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Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Guoqiang Zhang, Zhenya Yan, Xiao-Yong Wen, Yong Chen
We investigate the defocusing coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from a 3×3 Lax pair. The Darboux transformations with the nonzero plane-wave solutions are presented to derive the newly localized wave solutions including dark-dark and bright-dark solitons, breather-breather solutions, and different types of new vector rogue wave solutions, as well as interactions between distinct types of localized wave solutions. Moreover, we analyze these solutions by means of parameters modulation. Finally, the perturbed wave propagations of some obtained solutions are explored by means of systematic simulations, which demonstrates that nearly stable and strongly unstable solutions...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Xiaoheng Jiang, Yanwei Pang, Manli Sun, Xuelong Li
Conventional convolutional neural networks use either a linear or a nonlinear filter to extract features from an image patch (region) of spatial size Hx W (typically, H is small and is equal to W, e.g., H is 5 or 7 ). Generally, the size of the filter is equal to the size Hx W of the input patch. We argue that the representational ability of equal-size strategy is not strong enough. To overcome the drawback, we propose to use subpatch filter whose spatial size hx w is smaller than Hx W . The proposed subpatch filter consists of two subsequent filters...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Renata Maria Lataro, Jaci Airton Castania, Carlos Alberto Aguiar Silva, Helio C Salgado, Rubens Fazan, Alberto Porta
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been extensively explored by traditional linear approaches (e.g. spectral analysis). However, several studies have pointed to the presence of nonlinear features in HRV, suggesting that linear tools might fail to account for the complexity of the HRV dynamics. Even though the prevalent notion is that HRV is nonlinear, the actual presence of nonlinear features is rarely verified. In this study, the presence of nonlinear dynamics was checked as a function of time scales in three experimental models of rats with different impairment of the cardiac control, namely rats with heart failure (HF), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Renato Watanabe, Andre Kohn
Corticomotor coherence in the beta and/or gamma bands has been described in different motor tasks but the role of descending brain oscillations on force control has been elusive. Large-scale computational models of a motoneuron pool and the muscle it innervates have been used as tools to advance the knowledge of how neural elements may influence force control. Here we present a frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF)...
May 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Günter K Schiepek, Kathrin Viol, Wolfgang Aichhorn, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Katharina Sungler, David Pincus, Helmut J Schöller
Objective: The aim of this article is to outline the role of chaotic dynamics in psychotherapy. Besides some empirical findings of chaos at different time scales, the focus is on theoretical modeling of change processes explaining and simulating chaotic dynamics. It will be illustrated how some common factors of psychotherapeutic change and psychological hypotheses on motivation, emotion regulation, and information processing of the client's functioning can be integrated into a comprehensive nonlinear model of human change processes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Kenneth J Harris, K Michele Kacmar
A wide range of research has accumulated detailing the positive associations of perceived organizational support (POS) with desirable workplace outcomes (e.g., high performance, high commitment, low deviance). In the process, there has been an implicit assumption that these relationships are linear, with ever increasing POS resulting in ever increasing positive outcomes. However, there are theoretical and practical reasons to question whether these relationships may be nonlinear rather than linear. Our results offer support for the notion that the relationships between POS and key individual outcomes rated by the supervisor may best be represented as nonlinear...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Xu Liu, Honglang Wang, Yuehua Cui
Complex diseases are often caused by the function of multiple genes, gene-gene (G×G) interactions as well as gene-environment (G×E) interactions. G×G and G×E interactions are ubiquitous in nature. Empirical evidences have shown that the effect of G×G interaction on disease risk could be largely modified by environmental changes. Such a G×G×E triple interaction could be a potential contributing factor to phenotypic plasticity. Although the role of environmental factors moderating genetic influences on disease risk has been broadly recognized, no statistical method has been developed to rigorously assess how environmental changes modify G×G interactions to affect disease risk...
