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Jianxiao Wu, Gia H Ngo, Douglas Greve, Jingwei Li, Tong He, Bruce Fischl, Simon B Eickhoff, B T Thomas Yeo
The results of most neuroimaging studies are reported in volumetric (e.g., MNI152) or surface (e.g., fsaverage) coordinate systems. Accurate mappings between volumetric and surface coordinate systems can facilitate many applications, such as projecting fMRI group analyses from MNI152/Colin27 to fsaverage for visualization or projecting resting-state fMRI parcellations from fsaverage to MNI152/Colin27 for volumetric analysis of new data. However, there has been surprisingly little research on this topic. Here, we evaluated three approaches for mapping data between MNI152/Colin27 and fsaverage coordinate systems by simulating the above applications: projection of group-average data from MNI152/Colin27 to fsaverage and projection of fsaverage parcellations to MNI152/Colin27...
May 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Arnald Puy
Unfolding regularities between population and irrigated agriculture might increase our capacity to predict their co-evolution and better ensure food security and environmental welfare. Here I use three different datasets with detailed information at the national level for c. 70% of the countries of Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe between 1950-2017 to show that irrigated areas might grow disproportionally for a given increase in population, e.g. with b > 1. The results are robust across continents, time series, population cut-offs and variations in the area accounted for irrigation by official institutions and independent scholars...
May 9, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Hayato Goto, Zhirong Lin, Yasunobu Nakamura
A network of Kerr-nonlinear parametric oscillators without dissipation has recently been proposed for solving combinatorial optimization problems via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we investigate the behavior of the quantum bifurcation machine (QbM) in the presence of dissipation. Our numerical study suggests that the output probability distribution of the dissipative QbM is Boltzmann-like, where the energy in the Boltzmann distribution corresponds to the cost function of the optimization problem...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kailiang Chen, Byung Chul Lee, Kai E Thomenius, Butrus T Khuri-Yakub, Hae-Seung Lee, Charles G Sodini
We propose a column-row-parallel imaging front-end architecture for integrated and low-power 3-D medical ultrasound imaging. The column-row-parallel architecture offers linear-scaling interconnection, acquisition, and programming time with row-by-row or column-by-column operations, while supporting volumetric imaging functionality and fault-tolerance against possible transducer element defects with per-element controls. The combination of column-parallel selection logic, row-parallel selection logic, and per-element selection logic reaches a balance between flexible imaging aperture definition and manageable imaging data/control interface to a 2-D array...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Heling Wang, Xin Ning, Haibo Li, Haiwen Luan, Yeguang Xue, Xinge Yu, Zhichao Fan, Luming Li, John A Rogers, Yihui Zhang, Yonggang Huang
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) that rely on structural vibrations have many important applications, ranging from oscillators and actuators, to energy harvesters and vehicles for measurement of mechanical properties. Conventional MEMS, however, mostly utilize two-dimensional (2D) vibrational modes, thereby imposing certain limitations that are not present in 3D designs (e.g., multi-directional energy harvesting). 3D vibrational microplatforms assembled through the techniques of controlled compressive buckling are promising because of their complex 3D architectures and the ability to tune their vibrational behaviour (e...
March 2018: Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids
Rogério Figueiredo, Rafael Pereira, Osmar Pinto Neto
This study aimed to compare the heart autonomic control (HAC) response during two time-limited physical workouts using linear and nonlinear methods. A total of 20 healthy volunteers performed two physical workouts lasting 5 (P5) and 10 min (P10). In both workouts, volunteers performed as many repetitions as possible within the time limit of sets of 10 repetitions of four different exercises in the order of pull-ups, push-ups, barbell power clean, and barbell shoulder to overhead press. Barbell exercises were performed using a load of 50% of each volunteer's personal record for the jerk lift...
