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Aaron M Holder, Sebastian Siol, Paul F Ndione, Haowei Peng, Ann M Deml, Bethany E Matthews, Laura T Schelhas, Michael F Toney, Roy G Gordon, William Tumas, John D Perkins, David S Ginley, Brian P Gorman, Janet Tate, Andriy Zakutayev, Stephan Lany
Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys...
June 2017: Science Advances
Ghaith Tarawneh, Vivek Nityananda, Ronny Rosner, Steven Errington, William Herbert, Bruce G Cumming, Jenny C A Read, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza
The motion energy model is the standard account of motion detection in animals from beetles to humans. Despite this common basis, we show here that a difference in the early stages of visual processing between mammals and insects leads this model to make radically different behavioural predictions. In insects, early filtering is spatially lowpass, which makes the surprising prediction that motion detection can be impaired by "invisible" noise, i.e. noise at a spatial frequency that elicits no response when presented on its own as a signal...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Péter K Molnár, Jason P Sckrabulis, Karie A Altman, Thomas R Raffel
Climate change will affect host-parasite dynamics in complex ways. The development of forecast models is necessary for proactive disease management, but past studies frequently reported thermal performance data in idiosyncratic ways that have limited use for parameterizing thermal host-parasite models. Developing improved forecast models will require strong collaborations between experimental parasitologists and disease modelers. The purpose of this article is to facilitate such collaborations by reviewing practical considerations for describing thermal performance curves of parasite and host performance traits, and using them to predict climate change impacts on host-parasite systems...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
M Clerici, N Kinsey, C DeVault, J Kim, E G Carnemolla, L Caspani, A Shaltout, D Faccio, V Shalaev, A Boltasseva, M Ferrera
Nanophotonics and metamaterials have revolutionized the way we think about optical space (ɛ,μ), enabling us to engineer the refractive index almost at will, to confine light to the smallest of the volumes, and to manipulate optical signals with extremely small footprints and energy requirements. Significant efforts are now devoted to finding suitable materials and strategies for the dynamic control of the optical properties. Transparent conductive oxides exhibit large ultrafast nonlinearities under both interband and intraband excitations...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
H Berjamin, N Favrie, B Lombard, G Chiavassa
In heterogeneous solids such as rocks and concrete, the speed of sound diminishes with the strain amplitude of a dynamic loading (softening). This decrease, known as 'slow dynamics', occurs at time scales larger than the period of the forcing. Also, hysteresis is observed in the steady-state response. The phenomenological model by Vakhnenko et al. (2004 Phys. Rev. E 70, 015602. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.70.015602)) is based on a variable that describes the softening of the material. However, this model is one dimensional and it is not thermodynamically admissible...
May 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Ahmad Irfan, Aijaz Rasool Chaudhry, Shabbir Muhammad, Abdullah G Al-Sehemi
Owing to their excellent electrochemical properties, graphenes found applications in several fields ranging from semiconductors, solar cells, field effect transistors, and nanoscale electronic devices as well as in nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. The structural features, electro-optical, charge transport and nonlinear optical properties of the boron-doped graphene (BG) compound 1 were studied using density functional theory methods The BG compound comprises a central electron deficient site of boron atoms, which can serve as electron acceptor while terminal alkoxy groups as donors leading to powerful donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) configuration...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
J G Chen, X Q Xu, C H Ma, P W Xi, D F Kong, Y A Lei
Recently, the stationary high confinement operations with improved pedestal conditions have been achieved in DIII-D [K. H. Burrell et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 056103 (2016)], accompanying the spontaneous transition from the coherent edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) to the broadband MHD turbulence state by reducing the neutral beam injection torque to zero. It is highly significant for the burning plasma devices such as ITER. Simulations about the effects of E × B shear flow on the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) are carried out using the three-field two-fluid model in the field-aligned coordinate under the BOUT++ framework...
May 2017: Physics of Plasmas
Khushboo Mittal, Shalabh Gupta
Early detection of bifurcations and chaos and understanding their topological characteristics are essential for safe and reliable operation of various electrical, chemical, physical, and industrial processes. However, the presence of non-linearity and high-dimensionality in system behavior makes this analysis a challenging task. The existing methods for dynamical system analysis provide useful tools for anomaly detection (e.g., Bendixson-Dulac and Poincare-Bendixson criteria can detect the presence of limit cycles); however, they do not provide a detailed topological understanding about system evolution during bifurcations and chaos, such as the changes in the number of subcycles and their positions, lifetimes, and sizes...