October 2016: Current Genomics
Leisheng Jin, Lijie Li
In this work, nonlinear dynamics of silicon nanowire resonator considering nonlocal effect has been investigated. For the first time, dynamical parameters (e.g., resonant frequency, Duffing coefficient, and the damping ratio) that directly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the nanostructure have been derived. Subsequently, by calculating their response with the varied nonlocal coefficient, it is unveiled that the nonlocal effect makes more obvious impacts at the starting range (from zero to a small value), while the impact of nonlocal effect becomes weaker when the nonlocal term reaches to a certain threshold value...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Motoki Nakata, Masanori Nunami, Hideo Sugama, Tomo-Hiko Watanabe
Impacts of isotope ion mass on trapped-electron-mode (TEM)-driven turbulence and zonal flows in magnetically confined fusion plasmas are investigated. Gyrokinetic simulations of TEM-driven turbulence in three-dimensional magnetic configuration of helical plasmas with hydrogen isotope ions and real-mass kinetic electrons are realized for the first time, and the linear and the nonlinear nature of the isotope and collisional effects on the turbulent transport and zonal-flow generation are clarified. It is newly found that combined effects of the collisional TEM stabilization by the isotope ions and the associated increase in the impacts of the steady zonal flows at the near-marginal linear stability lead to the significant transport reduction with the opposite ion mass dependence in comparison to the conventional gyro-Bohm scaling...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yulin Wang, Hongyu Miao
BACKGROUND: To systematically understand the interactions between numerous biological components, a variety of biological networks on different levels and scales have been constructed and made available in public databases or knowledge repositories. Graphical models such as structural equation models have long been used to describe biological networks for various quantitative analysis tasks, especially key biological parameter estimation. However, limited by resources or technical capacities, partial observation is a common problem in experimental observations of biological networks, and it thus becomes an important problem how to select unobserved nodes for additional measurements such that all unknown model parameters become identifiable...
May 4, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
E O Smetanina, B Chimier, Y Petit, A Royon, T Cardinal, L Canioni, G Duchateau
The formation of both local second- and third-harmonic generations (SHG and THG) induced by a train of femtosecond laser pulses in silver-doped phosphate glasses is addressed. Based on modeling calculations, including various diffusion and kinetic processes, THG is shown to result from the formation of silver clusters. The latter organize into a ring-shape structure, leading to the emergence of a static electric field. By breaking the glass centro-symmetry, this field gives rise to a local effective second-order susceptibility, inducing SHG...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
M Baity-Jesi, E Calore, A Cruz, L A Fernandez, J M Gil-Narvion, A Gordillo-Guerrero, D Iñiguez, A Maiorano, E Marinari, V Martin-Mayor, J Monforte-Garcia, A Muñoz-Sudupe, D Navarro, G Parisi, S Perez-Gaviro, F Ricci-Tersenghi, J J Ruiz-Lorenzo, S F Schifano, B Seoane, A Tarancon, R Tripiccione, D Yllanes
We first reproduce on the Janus and Janus II computers a milestone experiment that measures the spin-glass coherence length through the lowering of free-energy barriers induced by the Zeeman effect. Secondly, we determine the scaling behavior that allows a quantitative analysis of a new experiment reported in the companion Letter [S. Guchhait and R. Orbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157203 (2017)].PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.118.157203 The value of the coherence length estimated through the analysis of microscopic correlation functions turns out to be quantitatively consistent with its measurement through macroscopic response functions...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Philippe Rast, Kristen M Kennedy, Karen M Rodrigue, Paul R A W Robinson, Alden L Gross, Donald G McLaren, Tom Grabowski, K Warner Schaie, Sherry L Willis
We investigated individual differences in longitudinal trajectories of brain aging in cognitively normal healthy adults from the Seattle Longitudinal Study covering 8 years of longitudinal change (across 5 occasions) in cortical thickness in 249 midlife and older adults (52-95 years old). We aimed to understand true brain change; examine the influence of salient risk factors that modify an individual's rate of cortical thinning; and compare cross-sectional age-related differences in cortical thickness to longitudinal within-person cortical thinning...
