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Christina M Cromwell, Kristin R Aichele, Joyann E Oakman, Michael P Neal, Jessica M Lenzo, Avery N Perez, Naomi L Bye, Erica L Santaniello, Jessica A Hill, Rachel C Evans, Karla A Thiele, Lauren N Chavis, Allyson K Getty, Tia R Wisdo, Deborah L Feairheller
Previous studies have investigated carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and blood pressure and found a direct correlation between the two. It is known that adult females have better cardiovascular health than males until a certain stage of life, yet limited research has examined gender differences in vascular function. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate vascular structure and function, blood pressure, and blood glucose/cholesterol levels in relation to gender differences in young healthy adults...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Roland von Känel, J Richard Jennings, Nanette Santoro, Doug P Landsittel, Karen A Matthews
OBJECTIVES: A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Roberta Lupoli, Pasquale Ambrosino, Anna Tortora, Livia Barba, Gelsy Arianna Lupoli, Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in Cushing's syndrome (CS). We performed a meta-analysis on the impact of CS on major markers of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Studies on intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaques prevalence and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in CS patients and controls were searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and EMBASE. Differences between cases and controls were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for continuous variables, and as Odds Ratio (OR) with 95%CI for dichotomous variables...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Medicine
M Nagai, K Dote, M Kato, S Sasaki, N Oda, E Kagawa, Y Nakano, A Yamane, Y Kubo, T Higashihara, S Miyauchi, W Harada, H Masuda
In a cross-sectional study, visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability was shown to be associated with artery remodelling. Here, we investigated the impact of visit-to-visit BP variability and average BP on the carotid artery remodelling progression in high-risk elderly according to different classes of antihypertension medication use/non-use. BP measurements and carotid ultrasound were performed in the common carotid artery in 164 subjects (mean age 79.7 years at baseline, 74.7% females) with one or more cardiovascular risk factors...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
Crystal S Y Cheung, Nima Noordeh, Chloe C Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are to assess Canadian ophthalmologists' awareness of established uveitis treatment guidelines and clinical management of uveitis and to assess the frequency of government applications for immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) and identify primary prescribers. A 25-item questionnaire was sent to 759 practicing Canadian ophthalmologists. Six questions assessed demographics including the year of residency completion, training by uveitis specialists during residency, and fellowship training...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Yong-Muh Ng, Soo-Kun Lim, Pei-San Kang, Khairul Azmi Abdul Kadir, Mei-Ling Sharon Tai
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and cardiovascular diseases. However, this does not infer a causal relationship between the two. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and carotid atherosclerosis. Therefore, in this study we have aimed to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and carotid atherosclerosis in the CKD population. METHODS: 100 CKD stage 3-4 patients were included in the study...
October 18, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Denes Pall, Eva Katona, Miklós Zrinyi, Szabolcs Lengyel, Gyorgy Paragh, Bela Fulesdi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether a difference exists between endothelial function, intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in healthy non-hypertensive, white-coat hypertensive (WCH) and sustained hypertensive (SH) adolescents. DESIGN AND METHOD: All young people attending high school in Debrecen, Hungary (n = 10,359) participated in the study. Three blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken separated by 5 min intervals...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Seung Won Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yong-Ho Lee, Hansol Choi, Ji Hye Park, Yumie Rhee, Chang Oh Kim
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether HbA1c is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a community-dwelling elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose. DESIGN AND METHOD: Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women) with mean age 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100   mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) and a level of HbA1c below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bin Wang, Qianqian Sun, Yingsha Li, Peng Li, Weijie Xia, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to improve metabolic status in animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human, especially in prehypertensive participants. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on metabolic parameters, such as blood pressure (BP) levels, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle brachial index (ABI)/toe brachial index (TBI), BMI and biochemical parameters in prehypertensive participants...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Paolo Pauletto, Massimo Puato, Marcello Rattazzi, Roberta Buso, Giovanni Boschetti, Marta Zanon, Claudio Fania, Paolo Palatini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of well controlled blood pressure (BP) levels on structural and functional properties of arteries in essential hypertensives. DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 80 young hypertensives (mean age 49 yo) allocated either to pharmacological treatment (55 of 80) or to lifestyle modifications (25 of 80) for at least 12 months (mean 38 months) to maintain target BP. Follow-up visits were scheduled every 6 months. Office BP was taken three times by the same doctor at the time of the study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Annika Lindroos, Jouni Johansson, Pauli Puukka, Ilkka Kantola, Veikko Salomaa, Eeva Juhanoja, Sam Sivén, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti Jula, Teemu Niiranen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the agreement between nighttime home and nighttime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and to compare their associations with hypertensive end-organ damage for the first time in the general population. DESIGN AND METHOD: A population sample of 248 participants underwent measurements for nighttime home BP (3 measurements on 2 nights with a timer-equipped home device), nighttime ambulatory BP, pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yusuke Kobayashi, Hideo Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishiguro, Keisuke Yatsu, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Satoshi Umemura
