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Reuben R W Wang, Bo Xing, Gabriel G Carlo, Dario Poletti
Nonlinear classical dissipative systems present a rich phenomenology in their "route to chaos," including period doubling, i.e., the system evolves with a period which is twice that of the driving. However, typically the attractor of a periodically driven quantum open system evolves with a period which exactly matches that of the driving. Here, we analyze a periodically driven many-body open quantum system whose classical correspondent presents period doubling. We show that by studying the dynamical correlations, it is possible to show the occurrence of period doubling in the quantum (period-one) steady state...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Zhaoxiang Liu, Jinping Yao, Jinming Chen, Bo Xu, Wei Chu, Ya Cheng
The generation of laserlike narrow bandwidth emissions from nitrogen molecular ions (N_{2}^{+}) generated in intense near- and mid infrared femtosecond laser fields has aroused much interest because of the mysterious physics underlying such a phenomenon. Here, we perform a pump-probe measurement on the nonlinear interaction of rotational quantum wave packets of N_{2}^{+} generated in midinfrared (e.g., at a wavelength centered at 1580 nm) femtosecond laser fields with an ultrashort probe pulse whose broad spectrum overlaps both P- and R-branch rotational transition lines between the electronic states N_{2}^{+}(B^{2}Σ_{u}^{+},v^{'}=0) and N_{2}^{+}(X^{2}Σ_{g}^{+},v=0)...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tadayuki Yoshitake, Michael G Giacomelli, Liza M Quintana, Hilde Vardeh, Lucas C Cahill, Beverly E Faulkner-Jones, James L Connolly, Daihung Do, James G Fujimoto
Rapid histopathological evaluation of fresh, unfixed human tissue using optical sectioning microscopy would have applications to intraoperative surgical margin assessment. Microscopy with ultraviolet surface excitation (MUSE) is a low-cost optical sectioning technique using ultraviolet illumination which limits fluorescence excitation to the specimen surface. In this paper, we characterize MUSE using high incident angle, water immersion illumination to improve sectioning. Propidium iodide is used as a nuclear stain and eosin yellow as a counterstain...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuhong Xiang, Jean Donley, Elena Seletskaia, Sonal Shingare, John Kamerud, Boris Gorovits
In ligand binding assays (LBA), the concentration to response data is a nonlinear relationship driven by the law of mass action. Four parameter logistic (4PL) and five parameter logistic (5PL) curve fitting models are two widely accepted and validated models for LBA calibration curve data. Selection of the appropriate regression model and weighting function are key components of LBA development. Assessment of selected model and weighting function should be performed during assay development and confirmed later during validation...
March 13, 2018: AAPS Journal
Ivan Vujaklija, Vahid Shalchyan, Ernest N Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Hamid R Marateb, Dario Farina
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we propose a nonlinear minimally supervised method based on autoencoding (AEN) of EMG for myocontrol. The proposed method was tested against the state-of-the-art (SOA) control scheme using a Fitts' law approach. METHODS: Seven able-bodied subjects performed a series of target acquisition myoelectric control tasks using the AEN and SOA algorithms for controlling two degrees-of-freedom (radial/ulnar deviation and flexion/extension of the wrist), and their online performance was characterized by six metrics...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Sangmin An, Bongsu Kim, Soyoung Kwon, Geol Moon, Manhee Lee, Wonho Jhe
Buckling, first introduced by Euler in 1744 [Euler L (1744) Opera Omnia I 24:231], a sudden mechanical sideways deflection of a structural member under compressive stress, represents a bifurcation in the solution to the equations of static equilibrium. Although it has been investigated in diverse research areas, such a common nonlinear phenomenon may be useful to devise a unique mechanical sensor that addresses the still-challenging features, such as the enhanced sensitivity and polarization-dependent detection capability...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robert W Eyre, Thomas House, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Frances E Griffiths
Background: Central to the study of populations, and therefore to the analysis of the development of countries undergoing major transitions, is the calculation of fertility patterns and their dependence on different variables such as age, education, and socio-economic status. Most epidemiological research on these matters rely on the often unjustified assumption of (generalised) linearity, or alternatively makes a parametric assumption (e.g. for age-patterns). Methods: We consider nonlinearity of fertility in the covariates by combining an established nonlinear parametric model for fertility over age with nonlinear modelling of fertility over other covariates...
