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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350946/electrical-control-of-structural-and-physical-properties-via-strong-spin-orbit-interactions-in-sr_-2-iro_-4
#1
G Cao, J Terzic, H D Zhao, H Zheng, L E De Long, Peter S Riseborough
Electrical control of structural and physical properties is a long-sought, but elusive goal of contemporary science and technology. We demonstrate that a combination of strong spin-orbit interactions (SOI) and a canted antiferromagnetic Mott state is sufficient to attain that goal. The antiferromagnetic insulator Sr_{2}IrO_{4} provides a model system in which strong SOI lock canted Ir magnetic moments to IrO_{6} octahedra, causing them to rigidly rotate together. A novel coupling between an applied electrical current and the canting angle reduces the Néel temperature and drives a large, nonlinear lattice expansion that closely tracks the magnetization, increases the electron mobility, and precipitates a unique resistive switching effect...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346886/predictability-of-escape-for-a-stochastic-saddle-node-bifurcation-when-rare-events-are-typical
#2
Corentin Herbert, Freddy Bouchet
Transitions between multiple stable states of nonlinear systems are ubiquitous in physics, chemistry, and beyond. Two types of behaviors are usually seen as mutually exclusive: unpredictable noise-induced transitions and predictable bifurcations of the underlying vector field. Here, we report a different situation, corresponding to a fluctuating system approaching a bifurcation, where both effects collaborate. We show that the problem can be reduced to a single control parameter governing the competition between deterministic and stochastic effects...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335557/a-framework-for-quantifying-the-relationship-between-intensity-and-severity-of-impact-of-disturbance-across-types-of-events-and-species
#3
Aiko Iwasaki, Takashi Noda
Understanding the impacts of natural disturbances on wildlife populations is a central task for ecologists; in general, the severity of impact of a disturbance (e.g., the resulting degree of population decline) is likely to depend primarily on the disturbance intensity (i.e., strength of forcing), type of disturbance, and species vulnerability. However, differences among disturbance events in the physical units of forcing and interspecific differences in the temporal variability of population size under normal (non-disturbance) conditions hinder comprehensive analysis of disturbance severity...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328250/ultrafast-saturable-absorption-of-mos2-nanosheets-under-different-pulse-width-excitation-conditions
#4
Jun Zhang, Hao Ouyang, Xin Zheng, Jie You, Runze Chen, Tong Zhou, Yizhen Sui, Yu Liu, Xiang'ai Cheng, Tian Jiang
The newly raised two-dimensional material MoS2 is regarded as an ideal candidate for saturated absorbers. Here, the open-aperture Z-scan method is used to study the saturation absorption (SA) response of monolayer and multilayer MoS2, considering laser irradiation with different pulse widths. Specifically, in cases of 10 ns and 10 ps laser pulses, the accumulative nonlinearity [e.g., free carrier absorption (FCA)] coupled with SA is found in both monolayer and multilayer MoS2. However, under a 65 fs pulse laser, the instantaneous nonlinearity [e...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315513/climate-sensitivity-functions-and-net-primary-production-a-framework-for-incorporating-climate-mean-and-variability
#5
Jennifer A Rudgers, Y Anny Chung, Gregory E Maurer, Douglas I Moore, Esteban H Muldavin, Marcy E Litvak, Scott L Collins
Understanding controls on net primary production (NPP) has been a long-standing goal in ecology. Climate is a well-known control on NPP, although the temporal differences among years within a site are often weaker than the spatial pattern of differences across sites. Climate sensitivity functions describe the relationship between an ecological response (e.g., NPP) and both the mean and variance of its climate driver (e.g., aridity index), providing a novel framework for understanding how climate trends in both mean and variance vary with NPP over time...
January 9, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314575/bioerosion-in-a-changing-world-a-conceptual-framework
#6
REVIEW
Timothy M Davidson, Andrew H Altieri, Gregory M Ruiz, Mark E Torchin
Bioerosion, the breakdown of hard substrata by organisms, is a fundamental and widespread ecological process that can alter habitat structure, biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling. Bioerosion occurs in all biomes of the world from the ocean floor to arid deserts, and involves a wide diversity of taxa and mechanisms with varying ecological effects. Many abiotic and biotic factors affect bioerosion by acting on the bioeroder, substratum, or both. Bioerosion also has socio-economic impacts when objects of economic or cultural value such as coastal defences or monuments are damaged...
January 4, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288130/the-same-analysis-approach-practical-protection-against-the-pitfalls-of-novel-neuroimaging-analysis-methods
#7
REVIEW
Kai Görgen, Martin N Hebart, Carsten Allefeld, John-Dylan Haynes
Standard neuroimaging data analysis based on traditional principles of experimental design, modelling, and statistical inference is increasingly complemented by novel analysis methods, driven e.g. by machine learning methods. While these novel approaches provide new insights into neuroimaging data, they often have unexpected properties, generating a growing literature on possible pitfalls. We propose to meet this challenge by adopting a habit of systematic testing of experimental design, analysis procedures, and statistical inference...
