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G Valenza, A Greco, C Gentili, A Lanata, N Toschi, R Barbieri, L Sebastiani, D Menicucci, A Gemignani, E P Scilingo, G Valenza, A Greco, C Gentili, A Lanata, N Toschi, R Barbieri, L Sebastiani, D Menicucci, A Gemignani, E P Scilingo, A Lanata, A Gemignani, E P Scilingo, A Greco, D Menicucci, L Sebastiani, C Gentili, N Toschi, R Barbieri, G Valenza
This study investigates brain-heart dynamics during visual emotional elicitation in healthy subjects through linear and nonlinear coupling measures of EEG spectrogram and instantaneous heart rate estimates. To this extent, affective pictures including different combinations of arousal and valence levels, gathered from the International Affective Picture System, were administered to twenty-two healthy subjects. Time-varying maps of cortical activation were obtained through EEG spectral analysis, whereas the associated instantaneous heartbeat dynamics was estimated using inhomogeneous point-process linear models...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Shaoliang Yu, Xiaoqin Wu, Yipei Wang, Xin Guo, Limin Tong
Owing to their atomic layer thickness, strong light-material interaction, high nonlinearity, broadband optical response, fast relaxation, controllable optoelectronic properties, and high compatibility with other photonic structures, 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have been attracting increasing attention for photonic applications. By tuning the carrier density via electrical or optical means that modifies their physical properties (e.g., Fermi level or nonlinear absorption), optical response of the 2D materials can be instantly changed, making them versatile nanostructures for optical modulation...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Allison K Shaw, Hanna Kokko, Michael G Neubert
The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life history traits (e.g. growth, survival, dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
V G Dubrovskii
We obtain an exact solution for the cluster-size distributions in a closed system described by nonlinear rate equations for irreversible homogeneous growth with size-linear agglomeration rates of the form K_{s}=D(a+s-1) for all s≥1, where D is the diffusion coefficient, s is the size, and a is a positive constant. The size spectrum is given by the Pólya distribution times a factor that normalizes the first moment of the distribution to unity and zeroes out the monomer concentration at t→∞. We show that the a value sets a maximum mean size that equals e for large a and tends to infinity only when a→0...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Lin Chang, Martin H P Pfeiffer, Nicolas Volet, Michael Zervas, Jon D Peters, Costanza L Manganelli, Eric J Stanton, Yifei Li, Tobias J Kippenberg, John E Bowers
An ideal photonic integrated circuit for nonlinear photonic applications requires high optical nonlinearities and low loss. This work demonstrates a heterogeneous platform by bonding lithium niobate (LN) thin films onto a silicon nitride (Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>) waveguide layer on silicon. It not only provides large second- and third-order nonlinear coefficients, but also shows low propagation loss in both the Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> and the LN-Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> waveguides...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Lorenzo Peppoloni, Emily L Lawrence, Emanuele Ruffaldi, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
The Strength-Dexterity (SD) test measures the ability of the pulps of the thumb and index finger to compress a compliant and slender spring prone to buckling at low forces (<3N). We know that factors such as aging and neurodegenerative conditions bring deteriorating physiological changes (e.g., at the level of motor cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia), which lead to an overall loss of dexterous ability. However, little is known about how these changes reflect upon the dynamics of the underlying biological system...
2017: PloS One
Hesham G Moussa, Ghaleb A Husseini, Nabil Abdel-Jabbar, Salma E Ahmed
The use of echogenic liposomes to deliver chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment has gained wide recognition in the last twenty years. Cancerous cells can develop multiple drug resistance (MDR), in part, due to the drop of concentration of chemotherapeutic agents below the therapeutic levels inside the tumor. This suggests that MDR can be reduced by controlling the level of drug release in the diseased area. In this work, a Model Predictive Controller based on Neural Networks is proposed to maintain a constant chemotherapeutic release at the cancer site...
January 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Dragana Mutavdžić Pavlović, Lidija Ćurković, Ivana Grčić, Iva Šimić, Josip Župan
In this study, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of ciprofloxacin on seven sediments in a batch sorption process were examined. The effects of contact time, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature and ionic strength on the sorption process were studied. The K d parameter from linear sorption model was determined by linear regression analysis, while the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms by linear and nonlinear methods...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Skb Sy, L Zhuang, H Xia, M-E Beaudoin, V J Schuck, H Derendorf
The combination of aztreonam-avibactam is active against multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that express metallo-β-lactamases. A complex synergistic interaction exists between aztreonam and avibactam bactericidal activities that have not been quantitatively explored. A two-state semimechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) logistic growth model was developed to account for antimicrobial activities in the combination of bacteria-mediated degradation of aztreonam and the inhibition of aztreonam degradation by avibactam...
February 1, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Lokesh Agrawal, Satyajit Sahu, Subrata Ghosh, Takashi Shiga, Daisuke Fujita, Anirban Bandyopadhyay
A substantial ion flow in a normally wet protein masks any other forms of signal transmission. We use hysteresis and linear conduction (both are artifacts) as a marker to precisely wet a protein, which restricts the ionic conduction (hysteresis disappears), and at the same time, it is not denatured (quantized conductance and Raman spectra are intact). Pure electric visualization of proteins at work by eliminating the screening of ions, electrons, would change the way we study biology. Here we discuss the technical challenges resolved for imaging a protein or live cell using nonlinear dielectric response (spatial distribution of conductance, capacitance and phase, GCP trio)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
J E Symons, D A Hawkins, D P Fyhrie, S K Upadhyaya, S M Stover
BACKGROUND: The metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock) is the most commonly affected site of racehorse injury, with multiple observed pathologies that are consistent with extreme fetlock dorsiflexion. Race surface mechanics affect musculoskeletal structure loading and injury risk because surface forces applied to the hoof affect limb motions. Race surface mechanics are a function of controllable factors. Thus, race surface design has the potential to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal injury through modulation of limb motions...
