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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718769/pesticide-exposure-and-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-among-licensed-male-pesticide-applicators-in-the-agricultural-health-study
#1
Armando Meyer, Dale P Sandler, Laura E Beane Freeman, Jonathan N Hofmann, Christine G Parks
BACKGROUND: The occupation of farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); pesticides may account for this association, but there are few studies. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between RA and use of pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study. METHODS: The study sample was drawn from male pesticide applicators enrolled in 1993-1997 who provided questionnaire data at baseline and at least once during follow-up (over a median 18 y; interquartile range 16-19)...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709329/empirical-resistive-force-theory-for-slender-biological-filaments-in-shear-thinning-fluids
#2
Emily E Riley, Eric Lauga
Many cells exploit the bending or rotation of flagellar filaments in order to self-propel in viscous fluids. While appropriate theoretical modeling is available to capture flagella locomotion in simple, Newtonian fluids, formidable computations are required to address theoretically their locomotion in complex, nonlinear fluids, e.g., mucus. Based on experimental measurements for the motion of rigid rods in non-Newtonian fluids and on the classical Carreau fluid model, we propose empirical extensions of the classical Newtonian resistive-force theory to model the waving of slender filaments in non-Newtonian fluids...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709324/geometric-structure-and-information-change-in-phase-transitions
#3
Eun-Jin Kim, Rainer Hollerbach
We propose a toy model for a cyclic order-disorder transition and introduce a geometric methodology to understand stochastic processes involved in transitions. Specifically, our model consists of a pair of forward and backward processes (FPs and BPs) for the emergence and disappearance of a structure in a stochastic environment. We calculate time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and the information length L, which is the total number of different states that a system undergoes during the transition...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701692/next-generation-driver-for-attosecond-and-laser-plasma-physics
#4
D E Rivas, A Borot, D E Cardenas, G Marcus, X Gu, D Herrmann, J Xu, J Tan, D Kormin, G Ma, W Dallari, G D Tsakiris, I B Földes, S-W Chou, M Weidman, B Bergues, T Wittmann, H Schröder, P Tzallas, D Charalambidis, O Razskazovskaya, V Pervak, F Krausz, L Veisz
The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 10(20) W/cm(2) with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676748/regularity-of-center-of-pressure-trajectories-in-expert-gymnasts-during-bipedal-closed-eyes-quiet-standing
#5
Brice Isableu, Petra Hlavackova, Bruno Diot, Nicolas Vuillerme
We compared postural control of expert gymnasts (G) to that of non-gymnasts (NG) during bipedal closed-eyes quiet standing using conventional and nonlinear dynamical measures of center of foot pressure (COP) trajectories. Earlier findings based on COP classical variables showed that gymnasts exhibited a better control of postural balance but only in demanding stances. We examined whether the effect of expertise in Gymnastic can be uncovered in less demanding stances, from the analysis of the dynamic patterns of COP trajectories...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674870/heart-rate-response-to-alpha2-adrenergic-receptor-antagonism-by-antipsychotics
#6
David D Kim, Donna J Lang, Darren E R Warburton, Melissa L Woodward, Randall F White, Alasdair M Barr, William G Honer, Ric M Procyshyn
PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between antipsychotic-associated antagonism of alpha2-adrenergic receptors and resting heart rate in individuals with schizophrenia. METHODS: Thirty-one inpatients treated with antipsychotics were included in this exploratory analysis. Antipsychotic doses were converted to haloperidol equivalents for alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonism. Resting heart rate was measured with the patient in the seated upright posture. RESULTS: After controlling for confounding variables, the relationship between alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonism and resting heart rate demonstrated a positive linear effect (P = 0...
July 3, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668593/mechanical-characterization-and-finite-element-implementation-of-the-soft-materials-used-in-a-novel-anthropometric-test-device-for-simulating-underbody-blast-loading
#7
Wade A Baker, Costin D Untaroiu, Dawn M Crawford, Mostafiz R Chowdhury
Soft materials (e.g. polymers) are widely used in biomechanical devices to represent the nonlinear viscoelastic properties inherent in biological soft tissues. Knowledge of their mechanical properties is used to inform design choices and develop accurate finite element (FE) models of human surrogates. The goal of this study was to characterize the behavior of eight polymeric materials used in the design of a novel anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and implement these materials in an FE model of the ATD. Tensile and compressive tests at strain rates ranging from 0...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665320/dimension-reduced-analog-digital-mixed-measurement-method-of-inductive-proximity-sensor
#8
Yi-Xin Guo, Zhi-Biao Shao, Hui-Bin Tao, Kai-Liang Xu, Ting Li
Inductive proximity sensors (IPSs) present a unique no-contact advantage. They are widely preferred for displacement measurement in various industrial fields (e.g., aviation and aerospace), and they are improved continuously. When the inductance and resistance components of the IPS sensing core are separated, the influence of temperature drift on measurement can be eliminated. The complexity of online computation of component separation can be reduced using a two-dimensional look-up table method. However, this method exhibits disadvantages, such as large capacity of the look-up table, dependency on precision measurement of sensing core parameter, and nonlinear distribution of measurement resolution...
