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Spinal biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728077/comparison-of-spinal-stability-following-motor-control-and-general-exercises-in-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain-patients
#1
MohammadBagher Shamsi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Aliashraf Jamshidi, Navid Arjmand, Farshid Ghezelbash
BACKGROUND: Motor control exercise was claimed to improve spinal stability in patients with chronic non-specific back pain, but to investigate the effectiveness of this exercise, other outcome measures have been used rather than spinal stability itself. The aim of our study is to assess motor control exercise effects on spinal stability using a biomechanical model. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were assigned to either motor control or general exercises. Before and after trainings, participants were tested for spinal stability at seven isometric tasks...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719806/effect-of-cage-design-supplemental-posterior-instrumentation-and-approach-on-primary-stability-of-a-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-biomechanical-in-vitro-study
#2
Werner Schmoelz, Sabrina Sandriesser, Oded Loebl, Marlies Bauer, Dietmar Krappinger
BACKGROUND: There are various techniques and approaches for lumbar interbody fusion differing in access, cage type and type of supplemental posterior instrumentation. While a transforaminal access usually includes a hemifacetectomy, the facet joint can be preserved with a more lateral extraforaminal access. The supplemental posterior instrumentation required for both fusion techniques is still debated. The purpose of the present study was to compare primary stability of the two accesses for two different cage types with none, unilateral and bilateral supplemental posterior instrumentation...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718273/3d-quantitative-evaluation-of-spine-proprioceptive-perception-motor-control-through-instinctive-self-correction-manoeuvre-in-healthy-young-subjects-posture-an-observational-study
#3
Moreno D'Amico, Edyta Kinel, Piero Roncoletta
BACKGROUND: Conservative treatment in spine deformities and spine related disorders is mainly based on proper individual proprioceptive and motor control training. For these reasons, conservative treatment involves the stimulation of individual capability of perceiving/reducing deformities, blocks and/or improper spine posture by voluntary control. The literature describes that habitually adopted relaxed postures often exacerbate low back pain. Typically, youths can be referred to therapeutic programs aimed at improving the quality of body posture along with fostering the awareness of the importance of correct posture...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716466/chronic-low-back-pain-patients-walk-with-locally-altered-spinal-kinematics
#4
Guillaume Christe, François Kade, Brigitte M Jolles, Julien Favre
Various studies have reported alterations of spinal kinematics in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) during gait. However, while recent findings stressed the importance of multi-segment analysis, most of prior gait studies modelled the lumbar spine as one segment, when it was not the entire trunk that was considered as a single segment. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive multi-segment research that could improve our understanding of CLBP pathomechanism and thus possibly contribute to better care for CLBP...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713254/short-term-effects-of-thoracic-spine-manipulation-on-the-biomechanical-organisation-of-gait-initiation-a-randomized-pilot-study
#5
Sébastien Ditcharles, Eric Yiou, Arnaud Delafontaine, Alain Hamaoui
Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707505/biomechanical-analysis-of-the-thoracolumbar-spine-under-physiological-loadings-experimental-motion-data-corridors-for-validation-of-finite-element-models
#6
Marien Couvertier, Arnaud Germaneau, Mathieu Saget, Jean-Christophe Dupré, Pascal Doumalin, Fabrice Brémand, Franck Hesser, Cyril Brèque, Manuel Roulaud, Olivier Monlezun, Tanguy Vendeuvre, Philippe Rigoard
Biomechanical studies that involve normal, injured or stabilized human spines are sometimes difficult to perform on large samples due to limited access to cadaveric human spines and biological variability. Finite element models alleviate these limitations due to the possibility of reusing the same model, whereas cadaveric spines can be damaged during testing, or have their mechanicals behaviour modified by fatigue, permanent deformation or structural failure. Finite element models need to be validated with experimental data to make sure that they represent the complex mechanical and physiological behaviour of normal, injured and stabilized spinal segments...