December 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247532/gender-differences-in-the-association-between-discharge-hemoglobin-and-12-month-mortality-after-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Lauren E Thompson, Frederick A Masoudi, Kensey L Gosch, Pamela N Peterson, Philip G Jones, Adam C Salisbury, Mikhail Kosiborod, Stacie L Daugherty
BACKGROUND: Anemia at discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with poor prognosis; whether this differs in women and men or if there is a threshold value at which these relationships change is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: Women have a lower discharge hemoglobin (Hb) at which outcomes worsen. METHODS: We identified patients with acute myocardial infarction in the TRIUMPH registry between 2005 and 2008. In multivariable models, we evaluated the relationship between discharge Hb and 12-month mortality and tested whether this relationship varied by gender...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245785/third-order-nonlinear-optics-in-ag-nanocubes-local-and-nonlocal-optical-responses-as-a-function-of-excitation-wavelength-and-particle-size
#9
E V García Ramírez, S A Sabinas Hernández, D Ramírez Martínez, G Díaz, J A Reyes Esqueda
Colloidal silver nanocubes in solution were analyzed by the Z-scan technique in the resonant and non-resonant regimes. Three different systems with particle sizes of 56, 99 and 215 nm, and concentrations of 0.378, 0.831 and 0.715 mg/mL, respectively, were obtained by the polyol method. Nonlinear excitation of the samples was performed with laser pulses of 26 ps, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, and using three different wavelenghts (355, 532 and 1064 nm), exciting only the electronic part of the optical nonlinearity, and avoiding induced thermal loading of the samples...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222533/elastic-fibers-and-large-artery-mechanics
#10
M G Espinosa, Marius C Staiculescu, Jungsil Kim, Eric Marin, Jessica E Wagenseil
Development of a closed circulatory system requires that large arteries adapt to the mechanical demands of high, pulsatile pressure. Elastin and collagen uniquely address these design criteria in the low and high stress regimes, resulting in a nonlinear mechanical response. Elastin is the core component of elastic fibers, which provide the artery wall with energy storage and recoil. The integrity of the elastic fiber network is affected by component insufficiency or disorganization, leading to an array of vascular pathologies and compromised mechanical behavior...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219607/passive-linearization-of-the-magnetic-bunch-compression-using-self-induced-fields
#11
G Penco, E Allaria, I Cudin, S Di Mitri, D Gauthier, S Spampinati, M Trovó, L Giannessi, E Roussel, S Bettoni, P Craievich, E Ferrari
In linac-driven free-electron lasers, colliders, and energy recovery linacs, a common way to compress the electron bunch to kiloampere level is based upon the implementation of a magnetic dispersive element that converts particle energy deviation into a path-length difference. Nonlinearities of such a process are usually compensated by enabling a high harmonic rf structure properly tuned in amplitude and phase. This approach is however not straightforward, e.g., in C-band and X-band linacs. In this Letter we demonstrate that the longitudinal self-induced field excited by the electron beam itself is able to linearize the compression process without any use of high harmonic rf structure...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200932/introduction-of-a-new-platform-for-parameter-estimation-of-kinetically-complex-environmental-systems
#12
Mehdi Gharasoo, Martin Thullner, Martin Elsner
A modeling framework (ReKinSim - Reaction Kinetics Simulator) is introduced, within which biogeochemical reactions in environmental systems can be described and inversely fitted to experimental data. Three key features of this simulation environment are: (1) a generic mathematical tool for solving sets of unlimited, arbitrary, non-linear ordinary differential equations; (2) no limitation to the number or type of reactions or other influential dynamics (e.g., isotope fractionation or small-scale mass-transfer limitations); (3) an easy to use and flexible module for nonlinear data-fitting...
December 2017: Environmental Modelling & Software: with Environment Data News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176329/inflammatory-processes-during-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-complex-system
#13
Lucy K Reiss, Andreas Schuppert, Stefan Uhlig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: ARDS is a severe pulmonary disease characterized by inflammation. However, inflammation-directed therapies have yet failed to improve the outcome in ARDS patients. One of the reasons may be the underestimated complexity of inflammation. Here, we summarize recent insights into the complex interrelations between inflammatory circuits. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene expression analysis from animal models or from patients with ARDS, sepsis or trauma show an enormous number of differentially expressed genes with highly significant overlaps between the various conditions...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170379/the-influence-of-the-solid-to-plasma-phase-transition-on-the-generation-of-plasma-instabilities
#14
E Kaselouris, V Dimitriou, I Fitilis, A Skoulakis, G Koundourakis, E L Clark, Μ Bakarezos, I K Nikolos, N A Papadogiannis, M Tatarakis
The study of plasma instabilities is a research topic with fundamental importance since for the majority of plasma applications they are unwanted and there is always the need for their suppression. The initiating physical processes that seed the generation of plasma instabilities are not well understood in all plasma geometries and initial states of matter. For most plasma instability studies, using linear or even nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory, the most crucial step is to correctly choose the initial perturbations imposed either by a predefined perturbation, usually sinusoidal, or by randomly seed perturbations as initial conditions...