June 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659592/ultra-broadband-enhancement-of-nonlinear-optical-processes-from-randomly-patterned-super-absorbing-metasurfaces
#9
Nan Zhang, Ziheng Ji, Alec R Cheney, Haomin Song, Dengxin Ji, Xie Zeng, Borui Chen, Tianmu Zhang, Alexander N Cartwright, Kebin Shi, Qiaoqiang Gan
Broadband light trapping and field localization is highly desired in enhanced light-matter interaction, especially in harmonic generations. However, due to the limited resonant bandwidth, most periodic plasmonic nanostructures cannot cover both fundamental excitation wavelength and harmonic generation wavelength simultaneously. Therefore, most previously reported plasmonic nonlinear optical processes are low in conversion efficiency. Here, we report a strong enhancement of second harmonic generation based on a three-layered super absorbing metasurface structure consisting of a dielectric spacer layer sandwiched by an array of random metallic nanoantennas and a metal ground plate...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658600/rheological-characterization-of-human-brain-tissue
#10
S Budday, G Sommer, J Haybaeck, P Steinmann, G A Holzapfel, E Kuhl
The rheology of ultrasoft materials like the human brain is highly sensitive to regional and temporal variations and to the type of loading. While recent experiments have shaped our understanding of the time-independent, hyperelastic response of human brain tissue, its time-dependent behavior under various loading conditions remains insufficiently understood. Here we combine cyclic and relaxation testing under multiple loading conditions, shear, compression, and tension, to understand the rheology of four different regions of the human brain, the cortex, the basal ganglia, the corona radiata, and the corpus callosum...
June 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653335/catlas-an-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-three-dimensional-cortical-atlas-and-tissue-probability-maps-for-the-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#11
Daniel Stolzberg, Carmen Wong, Blake E Butler, Stephen G Lomber
Brain atlases play an important role in effectively communicating results from neuroimaging studies in a standardized coordinate system. Furthermore, brain atlases extend analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data by delineating regions of interest over which to evaluate the extent of functional activation as well as measures of inter-regional connectivity. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional atlas of the cat cerebral cortex based on established cytoarchitectonic and electrophysiological findings...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653244/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-ghb-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-semi-mechanistic-and-physiologically-relevant-pk-pd-model
#12
Rutwij A Dave, Kristin E Follman, Marilyn E Morris
An overdose of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a drug of abuse, results in fatality caused by severe respiratory depression. In this study, a semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model was developed to characterize monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1)-mediated transport of GHB, as well as effects of GHB on respiration frequency, for IV doses of 200, 600, and 1500 mg/kg in rats. The proposed PK/PD model for GHB consists of nonlinear metabolism of GHB in the liver, MCT1-mediated renal reabsorption with physiologically relevant concurrent fluid reabsorption, MCT1-mediated uptake into the brain, and direct effects of binding of GHB to GABAB receptors on the PD parameter, respiration frequency...
