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Retrovirus breast cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778097/hyperprolactinemia-inducing-antipsychotics-increase-breast-cancer-risk-by-activating-jak-stat5-in-precancerous-lesions
#1
A N Johnston, W Bu, S Hein, S Garcia, L Camacho, L Xue, L Qin, C Nagi, S G Hilsenbeck, J Kapali, K Podsypanina, J Nangia, Y Li
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric medications are widely prescribed in the USA. Many antipsychotics cause serum hyperprolactinemia as an adverse side effect; prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling both induces cell differentiation and suppresses apoptosis. It is controversial whether these antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk. METHODS: We investigated the impact of several antipsychotics on mammary tumorigenesis initiated by retrovirus-mediated delivery of either ErbB2 or HRas or by transgenic expression of Wnt-1...
May 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777406/can-bovine-leukemia-virus-be-related-to-human-breast-cancer-a-review-of-the-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Lucia Martinez Cuesta, Pamela Anahi Lendez, Maria Victoria Nieto Farias, Guillermina Laura Dolcini, Maria Carolina Ceriani
The incidence of breast cancer is continuously increasing worldwide, as influenced by many factors that act synergistically. In the last decade there was an increasing interest in the possible viral etiology of human breast cancer. Since then, many viruses have been associated with this disease (murine mammary tumor virus, MMTV; Epstein-Barr virus, EBV; and human papillomavirus, HPV). Recently, BLV has been identified in human breast cancers giving rise to the hypothesis that it could be one of the causative agents of this condition...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731842/effect-of-rad51c-expression-on-the-chemosensitivity-of-e%C3%AE-myc-p19-arf-cells-and-its-clinical-significance-in-breast-cancer
#3
Shao-Guang Liao, Lu Liu, Ya-Jie Wang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemosensitivity to anti-cancer drugs of RAD51 paralog C (RAD51C)-deficient Eμ-Myc p19Arf-/- cells, to detect the expression of RAD51C in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and to explore their association with clinicopathological factors. Eμ-Myc p19Arf-/- cells were stably transfected with retroviruses co-expressing short hairpin-RNA against RAD51C and green fluorescent protein (GFP). A single-cell flow cytometry-based GFP competition assay was used to assess the change in sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487589/elevated-herv-k-expression-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma-is-associated-with-worsened-relapse-free-survival
#4
Maria Giebler, Martin S Staege, Sindy Blauschmidt, Lea I Ohm, Matthias Kraus, Peter Würl, Helge Taubert, Thomas Greither
A wide variety of endogenous retroviral sequences has been demonstrated in the human genome so far, divided into several different families according to the sequence homology to viral strains. While increased expression of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) elements has already been linked to unfavorable prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer, and ovarian carcinoma yet less is known about the impact of the expression of different HERV elements on sarcomagenesis in general as well as the outcome of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410005/viral-infections-and-breast-cancer-a-current-perspective
#5
O M Gannon, A Antonsson, I C Bennett, N A Saunders
Sporadic human breast cancer is the most common cancer to afflict women. Since the discovery, decades ago, of the oncogenic mouse mammary tumour virus, there has been significant interest in the potential aetiologic role of infectious agents in sporadic human breast cancer. To address this, many studies have examined the presence of viruses (e.g. papillomaviruses, herpes viruses and retroviruses), endogenous retroviruses and more recently, microbes, as a means of implicating them in the aetiology of human breast cancer...
April 28, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977426/histone-h1-depletion-triggers-an-interferon-response-in-cancer-cells-via-activation-of-heterochromatic-repeats
#6
Andrea Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Alberto Bustillos, Carles Bonet-Costa, Patricia Aribau-Miralbés, Daniel García-Gomis, Marc Dabad, Anna Esteve-Codina, Laura Pascual-Reguant, Sandra Peiró, Manel Esteller, Matthew Murtha, Lluís Millán-Ariño, Albert Jordan
Histone H1 has seven variants in human somatic cells and contributes to chromatin compaction and transcriptional regulation. Knock-down (KD) of each H1 variant in breast cancer cells results in altered gene expression and proliferation differently in a variant specific manner with H1.2 and H1.4 KDs being most deleterious. Here we show combined depletion of H1.2 and H1.4 has a strong deleterious effect resulting in a strong interferon (IFN) response, as evidenced by an up-regulation of many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) not seen in individual nor in other combinations of H1 variant KDs...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#7
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593618/rig-i-a-multifunctional-protein-beyond-a-pattern-recognition-receptor
#8
REVIEW
Xiao-Xiao Xu, Han Wan, Li Nie, Tong Shao, Li-Xin Xiang, Jian-Zhong Shao
It was widely known that retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) functions as a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that initiates innate antiviral immunity by detecting exogenous viral RNAs. However, recent studies showed that RIG-I participates in other various cellular activities by sensing endogenous RNAs under different circumstances. For example, RIG-I facilitates the therapy resistance and expansion of breast cancer cells and promotes T cell-independent B cell activation through interferon signaling activation by recognizing non-coding RNAs and endogenous retroviruses in certain situations...
