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Spinal biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903350/-effect-of-lumbar-dorsal-muscle-injuries-on-lumbar-vertebral-bone-quality-of-rat
#1
X P Wang, S J Wang, P Yan, L L Zhu, M Q Li, Z Y Bian, J W Tian
Objective: To explored the effects of lumbar dorsal muscle damage on local lumbar vertebral bone quality. Methods: Thirty SD female rats, at age of 20 weeks, were randomly divided into three groups: control group, or say pseudo surgery group, an incision in the back were performed as CNT; bilateral erector spinal muscle group in which group bilateral lumbar erector spinal muscle were removed as RESM; castration group in which bilateral ovaries were resected as OVX.After three months, bone mineral density, microscopic CT and vertebral compression test were taken in lumbar vertebral (L4-6) in turn...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898852/horse-species-symposium-biomechanics-of-the-exercising-horse
#2
Hilary M Clayton
In spite of having large height and body mass, horses are cursorial animals with an extensive gait repertoire and considerable athletic abilities. The limbs have evolved so that the heavy musculature is confined to the proximal limbs while the distal limbs are light in weight with a single functional digit and long, lightweight tendons to move and support the distal joints. These adaptations reduce the moment of inertia and decrease the energy expended to protract and retract the limbs during locomotion. There is a division of labor between the forelimbs, which have a pillar-like construction specialized for weight bearing, and the hind limbs, in which the more angulated joints provide leverage for the generation of propulsion...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891670/biomechanical-behavior-of-novel-composite-pmma-cap-bone-cements-in-an-anatomically-accurate-cadaveric-vertebroplasty-model
#3
Shant Aghyarian, Xiaobang Hu, Ram Haddas, Isador H Lieberman, Victor Kosmopoulos, Harry K W Kim, Danieli C Rodrigues
Vertebral compression fractures are caused by many factors including trauma and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis induced fractures are a result of loss in bone mass and quality that weaken the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, involving cement augmentation of fractured vertebrae, show promise in restoring vertebral mechanical properties. Some complications however, are reported due to the performance characteristics of commercially available bone cements. In this study, the biomechanical performance characteristics of two novel composite (PMMA-CaP) bone cements were studied using an anatomically accurate human cadaveric vertebroplasty model...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886885/classification-and-management-of-pediatric-subaxial-cervical-spine-injuries
#4
REVIEW
Casey J Madura, James M Johnston
Appropriate management of subaxial spine injury in children requires an appreciation for the differences in anatomy, biomechanics, injury patterns, and treatment options compared with adult patients. Increased flexibility, weak neck muscles, and cranial disproportion predispose younger children to upper cervical injuries and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. A majority of subaxial cervical spine injuries can be treated nonoperatively. Surgical instrumentation options for children have significantly increased in recent years...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886875/the-role-of-a-miniopen-thoracoscopic-assisted-approach-in-the-management-of-burst-fractures-involving-the-thoracolumbar-junction
#5
REVIEW
Ricky Raj S Kalra, Meic H Schmidt
Thoracoscopic spinal surgery is a minimally invasive open endoscopic approach to the anterior thoracolumbar spine for decompression and stabilization. It offers an alternative to open thoracotomy for thoracolumbar burst fractures, anterior spinal cord decompression, and spinal reconstruction with interbody and anterolateral plate instrumentation for restoration of biomechanical stability and alignment. Posterior instrumentation may not sufficiently stabilize a significantly disrupted anterior load-bearing spinal column, and the high access morbidity of open procedures is of significant concern...
January 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886022/fracture-risk-of-vertebral-bodies-after-cryosurgery-using-a-miniature-cryoprobe-a-biomechanical-in-vitro-analysis-on-human-bones
#6
K Zarghooni, L Westermann, R Sobottke, M Röllinghoff, J Bredow, J Siewe, Peer Eysel, M J Scheyerer
INTRODUCTION: Due to spinal instability and compressive neurologic deficits surgical management is sometimes necessary in patients with metastatic spinal lesions. However, in some cases open surgery is not possible and minimally invasive procedures, like cryoablation, are needed. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a miniature cryoprobe provides adequate tissue cooling in vertebrae and to evaluate the direct impact of cryosurgery on vertebral body stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve thoracic vertebral bodies were harvested from fresh cadavers...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879505/the-effect-of-transpedicular-screw-design-on-its-performance-in-vertebral-bone-under-tensile-loads-a-parametric-study
#7
Ron N Alkaly, Dan L Bader
STUDY DESIGN: A biomechanical study using bovine thoracolumbar spines. OBJECTIVE: To study investigated whether thread design parameters aimed at altering the state of stress at the screw-bone interface increase the screw's holding power. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Internal spinal fixators utilizing transpedicular screw fixation are used to achieve early stabilization of the injured spine in a range of clinical conditions. Despite advances in the design of internal spinal fixation systems, implant loosening, and catastrophic failures at the screw-bone interface remains a serious complication in adult spine surgery...