June 26, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630928/novel-phase-diagram-behavior-and-materials-design-in-heterostructural-semiconductor-alloys
#13
Aaron M Holder, Sebastian Siol, Paul F Ndione, Haowei Peng, Ann M Deml, Bethany E Matthews, Laura T Schelhas, Michael F Toney, Roy G Gordon, William Tumas, John D Perkins, David S Ginley, Brian P Gorman, Janet Tate, Andriy Zakutayev, Stephan Lany
Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615659/invisible-noise-obscures-visible-signal-in-insect-motion-detection
#14
Ghaith Tarawneh, Vivek Nityananda, Ronny Rosner, Steven Errington, William Herbert, Bruce G Cumming, Jenny C A Read, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza
The motion energy model is the standard account of motion detection in animals from beetles to humans. Despite this common basis, we show here that a difference in the early stages of visual processing between mammals and insects leads this model to make radically different behavioural predictions. In insects, early filtering is spatially lowpass, which makes the surprising prediction that motion detection can be impaired by "invisible" noise, i.e. noise at a spatial frequency that elicits no response when presented on its own as a signal...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604284/thermal-performance-curves-and-the-metabolic-theory-of-ecology-a-practical-guide-to-models-and-experiments-for-parasitologists-a-review
#15
Péter K Molnár, Jason P Sckrabulis, Karie A Altman, Thomas R Raffel
Climate change will affect host-parasite dynamics in complex ways. The development of forecast models is necessary for proactive disease management, but past studies frequently reported thermal performance data in idiosyncratic ways that have limited use for parameterizing thermal host-parasite models. Developing improved forecast models will require strong collaborations between experimental parasitologists and disease modelers. The purpose of this article is to facilitate such collaborations by reviewing practical considerations for describing thermal performance curves of parasite and host performance traits, and using them to predict climate change impacts on host-parasite systems...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598441/controlling-hybrid-nonlinearities-in-transparent-conducting-oxides-via-two-colour-excitation
#16
M Clerici, N Kinsey, C DeVault, J Kim, E G Carnemolla, L Caspani, A Shaltout, D Faccio, V Shalaev, A Boltasseva, M Ferrera
Nanophotonics and metamaterials have revolutionized the way we think about optical space (ɛ,μ), enabling us to engineer the refractive index almost at will, to confine light to the smallest of the volumes, and to manipulate optical signals with extremely small footprints and energy requirements. Significant efforts are now devoted to finding suitable materials and strategies for the dynamic control of the optical properties. Transparent conductive oxides exhibit large ultrafast nonlinearities under both interband and intraband excitations...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588408/nonlinear-waves-in-solids-with-slow-dynamics-an-internal-variable-model
#17
H Berjamin, N Favrie, B Lombard, G Chiavassa
In heterogeneous solids such as rocks and concrete, the speed of sound diminishes with the strain amplitude of a dynamic loading (softening). This decrease, known as 'slow dynamics', occurs at time scales larger than the period of the forcing. Also, hysteresis is observed in the steady-state response. The phenomenological model by Vakhnenko et al. (2004 Phys. Rev. E 70, 015602. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.70.015602)) is based on a variable that describes the softening of the material. However, this model is one dimensional and it is not thermodynamically admissible...
May 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586703/exploring-the-potential-of-boron-doped-nanographene-as-efficient-charge-transport-and-nonlinear-optical-material-a-first-principles-study
#18
Ahmad Irfan, Aijaz Rasool Chaudhry, Shabbir Muhammad, Abdullah G Al-Sehemi
Owing to their excellent electrochemical properties, graphenes found applications in several fields ranging from semiconductors, solar cells, field effect transistors, and nanoscale electronic devices as well as in nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. The structural features, electro-optical, charge transport and nonlinear optical properties of the boron-doped graphene (BG) compound 1 were studied using density functional theory methods The BG compound comprises a central electron deficient site of boron atoms, which can serve as electron acceptor while terminal alkoxy groups as donors leading to powerful donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) configuration...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579732/impact-of-e-%C3%A3-b-shear-flow-on-low-n-mhd-instabilities
#19
J G Chen, X Q Xu, C H Ma, P W Xi, D F Kong, Y A Lei
Recently, the stationary high confinement operations with improved pedestal conditions have been achieved in DIII-D [K. H. Burrell et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 056103 (2016)], accompanying the spontaneous transition from the coherent edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) to the broadband MHD turbulence state by reducing the neutral beam injection torque to zero. It is highly significant for the burning plasma devices such as ITER. Simulations about the effects of E × B shear flow on the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) are carried out using the three-field two-fluid model in the field-aligned coordinate under the BOUT++ framework...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576103/topological-characterization-and-early-detection-of-bifurcations-and-chaos-in-complex-systems-using-persistent-homology
#20
Khushboo Mittal, Shalabh Gupta
Early detection of bifurcations and chaos and understanding their topological characteristics are essential for safe and reliable operation of various electrical, chemical, physical, and industrial processes. However, the presence of non-linearity and high-dimensionality in system behavior makes this analysis a challenging task. The existing methods for dynamical system analysis provide useful tools for anomaly detection (e.g., Bendixson-Dulac and Poincare-Bendixson criteria can detect the presence of limit cycles); however, they do not provide a detailed topological understanding about system evolution during bifurcations and chaos, such as the changes in the number of subcycles and their positions, lifetimes, and sizes...
May 2017: Chaos
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