April 21, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Marianne Cleve, Martin Krämer, Alexander Gussew, Jürgen R Reichenbach
Phase and frequency corrections of magnetic resonance spectroscopic data are of major importance to obtain reliable and unambiguous metabolite estimates as validated in recent research for single-shot scans with the same spectral fingerprint. However, when using the J-difference editing technique (1)H MEGA-PRESS, misalignment between mean edited (ON‾) and non-edited (OFF‾) spectra that may remain even after correction of the corresponding individual single-shot scans results in subtraction artefacts compromising reliable GABA quantitation...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Shaojing Zhang, Zhankui Jia, Zechen Yan, Jinjian Yang
BACKGROUND: There have been inconsistent results about the association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. We conducted a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to explore this association. RESULTS: Nineteen observational studies (4 cohort, 1 pooled and 14 case-control studies), involving 10,215 subjects with RCC were part of this meta-analysis. The SRR for the highest vs. the lowest intake of vegetables was 0...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
H Mazaheri, M Ghaedi, M H Ahmadi Azqhandi, A Asfaram
Analytical chemists apply statistical methods for both the validation and prediction of proposed models. Methods are required that are adequate for finding the typical features of a dataset, such as nonlinearities and interactions. Boosted regression trees (BRTs), as an ensemble technique, are fundamentally different to other conventional techniques, with the aim to fit a single parsimonious model. In this work, BRT, artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) models have been used for the optimization and/or modeling of the stirring time (min), pH, adsorbent mass (mg) and concentrations of MB and Cd(2+) ions (mg L(-1)) in order to develop respective predictive equations for simulation of the efficiency of MB and Cd(2+) adsorption based on the experimental data set...
April 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Philipp Grete, Dimitar G Vlaykov, Wolfram Schmidt, Dominik R G Schleicher
Large-eddy simulations (LES) are a powerful tool in understanding processes that are inaccessible by direct simulations due to their complexity, for example, in the highly turbulent regime. However, their accuracy and success depends on a proper subgrid-scale (SGS) model that accounts for the unresolved scales in the simulation. We evaluate the applicability of two traditional SGS models, namely the eddy-viscosity (EV) and the scale-similarity (SS) models, and one recently proposed nonlinear (NL) SGS model in the realm of compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Aditya Kakkar, Jaime Rodrigo Navarro, Richard Schatz, Xiaodan Pang, Oskars Ozolins, Aleksejs Udalcovs, Hadrien Louchet, Sergei Popov, Gunnar Jacobsen
Coherent communication networks are based on the ability to use multiple dimensions of the lightwave together with electrical domain compensation of transmission impairments. Electrical-domain dispersion compensation (EDC) provides many advantages such as network flexibility and enhanced fiber nonlinearity tolerance, but makes the system more susceptible to laser frequency noise (FN), e.g. to the local oscillator FN in systems with post-reception EDC. Although this problem has been extensively studied, statistically, for links assuming lasers with white-FN, many questions remain unanswered...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
I A Zaluzhnyy, R P Kurta, E A Sulyanova, O Yu Gorobtsov, A G Shabalin, A V Zozulya, A P Menushenkov, M Sprung, A Krówczyński, E Górecka, B I Ostrovskii, I A Vartanyants
We report on the X-ray studies of freely suspended hexatic films of three different liquid crystal compounds. By applying angular X-ray cross-correlation analysis (XCCA) to the measured diffraction patterns the parameters of the bond-orientational (BO) order in the hexatic phase were directly determined. The temperature evolution of the BO order parameters was analyzed on the basis of the multicritical scaling theory (MCST). Our results confirmed the validity of the MCST in the whole temperature range of the existence of the hexatic phase for all three compounds...
May 3, 2017: Soft Matter
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