May 2017: Chaos
Chihiro Hasegawa, Stephen B Duffull
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems are often expressed with nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). While there are numerous methods to solve such ODEs these methods generally rely on time-stepping solutions (e.g. Runge-Kutta) which need to be matched to the characteristics of the problem at hand. The primary aim of this study was to explore the performance of an inductive approximation which iteratively converts nonlinear ODEs to linear time-varying systems which can then be solved algebraically or numerically...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Ethan M Rudd, Lalit P Jain, Walter J Scheirer, Terrance E Boult
It is often desirable to be able to recognize when inputs to a recognition function learned in a supervised manner correspond to classes unseen at training time. With this ability, new class labels could be assigned to these inputs by a human operator, allowing them to be incorporated into the recognition function - ideally under an efficient incremental update mechanism. While good algorithms that assume inputs from a fixed set of classes exist, e.g., artificial neural networks and kernel machines, it is not immediately obvious how to extend them to perform incremental learning in the presence of unknown query classes...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Giada Acciaroli, Martina Vettoretti, Andrea Facchinetti, Giovanni Sparacino, Claudio Cobelli
OBJECTIVE: In most continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices used for diabetes management, the electrical signal measured by the sensor is transformed to glucose concentration by a calibration function whose parameters are estimated using self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) samples. The calibration function is usually a linear model approximating the nonlinear relationship between electrical signal and glucose concentration in certain time intervals. Thus, CGM devices require frequent calibrations, usually twice a day...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Guoqiang Zhang, Zhenya Yan, Xiao-Yong Wen, Yong Chen
We investigate the defocusing coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from a 3×3 Lax pair. The Darboux transformations with the nonzero plane-wave solutions are presented to derive the newly localized wave solutions including dark-dark and bright-dark solitons, breather-breather solutions, and different types of new vector rogue wave solutions, as well as interactions between distinct types of localized wave solutions. Moreover, we analyze these solutions by means of parameters modulation. Finally, the perturbed wave propagations of some obtained solutions are explored by means of systematic simulations, which demonstrates that nearly stable and strongly unstable solutions...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Xiaoheng Jiang, Yanwei Pang, Manli Sun, Xuelong Li
Conventional convolutional neural networks use either a linear or a nonlinear filter to extract features from an image patch (region) of spatial size Hx W (typically, H is small and is equal to W, e.g., H is 5 or 7 ). Generally, the size of the filter is equal to the size Hx W of the input patch. We argue that the representational ability of equal-size strategy is not strong enough. To overcome the drawback, we propose to use subpatch filter whose spatial size hx w is smaller than Hx W . The proposed subpatch filter consists of two subsequent filters...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Renata Maria Lataro, Jaci Airton Castania, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Helio C Salgado, Rubens Fazan, Alberto Porta
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been extensively explored by traditional linear approaches (e.g. spectral analysis). However, several studies have pointed to the presence of nonlinear features in HRV, suggesting that linear tools might fail to account for the complexity of the HRV dynamics. Even though the prevalent notion is that HRV is nonlinear, the actual presence of nonlinear features is rarely verified. In this study, the presence of nonlinear dynamics was checked as a function of time scales in three experimental models of rats with different impairment of the cardiac control, namely rats with heart failure (HF), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Renato Watanabe, Andre Kohn
Corticomotor coherence in the beta and/or gamma bands has been described in different motor tasks but the role of descending brain oscillations on force control has been elusive. Large-scale computational models of a motoneuron pool and the muscle it innervates have been used as tools to advance the knowledge of how neural elements may influence force control. Here we present a frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF)...
May 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Günter K Schiepek, Kathrin Viol, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Katharina Sungler, David Pincus, Helmut J Schöller
Objective: The aim of this article is to outline the role of chaotic dynamics in psychotherapy. Besides some empirical findings of chaos at different time scales, the focus is on theoretical modeling of change processes explaining and simulating chaotic dynamics. It will be illustrated how some common factors of psychotherapeutic change and psychological hypotheses on motivation, emotion regulation, and information processing of the client's functioning can be integrated into a comprehensive nonlinear model of human change processes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Kenneth J Harris, K Michele Kacmar
A wide range of research has accumulated detailing the positive associations of perceived organizational support (POS) with desirable workplace outcomes (e.g., high performance, high commitment, low deviance). In the process, there has been an implicit assumption that these relationships are linear, with ever increasing POS resulting in ever increasing positive outcomes. However, there are theoretical and practical reasons to question whether these relationships may be nonlinear rather than linear. Our results offer support for the notion that the relationships between POS and key individual outcomes rated by the supervisor may best be represented as nonlinear...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xu Liu, Honglang Wang, Yuehua Cui
Complex diseases are often caused by the function of multiple genes, gene-gene (G×G) interactions as well as gene-environment (G×E) interactions. G×G and G×E interactions are ubiquitous in nature. Empirical evidences have shown that the effect of G×G interaction on disease risk could be largely modified by environmental changes. Such a G×G×E triple interaction could be a potential contributing factor to phenotypic plasticity. Although the role of environmental factors moderating genetic influences on disease risk has been broadly recognized, no statistical method has been developed to rigorously assess how environmental changes modify G×G interactions to affect disease risk...
October 2016: Current Genomics
Leisheng Jin, Lijie Li
In this work, nonlinear dynamics of silicon nanowire resonator considering nonlocal effect has been investigated. For the first time, dynamical parameters (e.g., resonant frequency, Duffing coefficient, and the damping ratio) that directly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the nanostructure have been derived. Subsequently, by calculating their response with the varied nonlocal coefficient, it is unveiled that the nonlocal effect makes more obvious impacts at the starting range (from zero to a small value), while the impact of nonlocal effect becomes weaker when the nonlocal term reaches to a certain threshold value...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
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