2018: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
Benjamin D G Chandran
In this paper, weak turbulence theory is used to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the parametric instability in 3D low- β plasmas at wavelengths much greater than the ion inertial length under the assumption that slow magnetosonic waves are strongly damped. It is shown analytically that the parametric instability leads to an inverse cascade of Alfvén wave quanta, and several exact solutions to the wave kinetic equations are presented. The main results of the paper concern the parametric decay of Alfvén waves that initially satisfy e + ≫ e - , where e + and e - are the frequency ( f ) spectra of Alfvén waves propagating in opposite directions along the magnetic field lines...
February 2018: Journal of Plasma Physics
Gonzalo Farias, Ernesto Fabregas, Emmanuel Peralta, Héctor Vargas, Gabriel Hermosilla, Gonzalo Garcia, Sebastián Dormido
Proximity sensors are broadly used in mobile robots for obstacle detection. The traditional calibration process of this kind of sensor could be a time-consuming task because it is usually done by identification in a manual and repetitive way. The resulting obstacles detection models are usually nonlinear functions that can be different for each proximity sensor attached to the robot. In addition, the model is highly dependent on the type of sensor (e.g., ultrasonic or infrared), on changes in light intensity, and on the properties of the obstacle such as shape, colour, and surface texture, among others...
February 25, 2018: Sensors
Henri Thyrrestrup, Gabija Kiršanskė, Hanna Le Jeannic, Tommaso Pregnolato, Liang Zhai, Laust Raahauge, Leonardo Midolo, Nir Rotenberg, Alisa Javadi, Rüdiger Schott, Andreas D Wieck, Arne Ludwig, Matthias C Löbl, Immo Söllner, Richard J Warburton, Peter Lodahl
Establishing a highly efficient photon-emitter interface where the intrinsic linewidth broadening is limited solely by spontaneous emission is a key step in quantum optics. It opens a pathway to coherent light-matter interaction for, e.g., the generation of highly indistinguishable photons, few-photon optical nonlinearities, and photon-emitter quantum gates. However, residual broadening mechanisms are ubiquitous and need to be combated. For solid-state emitters charge and nuclear spin noise are of importance, and the influence of photonic nanostructures on the broadening has not been clarified...
March 1, 2018: Nano Letters
Yongjian Zhang, Jiaqi Si, Qirui Cui, Gengtao Wang, Yujie Bai
Nanoparticle can adsorb at the air-water interface and gives rise to the special interfacial mechanical properties. With the influence of external stimulus, the adsorption state of the particles may be changed and in turn the mechanical properties of the particle layer. In this work, we study the mechanical properties of a monolayer of silica nanoparticles deposited in the Langmuir trough. The area of the monolayer was varied sinusoidally by two oscillating barriers and the surface pressure was monitored by two orthogonal Wilhelmy plates...
February 28, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Yi-Pu Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Dengke Zhang, Tie-Fu Li, C-M Hu, J Q You
We report the first observation of the magnon-polariton bistability in a cavity magnonics system consisting of cavity photons strongly interacting with the magnons in a small yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere. The bistable behaviors emerged as sharp frequency switchings of the cavity magnon polaritons (CMPs) and related to the transition between states with large and small numbers of polaritons. In our experiment, we align, respectively, the [100] and [110] crystallographic axes of the YIG sphere parallel to the static magnetic field and find very different bistable behaviors (e...