July 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698373/genetic-identification-of-a-hindbrain-nucleus-essential-for-innate-vocalization
#7
Luis Rodrigo Hernandez-Miranda, Pierre-Louis Ruffault, Julien C Bouvier, Andrew J Murray, Marie-Pierre Morin-Surun, Niccolò Zampieri, Justyna B Cholewa-Waclaw, Elodie Ey, Jean-Francois Brunet, Jean Champagnat, Gilles Fortin, Carmen Birchmeier
Vocalization in young mice is an innate response to isolation or mechanical stimulation. Neuronal circuits that control vocalization and breathing overlap and rely on motor neurons that innervate laryngeal and expiratory muscles, but the brain center that coordinates these motor neurons has not been identified. Here, we show that the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is essential for vocalization in mice. By generating genetically modified newborn mice that specifically lack excitatory NTS neurons, we show that they are both mute and unable to produce the expiratory drive required for vocalization...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696485/repeatability-of-a-dislocation-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-a-rat-a-high-speed-biomechanical-analysis
#8
Stephen Mattucci, Jie Liu, Paul Fijal, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Thomas R Oxland
Dislocation is the most common, and severe, spinal cord injury (SCI) mechanism in humans, yet there are few preclinical models. While dislocation in the rat model has been shown to produce unique outcomes, like other closed column models it exhibits higher outcome variability. Refinement of the dislocation model will enhance the testing of neuroprotective strategies, further biomechanical understanding, and guide therapeutic decisions. The overall objective of this study is to improve biomechanical repeatability of a dislocation SCI model in the rat, through the following specific aims: i) design new injury clamps that pivot and self-align to the vertebrae; ii) measure intervertebral kinematics during injury using the existing and redesigned clamps; and iii) compare relative motion at the vertebrae-clamp interface to determine which clamps provide the most rigid connection...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695807/effect-of-transverse-position-and-numbers-on-the-stability-of-the-spinal-pedicle-screw-fixation-during-the-pedicle-cortex-perforation
#9
Zhen Wang, Feng Su, Xiangyu Zhang, Shi Yan, Zhimin Zhang
Objective To evaluate the effect of transverse position and numbers on the stability of the spinal pedicle screw fixation during the pedicle cortex perforation. Methods The vertebral compression fracture was performed in the L1 vertebral body using the Chiba's method from 60 fresh thoracic and lumbar vertebrae samples of sheep(T13-L3),which were randomly divided into 6 groups(A,B,C,D,E,and F)using a lottery method. Bilateral pedicles of vertebral arch of T14 and L2 were inserted pedicle screws,connecting titanium rods to fix T14-L2 segments...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694593/experimental-study-on-pressure-response-to-graded-spinal-canal-compromise-in-an-in-vitro-burst-fracture-mode
#10
Jonathan Bourget-Murray, Mahdi Bassi, Ariana Frederick, Jerod Hines, Peter F Jarzem
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord compression is a known cause of spinal cord injury. The purpose of this study is to measure pressure response during graded spinal cord compression. This information will be important in evaluating the amount of canal compromise that can be tolerated before risking neurological injury secondary to cord compression. To date, there is no published study that has evaluated pressure response to graded canal compromise in the thoracic and lumbar spine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative biomechanical investigation using an in vitro burst fracture model of graded spinal canal compromise was performed...
April 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687472/development-of-an-instrumented-spinal-cord-surrogate-using-optical-fibers-a-feasibility-study
#11
Yann Facchinello, Éric Wagnac, Bora Ung, Yvan Petit, Prabin Pradhan, Louis-Marie Peyrache, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
In vitro replication of traumatic spinal cord injury is necessary to understand its biomechanics and to improve animal models. During a traumatic spinal cord injury, the spinal cord withstands an impaction at high velocity. In order to fully assess the impaction, the use of spinal canal occlusion sensor is necessary. A physical spinal cord surrogate is also often used to simulate the presence of the spinal cord and its surrounding structures. In this study, an instrumented physical spinal cord surrogate is presented and validated...
July 4, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683497/-influence-of-osseous-and-ligamentous-injuries-on-the-stability-of-the-atlantoaxial-complex
#12
Carolin Meyer, Jan Bredow, Elisa Heising, Peer Eysel, Lars Müller, Gregor Stein
Background The odontoid process and the transverse ligament are the most important structures stabilising the atlantoaxial complex. It has not been fully elucidated how injuries of these structures contribute towards instability and a potential narrowing of the spinal canal. Therefore, our investigation aimed to perform a biomechanical analysis of spinal width and dislocation of the odontoid process depending on injuries of the aforementioned structures. Methods In 10 fresh human cadaveric specimens, physiologic flexion and extension were simulated under fluoroscopy in intact specimens and after application of an odontoid process fracture and transverse ligament rupture in a crossover design...
June 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670418/bisphosphonate-s-and-intermittent-parathyroid-hormone-s-effect-on-human-spinal-fusion-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Michael A Stone, Andre M Jakoi, Justin A Iorio, Martin H Pham, Neil N Patel, Patrick C Hsieh, John C Liu, Frank L Acosta, Raymond Hah, Jeffrey C Wang
There has been a conscious effort to address osteoporosis in the aging population. As bisphosphonate and intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy become more widely prescribed to treat osteoporosis, it is important to understand their effects on other physiologic processes, particularly the impact on spinal fusion. Despite early animal model studies and more recent clinical studies, the impact of these medications on spinal fusion is not fully understood. Previous animal studies suggest that bisphosphonate therapy resulted in inhibition of fusion mass with impeded maturity and an unknown effect on biomechanical strength...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661400/cortex-dependent-recovery-of-unassisted-hindlimb-locomotion-after-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-adult-rats
#14
Anitha Manohar, Guglielmo Foffani, Patrick D Ganzer, John R Bethea, Karen A Moxon
After paralyzing spinal cord injury the adult nervous system has little ability to 'heal' spinal connections, and it is assumed to be unable to develop extra-spinal recovery strategies to bypass the lesion. We challenge this assumption, showing that completely spinalized adult rats can recover unassisted hindlimb weight support and locomotion without explicit spinal transmission of motor commands through the lesion. This is achieved with combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies that maximize cortical reorganization, inducing an expansion of trunk motor cortex and forepaw sensory cortex into the deafferented hindlimb cortex, associated with sprouting of corticospinal axons...