March 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165048/expression-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-is-strongly-associated-with-the-basal-like-breast-cancer-phenotype
#9
Gary L Johanning, Gabriel G Malouf, Xiaofeng Zheng, Francisco J Esteva, John N Weinstein, Feng Wang-Johanning, Xiaoping Su
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which make up approximately 8% of the human genome, are overexpressed in some breast cancer cells and tissues but without regard to cancer subtype. We, therefore, analyzed TCGA RNA-Seq data to evaluate differences in expression of the HERV-K family in breast cancers of the various subtypes. Four HERV-K loci on different chromosomes were analyzed in basal, Her2E, LumA, and LumB breast cancer subtypes of 512 breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The results for all four loci showed higher HERV-K expression in the basal subtype, suggesting similar mechanisms of regulation regardless of locus...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154780/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-cancer
#10
María Gonzalez-Cao, Paola Iduma, Niki Karachaliou, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Julià Blanco, Rafael Rosell
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are retroviruses that infected human genome millions of years ago and have persisted throughout human evolution. About 8% of our genome is composed of HERVs, most of which are nonfunctional because of epigenetic control or deactivating mutations. However, a correlation between HERVs and human cancer has been described and many tumors, such as melanoma, breast cancer, germ cell tumors, renal cancer or ovarian cancer, express HERV proteins, mainly HERV-K (HML6) and HERV-K (HML2)...
December 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921323/the-application-of-strand-invasion-phenomenon-directed-by-peptide-nucleic-acid-pna-and-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssb-for-the-recognition-of-specific-sequences-of-human-endogenous-retroviral-herv-w-family
#11
Grzegorz Machnik, Łukasz Bułdak, Jarosław Ruczyński, Tomasz Gąsior, Małgorzata Huzarska, Dariusz Belowski, Magdalena Alenowicz, Piotr Mucha, Piotr Rekowski, Bogusław Okopień
The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870643/yellow-fever-vaccine-17d-administered-to-healthy-women-aged-between-40-and-54-years-halves-breast-cancer-risk-an-observational-study
#12
Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Sofia Pavanello, Emanuela Fadda, Alessandra Buja, Ugo Fedeli
Transcripts of human endogenous retrovirus K are expressed in most breast cancers (BCs). Yellow fever vaccine 17D (YFV) expresses a protein with a closely homologous epitope. Cross-reactive immunity could hypothetically inhibit BC growth at least in women aged around 50 years at diagnosis, in whom the prognosis of BC was found to be better than that in women younger or older. A cohort of 12 804 women who received YFV in the Veneto Region, Italy, was divided into two subcohorts according to age at vaccination and followed up through the Veneto Tumor Registry...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792127/identifying-cancer-driver-genes-using-replication-incompetent-retroviral-vectors
#13
REVIEW
Victor M Bii, Grant D Trobridge
Identifying novel genes that drive tumor metastasis and drug resistance has significant potential to improve patient outcomes. High-throughput sequencing approaches have identified cancer genes, but distinguishing driver genes from passengers remains challenging. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have emerged as a powerful tool to identify cancer genes. Unlike replicating retroviruses and transposons, replication-incompetent retroviral vectors lack additional mutagenesis events that can complicate the identification of driver mutations from passenger mutations...
October 25, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608898/phactr4-regulates-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-inhibiting-il-6-stat3-pathway
#14
F Cao, M Liu, Q-Z Zhang, R Hao
OBJECTIVE: Phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (PHACTR4) is one member of the largely uncharacterized PHACTR family of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-and actin-binding proteins. PHACTR4 is significantly deleted or mutant in many tumor subtypes, such as breast, colorectal, lung, neural, ovarian, and renal cancers. However, the role of PHACTR4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is completely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten paired HCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were used to detect the expression PHACTR4...