February 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Nianqiang Li, H Susanto, B R Cemlyn, I D Henning, M J Adams
We study the nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with a range of waveguide structures. The analysis is performed with a detailed direct numerical simulation, where high-resolution dynamic maps are generated to identify regions of dynamic instability in the parameter space of interest. Our combined one- and two-parameter bifurcation analysis uncovers globally diverse dynamical regimes (steady-state, oscillation, and chaos) in the solitary laser arrays, which are greatly influenced by static design waveguiding structures, the amplitude-phase coupling factor of the electric field, i...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
Mathias Christensen, Anders K Hansen, Danny Noordegraaf, Peter M W Skovgaard, Ole B Jensen
Wavelength information is essential for any researcher in optics and photonics, and for this reason, a wide range of devices is available for measuring it. However, the techniques available today are limited either to a resolution of nanometers or a measurement rate of kHz. In this paper, we present a simple but highly versatile technique based on second-harmonic generation to measure fast wavelength dynamics of laser diodes. We demonstrate a resolution of 0.7 pm and a measurement rate in the MHz range. The measurement rate is limited only by the photodetector, and the wavelength resolution is limited mainly by the length of the nonlinear crystal and the noise of the detectors...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
J Richmond-Bryant, M G Snyder, R C Owen, S Kimbrough
The objective of this research is to learn how the near-road gradient, in which NO2 and NOX (NO + NO2 ) concentrations are elevated, varies with changes in meteorological and traffic variables. Measurements of NO2 and NOX were obtained east of I-15 in Las Vegas and fit to functions whose slopes (dCNO2 /dx and dCNOX /dx, respectively) characterize the size of the near-road zone where NO2 and NOX concentrations from mobile sources on the highway are elevated. These metrics were used to learn about the near-road gradient by modeling dCNO2 /dx and dCNOX /dx as functions of meteorological variables (e...
November 21, 2017: Atmospheric Environment
Oleksandr V Popovych, Peter A Tass
Demand-controlled deep brain stimulation (DBS) appears to be a promising approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) as revealed by computational, pre-clinical and clinical studies. Stimulation delivery is adapted to brain activity, for example, to the amount of neuronal activity considered to be abnormal. Such a closed-loop stimulation setup might help to reduce the amount of stimulation current, thereby maintaining therapeutic efficacy. In the context of the development of stimulation techniques that aim to restore desynchronized neuronal activity on a long-term basis, specific closed-loop stimulation protocols were designed computationally...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Keegan J Moore, Jonathan Bunyan, Sameh Tawfick, Oleg V Gendelman, Shuangbao Li, Michael Leamy, Alexander F Vakakis
In linear time-invariant dynamical and acoustical systems, reciprocity holds by the Onsager-Casimir principle of microscopic reversibility, and this can be broken only by odd external biases, nonlinearities, or time-dependent properties. A concept is proposed in this work for breaking dynamic reciprocity based on irreversible nonlinear energy transfers from large to small scales in a system with nonlinear hierarchical internal structure, asymmetry, and intentional strong stiffness nonlinearity. The resulting nonreciprocal large-to-small scale energy transfers mimic analogous nonlinear energy transfer cascades that occur in nature (e...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Umberto Celano, Feng-Chun Hsia, Danielle Vanhaeren, Kristof Paredis, Torbjörn E M Nordling, Josephus G Buijnsters, Thomas Hantschel, Wilfried Vandervorst
Wear mechanisms including fracture and plastic deformation at the nanoscale are central to understand sliding contacts. Recently, the combination of tip-induced material erosion with the sensing capability of secondary imaging modes of AFM, has enabled a slice-and-view tomographic technique named AFM tomography or Scalpel SPM. However, the elusive laws governing nanoscale wear and the large quantity of atoms involved in the tip-sample contact, require a dedicated mesoscale description to understand and model the tip-induced material removal...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yanqi Qiao, Yajun Peng, Yuanlin Zheng, Fangwei Ye, Xianfeng Chen
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is always a significant frequency conversion process in nonlinear optics for many great applications but can be limited when broadband spectral laser sources are involved, e.g., femtosecond pulses. The conversion efficiency can be high, but the spectral control is hard because of the phase-matching (PM) limitation. Recently, a random quasi-phase-matching (QPM) scheme was proposed to make use of highly nonlinear materials that are difficult to be phase matched under traditional configurations...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Eunho Kim, Alejandro J Martínez, Sean E Phenisee, P G Kevrekidis, Mason A Porter, Jinkyu Yang
Energy transport properties in heterogeneous materials have attracted scientific interest for more than half of a century, and they continue to offer fundamental and rich questions. One of the outstanding challenges is to extend Anderson theory for uncorrelated and fully disordered lattices in condensed-matter systems to physical settings in which additional effects compete with disorder. Here we present the first systematic experimental study of energy transport and localization properties in simultaneously disordered and nonlinear granular crystals...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
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