June 29, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660796/increased-stress-and-strain-on-the-spinal-cord-due-to-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-the-cervical-spine-under-flexion-after-laminectomy
#15
Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, Kyungsoo Kim, Won Man Park, SuKyoung Lee, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Myelopathy in the cervical spine due to cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament could be induced by static compression and/or dynamic factors. It has been suggested that dynamic factors need to be considered when planning and performing the decompression surgery on patients with the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. A finite element model of the C2-C7 cervical spine in the neutral position was developed and used to generate flexion and extension of the cervical spine...
June 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660372/a-finite-element-study-of-traditional-chinese-cervical-manipulation
#16
Zhen Deng, Kuan Wang, Huihao Wang, Tianying Lan, Hongsheng Zhan, Wenxin Niu
PURPOSE: Traditional Chinese cervical manipulation (TCCM) has been claimed as an effective treatment for diseases of the cervical spine, but its biomechanical effects on the vertebral body and intervertebral discs remain unclear. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a detailed finite element model of cervical spine, which was then used to investigate the biomechanical response of the cervical spine to TCCM. METHODS: The model of a C2-T1 cervical spine was constructed based on CT images of a healthy male volunteer and validated against published in vitro studies under different loading conditions...
June 28, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644193/heel-raised-foot-posture-do-not-affect-trunk-and-lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-a-barbell-back-squat-in-recreational-weightlifters
#17
Szu-Ping Lee, Carrie Gillis, Javier J Ibarra, Derek Oldroyd, Ryan Zane
It is claimed that weightlifting shoes with a raised heel may lead to a more upright trunk posture, and thus reduce the risk of back injuries during a barbell back squat. These proclaimed biomechanical effects have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk and lower extremity biomechanics during barbell back squats in 3 foot postures.14 recreational weightlifters (7 male and 7 female) between the ages of 18-50 performed barbell back squats in 3 conditions (barefoot on a flat surface, barefoot on a heel-raised platform, and wearing heel-raised weightlifting shoes) at 80% of their 1-RM...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640899/normative-3d-opto-electronic-stereo-photogrammetric-posture-and-spine-morphology-data-in-young-healthy-adult-population
#18
Moreno D'Amico, Edyta Kinel, Piero Roncoletta
Observational cross-sectional study. The current study aims to yield normative data: i.e., the physiological standard for 30 selected quantitative 3D parameters that accurately capture and describe a full-skeleton, upright-standing attitude. Specific and exclusive consideration was given to three distinct categories: postural, spine morphology and pelvic parameters. To capture such 3D parameters, the authors selected a non-ionising 3D opto-electronic stereo-photogrammetric approach. This required the identification and measurement of 27 body landmarks, each specifically tagged with a skin marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633066/an-emg-assisted-modeling-approach-to-assess-passive-lumbar-tissue-loading-in-vivo-during-trunk-bending
#19
Xiaopeng Ning
Lower back pain (LBP) is a condition with high prevalence and high cost both in the United States and around the world. The magnitude of mechanical loading on spine is strongly associated with the occurrence of LBP. Previously, to assess spinal loading, biologically assisted biomechanical models were developed to estimate trunk muscle contraction forces. Loadings on lumbar passive tissues are estimated using anatomical models. However, despite the substantial individual variability in lumbar ligament geometry and viscoelastic properties, the existing anatomical models do not account for these differences...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632549/biomechanical-investigation-of-a-novel-revision-device-in-an-osteoporotic-model-pullout-strength-of-pedicle-screw-anchor-versus-larger-screw-diameter
#20
Jacinto Manon, Mir M Hussain, Jonathan Harris, Mark Moldavsky, Frank La Marca, Brandon S Bucklen
STUDY DESIGN: In vitro cadaveric biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: To assess revision pullout strength of novel anchored screws (AS) versus conventional larger diameter traditional pedicle screws (TPS) in an osteoporotic model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pedicle screws are the most ubiquitous method of treating spinal pathologies requiring lumbar fusion. Although these screws are effective in providing 3-column stabilization of the spine, revision surgeries are occasionally necessary, particularly for geriatric and osteoporotic populations...
July 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
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