OBJECTIVE: Though both carotid bulb and aortic arch are known to play important roles in regulation of blood pressure through modulation in baroreflex function, few studies have investigated the association of carotid bulb atherosclerosis and large arterial stiffness and orthostatic blood pressure change. DESIGN AND METHOD: Patients with metabolic disorder such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus underwent measurement of segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (as an index of atherosclerosis of carotid bulb), cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) (as an index for large arterial stiffness), heart rate variability (HRV) (as an index of baroreflex function) and sit-to-stand orthostatic blood pressure change (as a simple method for detecting orthostatic hypotension)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bin Bai, Jin Xiong, Yuyan Lv, Shikai Yu, Jiadela Teliewubai, Chen Chi, Yiwu Zhou, Kai Wang, Le Wang, Yi Zhang, Yawei Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the discrepancy between PWV and PPA in association with hypertensive TODs in the elderly population. DESIGN AND METHOD: From June 2014 to August 2015, a total of 1599 community-based elderly subjects (age > 65 years old) located in the northern Shanghai were recruited. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), peripheral blood pressure (BP), central BP and other TODs indicators including the ratio of the early ventricular filling velocity (E) to the peak velocity of tissue Doppler velocity of septal mitral annulus (E/Ea), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), carotid intima-medium thickness (IMT), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-creatinine rate (ACR) were assessed on each participant...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wenting Ai, Min Wu, Lin Chen, Baozhou Jiang, Mian Mu, Lihua Liu, Zuyi Yuan
The effects of ghrelin, a peptide hormone, on atherogenesis are mainly beneficial. This study aimed to investigate whether ghrelin ameliorates atherosclerosis (AS) by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). AS was induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE(-/-) mice. AS lesions in aortas were detected by Oil-red O staining, and the inner diameter and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the abdominal aorta were analyzed by ultrasonography. The protein expression of the ERS markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, and active caspase-12 was detected by western blot analysis...
October 18, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Jillian Mullen, Charles W Mathias, Tara E Karns, Yuanyuan Liang, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, John D Roache, Richard J Lamb, Donald M Dougherty
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if behavioral impulsivity under multiple conditions (baseline, after alcohol consumption or after serotonin depletion) predicted naturalistic alcohol use or treatment outcomes from a moderation-based contingency management intervention. METHOD: The current data analysis pulls information from three phases of a large study: 1) Phase 1 examined baseline and the effects of alcohol use and serotonin depletion on three types of behavioral impulsivity: response initiation (IMT task), response inhibition (GoStop task), and delay discounting (SKIP task); 2) Phase 2 involved 28 days of naturalistic drinking; and 3) Phase 3 involved 3 months of contingency management...
September 2016: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
Tomoaki Shiba, Mao Takahashi, Tadashi Matsumoto, Kohji Shirai, Yuichi Hori
PROPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were significant correlations between the pulse waveform in the capillary area of the optic nerve head (ONH) microcirculation shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and parameters of the systemic condition, especially the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). METHOD: We studied 130 men (ages 60.5 ± 10.9 years) who visited the Vascular Function Section of the Department of Cardiovascular Center of Toho University Sakura Medical Center...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
A S Mansfield, S J Murphy, F R Harris, S I Robinson, R S Marks, S H Johnson, J B Smadbeck, G C Halling, E S Yi, D Wigle, G Vasmatzis, J Jen
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare sarcomas that can occur at any age. Surgical resection is the primary treatment for patients with localized disease; however, these tumors frequently recur. Less commonly, patients with IMTs develop or present with metastatic disease. There is no standard of care for these patients and traditional cytotoxic therapy is largely ineffective. Most IMTs are associated with oncogenic ALK, ROS1 or PDGFRβ fusions and may benefit from targeted therapy...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Kaifeng Guo, Lei Zhang, Junxi Lu, Haoyong Yu, Mian Wu, Yuqian Bao, Haibing Chen, Weiping Jia
AIMS: To investigate the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and carotid and lower limb atherosclerotic lesions in a large group of hospitalized-based type 2 diabetic population and to assess the prevalence and characteristics of NAFLD in Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 8571 patients (4804 men) with T2DM were included in this cross-sectional study. The main outcome measures were detection of NAFLD, carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT), carotid and lower limb atherosclerotic plaque formation, and classical risk factors...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Anxin Wang, Xiaoya Huang, Xiaoxue Liu, Zhaoping Su, Jianwei Wu, Shuohua Chen, Xuemei Liu, Chunyu Ruan, Xiuhua Guo, Shouling Wu, Xingquan Zhao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a risk indicator for atherosclerosis. However, the association between hs-CRP and early carotid atherosclerosis progression is not well established. We undertook a prospective, community-based, observational study to address this question. METHODS: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and hs-CRP values were measured at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up in subjects ≥40 years of age who were participating in the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Guillaume Zahnd, Kostas Kapellas, Martijn van Hattem, Anouk van Dijk, André Sérusclat, Philippe Moulin, Aad van der Lugt, Michael Skilton, Maciej Orkisz
The aim of this study was to introduce and evaluate a contour segmentation method to extract the interfaces of the intima-media complex in carotid B-mode ultrasound images. The method was applied to assess the temporal variation of intima-media thickness during the cardiac cycle. The main methodological contribution of the proposed approach is the introduction of an augmented dimension to process 2-D images in a 3-D space. The third dimension, which is added to the two spatial dimensions of the image, corresponds to the tentative local thickness of the intima-media complex...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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