December 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858238/instrumentation-failure-following-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-the-role-of-rod-material-diameter-and-multi-rod-constructs
#8
Andrea Luca, Claudia Ottardi, Maurizio Sasso, Liliana Prosdocimo, Luigi La Barbera, Marco Brayda-Bruno, Fabio Galbusera, Tomaso Villa
PURPOSE: Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) has a complication rate noticeably higher than other corrective surgical techniques used for the treatment of spinal sagittal imbalance. In particular, rod breakage and pseudoarthrosis remain burning issues of this technique. Goal of this study was to investigate the biomechanical performance of several hardware constructs. METHODS: The study was performed using two validated finite element models of the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) incorporating a PSO on L3 and L4, respectively...
November 17, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856380/t9-versus-t10-as-the-upper-instrumented-vertebra-for-correction-of-adult-deformity-rationale-and-recommendations
#9
Hwee Weng Dennis Hey, Kimberly-Anne Tan, Christabel Shao-En Neo, Eugene Tze-Chun Lau, Denise Ai-Wen Choong, Leok-Lim Lau, Gabriel Ka-Po Liu, Hee-Kit Wong
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Adult spinal deformity correction sometimes involves long posterior pedicle screw constructs extending from the lumbosacral spine to the thoracic vertebra. As fusion obliterates motion and places supraphysiological stress on adjacent spinal segments, it is crucial to ascertain the ideal upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) to minimize risk of proximal junctional failure (PJF). The T10 vertebra is often chosen to allow bridging of the thoracolumbar junction into the immobile thoracic vertebrae on the basis that it is the lowest immobile thoracic vertebra strut by the rib cage...
November 14, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852497/preventing-instrumentation-failure-in-three-column-spinal-osteotomy-biomechanical-analysis-of-rod-configuration
#10
Zachary S Jager, Serkan İnceoğlu, Daniel Palmer, Yusuf T Akpolat, Wayne K Cheng
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical analysis. OBJECTIVES: To show the role of additional rods and long-term fatigue strength to prevent the instrumentation failure on three-column osteotomies. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Three-column osteotomy such as pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) and vertebral column resections are surgical correction options for fixed spinal deformity. Posterior fixation for the PSO involves pedicle screw-and rod-based instrumentation, with the rods being contoured to accommodate the accentuated lordosis...
January 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852493/biomechanical-comparison-of-spinopelvic-fixation-constructs-iliac-screw-versus-s2-alar-iliac-screw
#11
Camden B Burns, Karan Dua, Nicholas A Trasolini, David E Komatsu, James M Barsi
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical cadaveric study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the biomechanical properties of the iliac and S2-Alar-Iliac (S2AI) screw in a similar spinopelvic fixation construct. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinopelvic fixation is used in the correction of pelvic obliquity, high-grade spondylolisthesis, and long spinal fusions. With the development of pedicle screw fixation, the iliac screw has been used as an anchor point to the pelvis...
January 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848266/sensitivity-of-lumbar-spine-response-to-follower-load-and-flexion-moment-finite-element-study
#12
Sadegh Naserkhaki, Marwan El-Rich
The follower load (FL) combined with moments is commonly used to approximate flexed/extended posture of the lumbar spine in absence of muscles in biomechanical studies. There is a lack of consensus as to what magnitudes simulate better the physiological conditions. Considering the in-vivo measured values of the intradiscal pressure (IDP), intervertebral rotations (IVRs) and the disc loads, sensitivity of these spinal responses to different FL and flexion moment magnitudes was investigated using a 3D nonlinear finite element (FE) model of ligamentous lumbosacral spine...
November 16, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844229/one-step-reconstruction-with-a-3d-printed-custom-made-prosthesis-after-total-en-bloc-sacrectomy-a-technical-note
#13
Ran Wei, Wei Guo, Tao Ji, Yidan Zhang, Haijie Liang
BACKGROUND: Surgeries for primary malignancies involving upper sacrum require total en bloc sacrectomy followed by complex mechanical reconstruction, which might be simplified by application of the three-dimensional (3D) printing technique. PURPOSES: To describe the design of a 3D-printed custom-made prosthesis for reconstruction after total en bloc sacrectomy, the surgical technique, and the clinical and functional outcome of a patient. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient with recurrent sacral chordoma was admitted in our center...