August 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557521/activation-of-herv-k-env-protein-is-essential-for-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis-of-breast-cancer-cells
#15
Fuling Zhou, Ming Li, Yongchang Wei, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Jianjun Shen, Gary L Johanning, Feng Wang-Johanning
Human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) Env protein was previously demonstrated to be overexpressed in human breast cancer (BC) cells and tissues. However, the molecular pathways driving the specific alterations are unknown. We now show that knockdown of its expression with an shRNA (shRNAenv) blocked BC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. shRNAenv transduction also attenuated the ability of BC cells to form tumors, and notably prevented metastasis. Mechanistically, downregulation of HERV-K blocked expression of tumor-associated genes that included Ras, p-RSK, and p-ERK...
December 20, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928812/cyclin-e-associates-with-the-lipogenic-enzyme-atp-citrate-lyase-to-enable-malignant-growth-of-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Kimberly S Lucenay, Iman Doostan, Cansu Karakas, Tuyen Bui, Zhiyong Ding, Gordon B Mills, Kelly K Hunt, Khandan Keyomarsi
Cyclin E is altered in nearly a third of invasive breast cancers where it is a powerful independent predictor of survival in women with stage I-III disease. Full-length cyclin E is posttranslationally cleaved into low molecular weight (LMW-E) isoforms, which are tumor-specific and accumulate in the cytoplasm because they lack a nuclear localization sequence. We hypothesized that aberrant localization of cytosolic LMW-E isoforms alters target binding and activation ultimately contributing to LMW-E-induced tumorigenicity...
April 15, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872058/age-related-reduction-of-antibody-response-against-the-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-envelope-in-women
#17
Hyoung Jin Kim, Byung-In Moon, Jun Woo Lee, Seung Cheol Kim, Hong-Jin Kim
In the present study, the correlation between the antibody response against human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) envelope and human age was investigated. Antibody levels were compared in groups in their 20s (n = 25), 30s (n = 39), 40s (n = 68), 50s (n = 32), and 60s and over (n = 25), which included healthy individuals and breast cancer and/or cervical cancer patients. It appeared that both IgM and IgG responses against the HERV-K envelope fell with increasing age. There were no differences in anti-HERV-K envelope antibody levels between healthy individuals and cancer patients...
April 5, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760982/a-new-paradigm-about-herv-k102-particle-production-and-blocked-release-to-explain-cortisol-mediated-immunosenescence-and-age-associated-risk-of-chronic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Marian P Laderoute
The majority of chronic diseases in the aging adult are thought to relate to immune aging characterized by dominant immunosuppression and paradoxically, concomitant inflammation. This is known collectively as immunosenescence. The main change thought to be controlling immune aging is the age-related decline in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and corresponding increase in cortisol; the net effect which decreases the DHEA/cortisol ratio. Exactly how this translates to immunosuppression and concomitant inflammation remains unclear...
December 2015: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691922/milk-an-epigenetic-amplifier-of-fto-mediated-transcription-implications-for-western-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Bodo C Melnik
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms within intron 1 of the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene are associated with enhanced FTO expression, increased body weight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The N (6) -methyladenosine (m(6)A) demethylase FTO plays a pivotal regulatory role for postnatal growth and energy expenditure. The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence that links milk signaling with FTO-activated transcription of the milk recipient. FTO-dependent demethylation of m(6)A regulates mRNA splicing required for adipogenesis, increases the stability of mRNAs, and affects microRNA (miRNA) expression and miRNA biosynthesis...
December 21, 2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26467507/retroviral-replicating-vectors-deliver-cytosine-deaminase-leading-to-targeted-5-fluorouracil-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-multiple-human-cancer-types
#20
Chris G Twitty, Oscar R Diago, Daniel J Hogan, Cindy Burrascano, Carlos E Ibanez, Douglas J Jolly, Derek Ostertag
Toca 511 is a modified retroviral replicating vector based on Moloney γ-retrovirus with an amphotropic envelope. As an investigational cancer treatment, Toca 511 preferentially infects cancer cells without direct cell lysis and encodes an enhanced yeast cytosine deaminase that converts the antifungal drug 5-fluorocytosine to the anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. A panel of established human cancer cell lines, derived from glioblastoma, colon, and breast cancer tissue, was used to evaluate parameters critical for effective anticancer activity...
February 2016: Human Gene Therapy Methods
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