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Spinal biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508761/posterior-branches-of-lumbar-spinal-nerves-part-ii-lumbar-facet-syndrome-pathomechanism-symptomatology-and-diagnostic-work-up
#1
Katarzyna Kozera, Bogdan Ciszek, Paweł Szaro
Posterior branches of the lumbar spinal nerves are the anatomic substrate of pain in the lower back, sacrum and the gluteal area. Such pain may be associated with various pathologies which cause pain in the posterior branches of the lumbar spinal nerves due to entrapment, mechanical irritation or inflammatory reaction and/or degeneration. The posterior branches are of significant functional importance, which is related to the function of the structures they supply, including facet joints, which are the basic biomechanical units of the spine...
April 12, 2017: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502475/cyst-like-osteolytic-formations-in-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-rhbmp-2-augments-sheep-spinal-fusion
#2
Hsin Chuan Pan, Soonchul Lee, Kang Ting, Jia Shen, Chenchao Wang, Alan Nguyen, Emily A Berthiaume, Janette N Zara, A Simon Turner, Howard B Seim, Jin Hee Kwak, Xinli Zhang, Chia Soo
Multiple case reports using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) have reported complications. However, the local adverse effects of rhBMP-2 application are not well documented. In this report we show that, in addition to promoting lumbar spinal fusion through potent osteogenic effects, rhBMP-2 augmentation promotes local cyst-like osteolytic formations in sheep trabecular bones that have undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Three months after operation, conventional computed tomography showed that the trabecular bones of the rhBMP-2 application groups could fuse, whereas no fusion was observed in the control group...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500483/the-effect-of-repetitive-flexion-and-extension-fatigue-loading-on-the-young-porcine-lumbar-spine-a-feasibility-study-of-mri-and-histological-analyses
#3
Olof Thoreson, Lars Ekström, Hans-Arne Hansson, Carl Todd, Wisam Witwit, Anna Swärd Aminoff, Pall Jonasson, Adad Baranto
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical mechanisms of failure of FSUs have been studied but the correlation of repetitive flexion and extension loadings to the initial phase of fatigue in young FSUs are still not known. The purpose of the study was to examine the fatigue results of low magnitude repetitive flexion and extension loading on porcine lumbar Functional Spinal Units (FSUs) with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and histology. METHODS: Eight FSUs were subject to repetitive pivot flexion and eight to extension loading by a protocol of 20 000 cycles at 1 Hz with a load of 700 N...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486874/performance-of-radiofrequency-ablation-used-for-metastatic-spinal-tumor-numerical-approach
#4
Lukas Capek, Petr Henys, Pavel Barsa, Vaclav Dvorak
Surgical treatment of spine metastases follows only local anatomical and biomechanical objectives. Few cases of actual solitary metastases are rather exceptional, while removal of these metastases and the primary tumor may help to eradicate the process. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out the temperature distribution and the volume lesion in a spinal tumor. For this purpose, the parametric three-dimensional numerical model was developed. It was shown that by finite element modeling approach not only the temperature distribution but even the resulted cavity may be estimated...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476690/the-relationships-between-low-back-pain-and-lumbar-lordosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Se-Woong Chun, Chai-Young Lim, Keewon Kim, Jinseub Hwang, Sun G Chung
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Clinicians regard lumbar lordotic curvature (LLC) with respect to low back pain (LBP) in a contradictory fashion. The time-honored point of view is that LLC itself, or its increment causes LBP. On the other hand, recently, the biomechanical role of LLC has been emphasized and loss of lordosis is considered a possible cause of LBP. The relationship between LLC and LBP has immense clinical significance, since it serves as the basis of therapeutic exercises for treating and preventing LBP...
May 2, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463696/spinal-fusion-without-instrumentation-experimental-animal-study
#6
Sandra Reitmaier, Julian Schuelke, Hendrik Schmidt, David Volkheimer, Anita Ignatius, Hans-Joachim Wilke
BACKGROUND: The number and cost of instrumented spinal fusion surgeries have increased rapidly, primarily for the treatment of lumbar segmental instabilities. However, what if the organism itself is able to restore segmental stability over time? This large-animal study using sheep aimed to investigate whether the reparative response after destabilization via facetectomy and nucleotomy without instrumentation can effectively fuse the spinal segment comparable to instrumented standard fusion surgery...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456669/lumbar-muscle-structure-and-function-in-chronic-versus-recurrent-low-back-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Dorien Goubert, Robby De Pauw, Mira Meeus, Tine Willems, Barbara Cagnie, Stijn Schouppe, Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Evy Dhondt, Lieven Danneels
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Heterogeneity exists within the low back pain population. Some patients recover after every pain episode, whereas others suffer daily from LBP complaints. Until now, studies rarely make a distinction between recurrent low back pain (RLBP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP), although both are characterized by a different clinical picture. Clinical experiences also indicate that heterogeneity exists within the CLBP population. Muscle degeneration, like atrophy, fat infiltration, alterations in muscle fiber type and altered muscle activity, compromises proper biomechanics and motion of the spinal units in low back pain (LBP) patients...