November 14, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843688/extreme-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion-do-the-cons-outweigh-the-pros
#14
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: Major factors prompted the development of minimally invasive (MIS) extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive Inc., San Diego, CA, USE) for the thoracic/lumbar spine. These include providing interbody stabilization and indirect neural decompression while avoiding major visceral/vessel injury as seen with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to avert trauma to paraspinal muscles/facet joints found with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), and posterior-lateral fusion techniques (PLF)...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836574/towards-bioreactor-development-with-physiological-motion-control-and-its-applications
#15
Marcus Stoffel, Wolfgang Willenberg, Marzieh Azarnoosh, Nadine Fuhrmann-Nelles, Bei Zhou, Bernd Markert
In biomedical applications bioreactors are used, which are able to apply mechanical loadings under cultivation conditions on biological tissues. However, complex mechanobiological evolutions, such as the dependency between mechanical properties and cell activity, depend strongly on the applied loading conditions. This requires correct physiological movements and loadings in bioreactors. The aim of the present study is to develop bioreactors, in which native and artificial biological tissues can be cultivated under physiological conditions in knee joints and spinal motion segments...
November 8, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833116/freeze-dried-platelet-rich-plasma-accelerates-bone-union-with-adequate-rigidity-in-posterolateral-lumbar-fusion-surgery-model-in-rats
#16
Yasuhiro Shiga, Sumihisa Orita, Go Kubota, Hiroto Kamoda, Masaomi Yamashita, Yusuke Matsuura, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Yawara Eguchi, Miyako Suzuki, Kazuhide Inage, Takeshi Sainoh, Jun Sato, Kazuki Fujimoto, Koki Abe, Hirohito Kanamoto, Masahiro Inoue, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Yasuchika Aoki, Tomoaki Toyone, Takeo Furuya, Masao Koda, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori
Fresh platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates bone union in rat model. However, fresh PRP has a short half-life. We suggested freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP) prepared in advance and investigated its efficacy in vivo. Spinal posterolateral fusion was performed on 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into six groups based on the graft materials (n = 10 per group): sham control, artificial bone (A hydroxyapatite-collagen composite) -alone, autologous bone, artificial bone + fresh-PRP, artificial bone + FD-PRP preserved 8 weeks, and artificial bone + human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP) as a positive control...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831966/the-kinematics-and-spondylosis-of-the-lumbar-spine-vary-depending-on-the-levels-of-motion-segments-in-individuals-with-low-back-pain
#17
Bryce A Basques, Alejandro A Espinoza Orías, Grant D Shifflett, Michael P Fice, Gunnar B Andersson, Howard S An, Nozomu Inoue
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To identify associations of spondylotic and kinematic changes with low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ability to characterize and differentiate the biomechanics of both the symptomatic and asymptomatic lumbar spine is crucial to alleviate the sparse literature on the association of lumbar spine biomechanics and LBP. METHODS: Lumbar dynamic plain radiographs (flexion-extension), dynamic CT scanning (axial rotation, disc height) and MRI (disc and facet degeneration grades) were obtained for each subject...
November 9, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829494/interpolation-of-three-dimensional-kinematics-with-dual-quaternions
#18
Jeremy E Goodsitt, Robert M Havey, Saeed Khayatzadeh, Leonard I Voronov, Avinash G Patwardhan
Devising patient-specific kinematic assessment techniques are critical for both patient diagnosis and treatment evaluation of complex biomechanical joints within the body. New non-invasive kinematic assessment techniques, such as bi-planar fluoroscopic registration, provide improved insight on joint biomechanics compared to traditional techniques, but at the expense of higher radiation exposure to the patient. The purpose of this study was to minimize the x-ray sample size required for evaluating spine kinematics, ultimately reducing radiation exposure, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy by improving upon existing 3D kinematic interpolation techniques...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816390/biomechanical-analysis-of-combining-head-down-tilt-traction-with-vibration-for-different-grades-of-degeneration-of-the-lumbar-spine
#19
Sicong Wang, Lizhen Wang, Yawei Wang, Chengfei Du, Ming Zhang, Yubo Fan
In recent years, a combination of traction and vibration therapy is usually used to alleviate low back pain (LBP) in clinical settings. Combining head-down tilt (HDT) traction with vibration was demonstrated to be efficacious for LBP patients in our previous study. However, the biomechanics of the lumbar spine during this combined treatment is not well known and need quantitative analysis. In addition, LBP patients have different grades of degeneration of the lumbar spinal structure, which are often age related...
November 2, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815845/the-craniocervical-junction-embryology-anatomy-biomechanics-and-imaging-in-blunt-trauma
#20
REVIEW
Curtis Edward Offiah, Emily Day
: Imaging of the blunt traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction can be challenging but central to improving morbidity and mortality related to such injury. The radiologist has a significant part to play in the appropriate management of patients who have suffered injury to this vital junction between the cranium and the spine. Knowledge of the embryology and normal anatomy as well as normal variant appearances avoids inappropriate investigations in these trauma patients. Osseous injury can be subtle while representing important radiological red flags for significant underlying ligamentous injury...
November 4, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
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