April 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
S P Arunachalam, S Kapa, S K Mulpuru, P A Friedman, E G Tolkacheva
Analysis of biomedical signals can yield invaluable information for prognosis, diagnosis, therapy evaluation, risk assessment, and disease prevention which is often recorded as short time series data that challenges existing complexity classification algorithms such as Shannon entropy (SE) and other techniques. The purpose of this study was to improve previously developed multiscale entropy (MSE) technique by incorporating nearest-neighbor moving-average kernel, which can be used for analysis of nonlinear and non-stationary short time series physiological data...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Karsten Baumgarten, Brian P Tighe
When elastic solids are sheared, a nonlinear effect named after Poynting gives rise to normal stresses or changes in volume. We provide a novel relation between the Poynting effect and the microscopic Grüneisen parameter, which quantifies how stretching shifts vibrational modes. By applying this relation to random spring networks, a minimal model for, e.g., biopolymer gels and solid foams, we find that networks contract or develop tension because they vibrate faster when stretched. The amplitude of the Poynting effect is sensitive to the network's linear elastic moduli, which can be tuned via its preparation protocol and connectivity...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Asbjørn Klomp, Erwin de Vlugt, Jurriaan H de Groot, Carel G M Meskers, J Hans Arendzen, Frans C T van der Helm
The dynamic behavior of the wrist joint is governed by nonlinear properties, yet applied mathematical models, used to describe the measured input-output (perturbation-response) relationship, are commonly linear. Consequently, the linearly estimated model parameters will depend on properties of the applied perturbation properties (such perturbation amplitude and velocity). We aimed to systematically address the effects of perturbation velocity on linearly estimated neuromechanical parameters. Using a single axis manipulator ramp and hold perturbations were applied to the wrist joint...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
E S Pereira, F W R Lima, A C N Campos, M S S Carneiro, L P Silva, M W F Pereira, A N Medeiros, L R Bezerra, R L Oliveira
Minerals are limiting factors in animal production, and the knowledge of mineral requirements for livestock is crucial to the success of a commercial enterprise. Hair sheep may have different mineral requirements than those presents by the international committees. A study was carried to evaluate the net calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) requirements for the growth and maintenance of Brazilian Somali lambs. A total of 48 hair lambs (13...
April 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sandeep P Patil, Sri Harsha Chilakamarri, Bernd Markert
In the present work, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the temperature distribution as well as the fundamental friction characteristics such as the coefficient of friction and wear in a disc-pad braking system. A wide range of constant velocity loadings was applied on metallic brake pads made of aluminium, copper and iron with different rotating speeds of a diamond-like carbon brake disc. The average temperature of Newtonian atoms and the coefficient of friction of the brake pad were investigated...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nicholas G Cogan, Alana P Mellers, Bhavi N Patel, Brett D Powell, Manu Aggarwal, Kathleen M Harper, Michael Blaber
We present a mathematical model to quantify parameters of mouse excisional wound healing from photographic data. The equation is a piecewise linear function in log scale that includes key parameters of initial wound radius (R0 ), an initial wound stasis phase (Ti ), and time to wound closure (Tc ); subsequently, these terms permit calculation of a latter active proliferative phase (Tp ), and the healing rate (HR) during this active phase. A daily photographic record of wound healing (utilizing 6 mm diameter splinted excisional wounds) permits the necessary sampling for robust parameter refinement...
April 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Xiaoli Liu, Peng Cao, Jinzhu Yang, Dazhe Zhao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been not only the substantial financial burden to the health care system but also the emotional burden to patients and their families. Predicting cognitive performance of subjects from their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and identifying relevant imaging biomarkers are important research topics in the study of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, the multitask learning (MTL) methods with sparsity-inducing norm (e.g., ℓ 2,1 -norm) have been widely studied to select the discriminative feature subset from MRI features by incorporating inherent correlations among multiple clinical cognitive measures...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Qingzhao Yu, Kaelen L Medeiros, Xiaocheng Wu, Roxanne E Jensen
Mediation analysis allows the examination of effects of a third variable (mediator/confounder) in the causal pathway between an exposure and an outcome. The general multiple mediation analysis method (MMA), proposed by Yu et al., improves traditional methods (e.g., estimation of natural and controlled direct effects) to enable consideration of multiple mediators/confounders simultaneously and the use of linear and nonlinear predictive models for estimating mediation/confounding effects. Previous studies find that compared with non-Hispanic cancer survivors, Hispanic survivors are more likely to endure anxiety and depression after cancer diagnoses...