November 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151668/bulging-brains
#15
J Weickenmeier, P Saze, C A M Butler, P G Young, A Goriely, E Kuhl
Brain swelling is a serious condition associated with an accumulation of fluid inside the brain that can be caused by trauma, stroke, infection, or tumors. It increases the pressure inside the skull and reduces blood and oxygen supply. To relieve the intracranial pressure, neurosurgeons remove part of the skull and allow the swollen brain to bulge outward, a procedure known as decompressive craniectomy. Decompressive craniectomy has been preformed for more than a century; yet, its effects on the swollen brain remain poorly understood...
December 2017: Journal of Elasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150729/effect-of-microemulsion-structure-on-fluorescence-and-nonlinear-optical-properties-of-rhodamine-6g
#16
M Pourtabrizi, N Shahtahmassebi, A Kompany, S Sharifi
This study is conducted to investigate the effect of nano-droplets concentration and size on linear and nonlinear optical properties of Rhodamine 6G by UV-Vis, spectrofluorometer and Z-Scan techniques. Nano-droplets were prepared by mixture of AOT, n-Decane and Water at three different water to surfactant molar ratios (W = 3, 6.7 and 40) and two dye to water mass ratios (R). At high enough dye concentration, the fluorescence intensity and its red shift depend on the concentration of dye in water nano-droplets (R)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147681/crimped-nanofibrous-biomaterials-mimic-microstructure-and-mechanics-of-native-tissue-and-alter-strain-transfer-to-cells
#17
Spencer E Szczesny, Tristan P Driscoll, Hsiao-Yun Tseng, Pang-Ching Liu, Su-Jin Heo, Robert L Mauck, Pen-Hsiu G Chao
To fully recapitulate tissue microstructure and mechanics, fiber crimping must exist within biomaterials used for tendon/ligament engineering. Existing crimped nanofibrous scaffolds produced via electrospinning are dense materials that prevent cellular infiltration into the scaffold interior. In this study, we used a sacrificial fiber population to increase the scaffold porosity and evaluated the effect on fiber crimping. We found that increasing scaffold porosity increased fiber crimping and ensured that the fibers properly uncrimped as the scaffolds were stretched by minimizing fiber-fiber interactions...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142276/detecting-the-relevance-to-performance-of-whole-body-movements
#18
Daisuke Furuki, Ken Takiyama
Goal-directed whole-body movements are fundamental in our daily life, sports, music, art, and other activities. Goal-directed movements have been intensively investigated by focusing on simplified movements (e.g., arm-reaching movements or eye movements); however, the nature of goal-directed whole-body movements has not been sufficiently investigated because of the high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy inherent in whole-body motion. One open question is how to overcome high-dimensional nonlinear dynamics and redundancy to achieve the desired performance...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140361/self-referenced-octave-wide-subharmonic-gap-optical-parametric-oscillator-centered-at-3%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-and-pumped-by-an-er-fiber-laser
#19
Qitian Ru, Zachary E Loparo, XiaoSheng Zhang, Sean Crystal, Subith Vasu, Peter G Schunemann, Konstantin L Vodopyanov
We report an octave-wide mid-IR spectrum (2.3-4.8 μm) obtained from a subharmonic optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on a newly developed nonlinear crystal, orientation-patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP), which was synchronously pumped by a femtosecond 1560 nm fiber laser. We proved that the octave-wide output is in the form of a single frequency comb. The observed f-to-2f frequency beats, originating directly from the OPO, can be used for self-referencing and phase locking of the pump laser comb with no need for supercontinuum generation...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131818/electrical-stimulus-artifact-cancellation-and-neural-spike-detection-on-large-multi-electrode-arrays
#20
Gonzalo E Mena, Lauren E Grosberg, Sasidhar Madugula, Paweł Hottowy, Alan Litke, John Cunningham, E J Chichilnisky, Liam Paninski
Simultaneous electrical stimulation and recording using multi-electrode arrays can provide a valuable technique for studying circuit connectivity and engineering neural interfaces. However, interpreting these measurements is challenging because the spike sorting process (identifying and segregating action potentials arising from different neurons) is greatly complicated by electrical stimulation artifacts across the array, which can exhibit complex and nonlinear waveforms, and overlap temporarily with evoked spikes...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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