January 27, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Seyyed Arash Haghpanah, Farzam Farahmand, Hassan Zohoor
The central pattern generators (CPG) in the spinal cord are thought to be responsible for producing the rhythmic motor patterns during rhythmic activities. For locomotor tasks, this involves much complexity, due to a redundant system of muscle actuators with a large number of highly nonlinear muscles. This study proposes a reduced neural control strategy for the CPG, based on modular organization of the co-active muscles, i.e., muscle synergies. Four synergies were extracted from the EMG data of the major leg muscles of two subjects, during two gait trials each, using non-negative matrix factorization algorithm...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Adam Frymoyer, Daniel Hoekman, Tim de Meij, Thalia Hummel, Marc Benninga, Angelika Kindermann, Travis Piester, K T Park
BACKGROUND: Adequate infliximab (IFX) exposure is critical when treating Crohn's disease (CD), and trough concentrations <3 μg/mL are associated with loss of response. However, the pharmacokinetics of IFX are highly variable in children with CD, and this has made IFX dosing challenging in this population. Model-based drug dosing offers the potential for developing individualized dosing strategies. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the predictive performance and clinical utility of a previously published population pharmacokinetic model of IFX when applied to children with CD...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Paul D Schmitt
The past decade has seen an increase in the use of nonlinear optical (NLO) techniques such as second harmonic generation, coherent antistokes Raman scattering, stimulated Raman scattering, and two-photon fluorescence for the solid-state characterization of pharmaceutical materials. These combined techniques offer several advantages (e.g., speed, selectivity, quantitation) of potential interest to the pharmaceutical community, as decreased characterization times in formulation development and testing could help decrease the time required to bring new, higher quality drugs to market...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jonathan Bar-David, Liron Stern, Uriel Levy
In recent years, dielectric and metallic nanoscale metasurfaces are attracting growing attention and are being used for variety of applications. Resulting from the ability to introduce abrupt changes in optical properties at nanoscale dimensions, metasurfaces enable unprecedented control over light's different degrees of freedom, in an essentially two-dimensional configuration. Yet, the dynamic control over metasurface properties still remains one of the ultimate goals of this field. Here, we demonstrate the optical resonant interaction between a form birefringent dielectric metasurface made of silicon and alkali atomic vapor to control and effectively tune the optical transmission pattern initially generated by the nanoscale dielectric metasurface...
January 30, 2017: Nano Letters
N Ashwin K Bharadwaj, Jin Gu Kang, Marta C Hatzell, Kenneth S Schweizer, Paul V Braun, Randy H Ewoldt
Typical colloid-polymer composites have particle diameters much larger than the polymer mesh size, but successful integration of smaller colloids into a large-mesh network could allow for the realization of new colloidal states of spatial organization and faster colloid motion which can allow the possibility of switchable re-configuration of colloids or more dramatic stimuli-responsive property changes. Experimental realization of such composites requires solving non-trivial materials selection and fabrication challenges; key questions include composition regime maps of successful composites, the resulting structure and colloidal contact network, and the mechanical properties, in particular the ability to form a network and retain strain stiffening in the presence of colloids...
January 26, 2017: Soft Matter
W L Ng, C E Stevenson, E Wong, S Tanamas, T Boelsen-Robinson, J E Shaw, M T Naughton, J Dixon, A Peeters
Obesity is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, but its causality remains unclear. We aimed to assess the extent to which intentional weight loss affects daytime sleepiness. Electronic databases were searched through 24 October 2016. Studies involving overweight or obese adults, a weight loss intervention and repeated valid measures of daytime sleepiness were included in the review. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, main outcome (change in daytime sleepiness score standardized by standard deviation of baseline sleepiness scores), potential mediators (e...
January 24, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Chamara Liyanaarachchi Lekamalage, Yan Yang, Guang-Bin Huang, Zhengyou Zhang
Data may often contain noise or irrelevant information which negatively affect the generalization capability of machine learning algorithms. The objective of dimension reduction algorithms such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF), random projection (RP) and auto-encoder (AE) is to reduce the noise or irrelevant information of the data. The features of PCA (eigenvectors) and linear AE is not able to represent data as parts (e.g. nose in a face image); On the other hand, NMF and non-linear AE is maimed by slow learning speed and RP only represents a subspace of original data...
May 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
A Vakanski, J M Ferguson, S Lee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the proposed research is to develop a methodology for modeling and evaluation of human motions, which will potentially benefit patients undertaking a physical rehabilitation therapy (e.g., following a stroke or due to other medical conditions). The ultimate aim is to allow patients to perform home-based rehabilitation exercises using a sensory system for capturing the motions, where an algorithm will retrieve the trajectories of a patient's exercises, will perform data analysis by comparing the performed motions to a reference model of prescribed motions, and will send the analysis results to the patient's physician with recommendations for improvement...
December 2016: J Physiother Phys Rehabil
Dariya I Malyarenko, Lisa J Wilmes, Lori R Arlinghaus, Michael A Jacobs, Wei Huang, Karl G Helmer, Bachir Taouli, Thomas E Yankeelov, David Newitt, Thomas L Chenevert
Previous research has shown that system-dependent gradient nonlinearity (GNL) introduces a significant spatial bias (nonuniformity) in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Here, the feasibility of centralized retrospective system-specific correction of GNL bias for quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in multisite clinical trials is demonstrated across diverse scanners independent of the scanned object. Using corrector maps generated from system characterization by ice-water phantom measurement completed in the previous project phase, GNL bias correction was performed for test ADC measurements from an independent DWI phantom (room temperature agar) at two offset locations in the bore...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
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