April 2, 2018: Psychometrika
Stephen R Pacella, Cheryl A Brown, George G Waldbusser, Rochelle G Labiosa, Burke Hales
The role of rising atmospheric CO2 in modulating estuarine carbonate system dynamics remains poorly characterized, likely due to myriad processes driving the complex chemistry in these habitats. We reconstructed the full carbonate system of an estuarine seagrass habitat for a summer period of 2.5 months utilizing a combination of time-series observations and mechanistic modeling, and quantified the roles of aerobic metabolism, mixing, and gas exchange in the observed dynamics. The anthropogenic CO2 burden in the habitat was estimated for the years 1765-2100 to quantify changes in observed high-frequency carbonate chemistry dynamics...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiska S Peper, Barbara R Braams, Neeltje E Blankenstein, Marieke G N Bos, Eveline A Crone
Risk taking is a multidimensional construct. It is currently unclear which aspects of risk-taking change most during adolescence and if/how sex hormones contribute to risk-taking tendencies. This study applied a longitudinal design with three time-points, separated by 2 years, in participants aged 8-29 years (670 observations). The Balloon Analogue Risk Task, a delay discounting task, and various self-report questionnaires were administered, to measure aspects of risk taking. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated mostly nonlinear age-related patterns in risk-taking behavior and approach-related personality characteristics (peaking in late adolescence)...
April 1, 2018: Child Development
Kevin T Shoemaker, Levi J Heffelfinger, Nathan J Jackson, Marcus E Blum, Tony Wasley, Kelley M Stewart
Resource selection functions (RSFs) are tremendously valuable for ecologists and resource managers because they quantify spatial patterns in resource utilization by wildlife, thereby facilitating identification of critical habitat areas and characterizing specific habitat features that are selected or avoided. RSFs discriminate between known-use resource units (e.g., telemetry locations) and available (or randomly selected) resource units based on an array of environmental features, and in their standard form are performed using logistic regression...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Robert G Moulder, Steven M Boker, Fabian Ramseyer, Wolfgang Tschacher
Synchrony between interacting systems is an important area of nonlinear dynamics in physical systems. Recently psychological researchers from multiple areas of psychology have become interested in nonverbal synchrony (i.e., coordinated motion between two individuals engaged in dyadic information exchange such as communication or dance) as a predictor and outcome of psychological processes. An important step in studying nonverbal synchrony is systematically and validly differentiating synchronous systems from nonsynchronous systems...
March 29, 2018: Psychological Methods
E V Gorbacheva, G S Ganchenko, E A Demekhin
The stability of the electroosmotic flow of electrolyte-dielectric viscous liquids under the influence of the DC and AC electric fields along with the external pressure gradient is studied theoretically. Liquids are bounded by two infinite parallel plates. The lower wall bordering the electrolyte is assumed to be a charged surface, and the upper wall is electrically isolated. The charge at the lower boundary is assumed to be immobile, while the surface charge at the free surface is assumed to be mobile. In this paper, we study the micro- and nanosized liquid layers...
March 27, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Silviana Cirino, Louis Augusto Gonçalves, Mirian Buss Gonçalves, Eduardo Souza de Cursi
The study proposes a differentiated approach to the localization of public services (unlike methods focusing solely on locational efficiency in the distribution of such services), with a nonlinear model that incorporates an accessibility indicator and allows rejecting solutions in which accessibility fails to comply with acceptably established minimum parameters. The method aims to minimize the total time spent by a region's population to reach a public services network, while controlling the range between the highest and lowest accessibility to the services...
March 26, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
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