April 26, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451858/biomechanical-in-vitro-comparison-of-radiofrequency-kyphoplasty-and-balloon-kyphoplasty
#8
Gerhard Achatz, Hans-Joachim Riesner, Benedikt Friemert, Raimund Lechner, Nicolas Graf, Hans-Joachim Wilke
PURPOSE: Balloon kyphoplasty (BK) has emerged as a popular method for treating osteoporosis vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). In response to several shortcomings of BK, alternative methods have been introduced, among which is radiofrequency kyphoplasty (RFK). Biomechanical comparisons of BK and RFK are very sparse. The purpose of this study was to perform a biomechanical study in which BK and RFK are compared. METHODS: Each of the two study groups comprised six specimens prepared from two functional spinal units (FSUs) cut from fresh-frozen cadaveric spines (3 of T9-T11 and 3 of T12-L2)...
April 27, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451509/hybrid-instrumentation-in-lumbar-spinal-fusion-a-biomechanical-evaluation-of-three-different-instrumentation-techniques
#9
Peter Obid, Reza Danyali, Rebecca Kueny, Gerd Huber, Michael Reichl, Alexander Richter, Thomas Niemeyer, Michael Morlock, Klaus Püschel, Hüseyin Übeyli
STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human cadaveric study. OBJECTIVE: The development or progression of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after spine stabilization and fusion is a major problem in spine surgery. Apart from optimal balancing of the sagittal profile, dynamic instrumentation is often suggested to prevent or impede ASD. Hybrid instrumentation is used to gain stabilization while allowing motion to avoid hypermobility in the adjacent segment. In this biomechanical study, the effects of two different hybrid instrumentations on human cadaver spines were evaluated and compared with a rigid instrumentation...
February 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438449/ankylosing-spondylitis-increases-perioperative-and-postoperative-complications-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#10
Daniel J Blizzard, Colin T Penrose, Charles Z Sheets, Thorsten M Seyler, Michael P Bolognesi, Christopher R Brown
BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic autoimmune spondyloarthropathy that primarily affects the axial spine and hips. Progressive disease leads to pronounced spinal kyphosis, positive sagittal balance, and altered biomechanics. The purpose of this study is to determine the complication profile of patients with AS undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: The Medicare sample was searched from 2005 to 2012 yielding 1006 patients with AS who subsequently underwent THA...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437354/complete-spondylectomy-using-orthogonal-spinal-fixation-and-combined-anterior-and-posterior-approaches-for-thoracolumbar-spinal-reconstruction-technical-nuances-and-clinical-results
#11
Hasan A Zaidi, Al-Wala Awad, Curtis A Dickman
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term efficacy of 2-stage total en bloc spondylectomy (TES). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: TES is a well-described technique to achieve tumor-free margins, but it is a highly destabilizing procedure that necessitates spinal reconstruction. A 2-stage anterior/posterior approach for tumor resection and instrumentation has been shown to be biomechanically superior to the single-stage approach in achieving rigid fixation, but few clinical studies with long-term outcomes exist...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437350/biomechanical-effects-of-a-dynamic-topping-off-instrumentation-in-a-long-rigid-pedicle-screw-construct
#12
Michael Reichl, Rebecca A Kueny, Reza Danyali, Peter Obid, Hüseyin Übeyli, Klaus Püschel, Michael M Morlock, Gerd Huber, Thomas Niemeyer, Alexander Richter
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical ex vivo study. OBJECTIVE: To determine if topping off instrumentation can reduce the hypermobility in the adjacent segments when compared with the classic rigid spinal instrumentation. SUMMARY OF THE BACKGROUND DATA: Long rigid instrumentation might increase the mechanical load in the adjacent segments, the resulting hypermobility, and the risk for adjacent segment disease. Topping off instrumentation intends to reduce the hypermobility at the adjacent level by more evenly distributing segmental motion and, thereby, potentially mitigating adjacent level disease...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437333/correction-capability-in-the-3-anatomic-planes-of-different-pedicle-screw-designs-in-scoliosis-instrumentation
#13
Xiaoyu Wang, Carl-Eric Aubin, John Coleman, Jeremy Rawlinson
STUDY DESIGN: Computer simulations to compare the correction capabilities of different pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) instrumentations. OBJECTIVE: To compare the correction and resulting bone-screw forces associated with different pedicle screws in scoliosis instrumentations. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pedicle screw fixation is widely used in surgical instrumentation for spinal deformity treatment. Screw design, correction philosophies, and surgical techniques are constantly evolving to achieve better control of the vertebrae and correction of the spinal deformity...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437331/do-the-position-and-orientation-of-the-crosslink-influence-the-stiffness-of-spinal-instrumentation
#14
Zhuo Wang, Toshihiko Sakakibara, Takamasa Yoshikawa, Tadashi Inaba, Yuichi Kasai
STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study of double-level pedicle screw constructs with or without crosslinks (CL) in an unstable model. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimal position and orientation of the CL. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several reports have described biomechanical research on such CL, but no definite consensus has been reached regarding the effects. Very few studies have examined the position and orientation of the CL...
