin fibres that varies in circumference along its length...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569215/abcs-of-the-degenerative-spine
#12
REVIEW
Sergiy V Kushchayev, Tetiana Glushko, Mohamed Jarraya, Karl H Schuleri, Mark C Preul, Michael L Brooks, Oleg M Teytelboym
Degenerative changes in the spine have high medical and socioeconomic significance. Imaging of the degenerative spine is a frequent challenge in radiology. The pathogenesis of this degenerative process represents a biomechanically related continuum of alterations, which can be identified with different imaging modalities. The aim of this article is to review radiological findings involving the intervertebral discs, end plates, bone marrow changes, facet joints and the spinal canal in relation to the pathogenesis of degenerative changes in the spine...
March 22, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567804/primary-traumatic-axonopathy-in-mice-subjected-to-impact-acceleration-a-reappraisal-of-pathology-and-mechanisms-with-high-resolution-anatomical-methods
#13
Nikolaos K Ziogas, Vassilis E Koliatsos
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a common neuropathology in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is featured by primary injury to axons. Here, we generated TAI with impact acceleration of the head (IA) in male Thy1-eYFP-H transgenic mice in which specific populations of neurons and their axons are labeled with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). This model results in axonal lesions in multiple axonal tracts along with blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation. The corticospinal tract (CST), a prototypical long tract, is severely affected and is the focus of this study...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565958/the-morphology-and-possible-clinical-significance-of-the-intraforaminal-ligaments-in-the-entrance-zones-of-the-l1-l5-levels
#14
Enyi Zhong, Qinghao Zhao, Benchao Shi, Yushan Xie, Zihai Ding, Hai Lv, Shizhen Zhong, Wenhua Huang
BACKGROUND: The extraforaminal ligaments between the L1-L5 lumbar spinal nerves and the tissues surrounding the intervertebral foramina (IVF) have been well studied. However, little research has been performed to describe the local anatomy of the entrance zones at the L1-L5 level. Detailed anatomic studies of the intraforaminal ligaments (IFLs) in the entrance zones at the L1-L5 levels have not been performed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify and describe the IFLs in the entrance zones of the L1-L5 IVF and to determine their possible clinical significance...
March 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562485/ground-reaction-force-spinal-kinematics-and-their-relationship-to-lower-back-pain-and-injury-in-cricket-fast-bowling-a-review
#15
Billy Senington, Raymond Y Lee, Jonathan Mark Williams
BACKGROUND: Fast bowlers display a high risk of lower back injury and pain. Studies report factors that may increase this risk, however exact mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To provide a contemporary analysis of literature, up to April 2016, regarding fast bowling, spinal kinematics, ground reaction force (GRF), lower back pain (LBP) and pathology. METHOD: Key terms including biomechanics, bowling, spine and injury were searched within MEDLINE, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss, Science Citation Index, OAIster, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct and Scopus...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559244/role-of-disc-area-and-trabecular-bone-density-on-lumbar-spinal-column-fracture-risk-curves-under-vertical-impact
#16
Narayan Yoganandan, Jason Moore, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee, Nicholas DeVogel, JiangYue Zhang
While studies have been conducted using human cadaver lumbar spines to understand injury biomechanics in terms of stability/energy to fracture, and physiological responses under pure-moment/follower loads, data are sparse for inferior-to-superior impacts. Injuries occur under this mode from underbody blasts. OBJECTIVES: determine role of age, disc area, and trabecular bone density on tolerances/risk curves under vertical loading from a controlled group of specimens. T12-S1 columns were obtained, pretest X-rays and CTs taken, load cells attached to both ends, impacts applied at S1-end using custom vertical accelerator device, and posttest X-ray, CT, and dissections done...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553943/the-accurate-free-hand-placement-of-s2-alar-iliac-s2ai-screw
#17
Taolin Fang, Glenn S Russo, Gregory D Schroeder, Christopher K Kepler
Achieving an osseous fusion across the lumbosacral spine is still challenging in spine surgery. For the long multisegmental fusion surgery, it is crucial to build a robust and substantial foundation, which sometimes necessitates the distal spinal fixation to the pelvis. The pelvic fixation technique involves advancing the screw through the alar, thereby providing more purchase across the sacroiliac joint and into the ilium. The S2 alar iliac screws can obtain immediate stability and proper biomechanical strength of constructs...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548956/biomechanical-analysis-of-an-expandable-lumbar-interbody-spacer
#18
Hector Soriano-Baron, Anna G U S Newcomb, Devika Malhotra, Atilio E Palma, Eduardo Martinez-Del-Campo, Neil R Crawford, Nicholas Theodore, Brian P Kelly, Taro Kaibara
OBJECTIVE: Recently developed expandable interbody spacers are widely accepted in spinal surgery; however, the resulting biomechanical effects of their use have not yet been fully studied. We analyzed the biomechanical effects of an expandable polyetheretherketone interbody spacer inserted through a bilateral posterior approach with and without different modalities of posterior augmentation. METHODS: Biomechanical nondestructive flexibility testing was performed in 7 human cadaveric lumbar (L2-L5) specimens followed by axial compressive loading...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537899/in-vitro-biomechanical-study-of-epidural-pressure-during-the-z-shape-elevating-pulling-reduction-technique-for-cervical-unilateral-locked-facets
#19
Xinwei Shao, Jican Zeng, Yuchun Chen, Lixian Wu, Xinjia Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanism of the halo vest-assisted Z-shape elevating-pulling reduction technique for cervical unilateral locked facets, and confirm the safety of the spinal cord under the epidural pressure that occurs during the reduction process. METHODS: Eleven osteoligamentous whole coronal and cervical spine specimens were established as skull-neck-thorax models of cervical unilateral locked facets at the C5/6 level. The halo vest-assisted Z-shape elevating-pulling reduction technique was then applied to reduce the locked facets...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528253/morphing-the-feature-based-multi-blocks-of-normative-healthy-vertebral-geometries-to-scoliosis-vertebral-geometries-development-of-personalized-finite-element-models
#20
Prasannaah Hadagali, James R Peters, Sriram Balasubramanian
Personalized Finite Element (FE) models and hexahedral elements are preferred for biomechanical investigations. Feature-based multi-block methods are used to develop anatomically accurate personalized FE models with hexahedral mesh. It is tedious to manually construct multi-blocks for large number of geometries on an individual basis to develop personalized FE models. Mesh-morphing method mitigates the aforementioned tediousness in meshing personalized geometries every time, but leads to element warping and loss of geometrical data...
March 12, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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