May 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427722/biomechanical-investigation-of-post-operative-c5-palsy-due-to-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-different-types-of-cervical-spinal-alignment
#15
Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, Kyungsoo Kim, Won Man Park, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Post-operative C5palsies are among the most common complications seen after cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Although C5 palsy is a well-known complication of cervical spine surgery, its pathogenesis is poorly understood and depends on many other factors. In this study, a finite element model of the cervical spine and spinal cord-nerve roots complex structures was developed. The changes in stress in the cord and nerve roots, posterior shift of the spinal cord, and displacement and elongation of the nerve roots after laminectomy for cervical OPLL were analyzed for three different cervical sagittal alignments (lordosis, straight, and kyphosis)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427315/computational-modeling-of-long-term-effects-of-prophylactic-vertebroplasty-on-bone-adaptation
#16
Sandro D Badilatti, Patrik Christen, Stephen J Ferguson, Ralph Müller
Cement augmentation in vertebrae (vertebroplasty) is usually used to restore mechanical strength after spinal fracture but could also be used as a prophylactic treatment. So far, the mechanical competence has been determined immediately post-treatment, without considering long-term effects of bone adaptation. In this work, we investigated such long-term effects of vertebroplasty on the stiffness of the augmented bone by means of computational simulation of bone adaptation. Using micro-finite element analysis, we determined sites of increased mechanical stress (stress raisers) and stress shielding and, based on the simulations, regions with increased or decreased bone loss due to augmentation...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414169/a-biomechanical-investigation-of-different-screw-head-designs-for-vertebral-derotation-in-scoliosis-surgery
#17
Po-Yi Liu, Po-Liang Lai, Chun-Li Lin
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The posterior pedicle screw-rod system, which is widely used to correct spinal deformities, achieves a good correction rate in the frontal and coronal planes but not in the axial plane. Direct vertebral derotation (DVD) was developed to correct axial plane deformities. However, the design of screw head and body connection, in terms of monoaxial, polyaxial, and uniplanar screw, may influence the efficiency of DVD. PURPOSE: This study compared the efficiency of a newly designed uniplanar screw with that of monoaxial and polyaxial screws in the DVD maneuver...
April 13, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411742/a-biomechanical-and-physiological-study-of-office-seat-and-tablet-device-interaction
#18
Eric Weston, Peter Le, William S Marras
Twenty subjects performed typing tasks on a desktop computer and touch-screen tablet in two chairs for an hour each, and the effects of chair, device, and their interactions on each dependent measure were recorded. Biomechanical measures of muscle force, spinal load, and posture were examined, while discomfort was measured via heart rate variability (HRV) and subjective reports. HRV was sensitive enough to differentiate between chair and device interactions. Biomechanically, a lack of seat back mobility forced individuals to maintain an upright seating posture with increased extensor muscle forces and increased spinal compression...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410535/spinal-kinematics-during-gait-in-healthy-individuals-across-different-age-groups
#19
Stefan Schmid, Björn Bruhin, Dominika Ignasiak, Jacqueline Romkes, William R Taylor, Stephen J Ferguson, Reinald Brunner, Silvio Lorenzetti
Most studies investigating trunk kinematics have not provided adequate quantification of spinal motion, resulting in a limited understanding of the healthy spine's biomechanical behavior during gait. This study aimed at assessing spinal motion during gait in adolescents, adults and older individuals. Fourteen adolescents (10-18years), 13 adults (19-35years) and 15 older individuals (≥65years) were included. Using a previously validated enhanced optical motion capture approach, sagittal and frontal plane spinal curvature angles and general trunk kinematics were measured during shod walking at a self-selected normal speed...
April 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399553/rectus-capitis-posterior-minor-histological-and-biomechanical-links-to-the-spinal-dura-mater
#20
Gabriel Venne, Brian J Rasquinha, Manuela Kunz, Randy E Ellis
STUDY DESIGN: Serial histological investigation was performed on 10 cadaveric specimens and biomechanical tests were performed on five specimens, both focused on the tissue connexion between the rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPMi) and the spinal dura. OBJECTIVE: This study had two components: to clarify the microscopic structure of the tissue link between RCPMi and the dura mater, and to evaluate the mechanical role of this tissue complex. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Dissection-based and imaging-based reports have suggested a connective tissue link between the RCPMi and the dura mater at the posterior-atlanto-occipital (PAO) level...
April 15, 2017: Spine
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