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Jimmy A McGuire, Darko D Cotoras, Brendan O'Connell, Shobi Z S Lawalata, Cynthia Y Wang-Claypool, Alexander Stubbs, Xiaoting Huang, Guinevere O U Wogan, Sarah M Hykin, Sean B Reilly, Ke Bi, Awal Riyanto, Evy Arida, Lydia L Smith, Heather Milne, Jeffrey W Streicher, Djoko T Iskandar
We used Massively Parallel High-Throughput Sequencing to obtain genetic data from a 145-year old holotype specimen of the flying lizard, Draco cristatellus . Obtaining genetic data from this holotype was necessary to resolve an otherwise intractable taxonomic problem involving the status of this species relative to closely related sympatric Draco species that cannot otherwise be distinguished from one another on the basis of museum specimens. Initial analyses suggested that the DNA present in the holotype sample was so degraded as to be unusable for sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
Nessrine Ghanmi, David González-Solís, Lamia Gargouri
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845, P. draco n. sp. and P. radiata n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae), are described from the marine perciform fishes Trachinus draco (Linnaeus) and T. radiatus (Linnaeus) (both Trachinidae), respectively, in the Gulf of Hammamet, off the northeastern coast of Tunisia. Philometra draco n. sp. and P. radiata n. sp. can be separated from other gonad-infecting species of this genus by the structures associated to the gubernaculum (e...
January 24, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Barna Páll-Gergely, András Hunyadi, Đức Đỗ Sáng, Fred Naggs, Takahiro Asami
This is the first part of the revision of the Alycaeidae of China, Laos and Vietnam. Here we revise the species hitherto classified in Chamalycaeus Möllendorff, 1897 (genera Dicharax and Metalycaeus in this study). We show that no Chamalycaeus live in the region, and the alycaeid species of the investigated region can be classified into five genera: Alycaeus Baird, 1850, Dicharax Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1900, Dioryx Benson, 1859, Metalycaeus Pilsbry, 1900 and Pincerna Preston, 1907. We propose Dioryx dautzenbergi Páll-Gergely nom...
October 11, 2017: Zootaxa
J Maximilian Dehling
Flying lizards of the genus Draco are renowned for their gliding ability, using an aerofoil formed by winglike patagial membranes and supported by elongated thoracic ribs. It remains unknown, however, how these lizards manoeuvre during flight. Here, I present the results of a study on the aerial behaviour of Dussumier's Flying Lizard (Draco dussumieri) and show that Draco attaches the forelimbs to the leading edge of the patagium while airborne, forming a hitherto unknown type of composite wing. The attachment of the forelimbs to the patagium suggests that that aerofoil is controlled through movements of the forelimbs...
2017: PloS One
Lieselotte Obst, Sebastian Göde, Martin Rehwald, Florian-Emanuel Brack, João Branco, Stefan Bock, Michael Bussmann, Thomas E Cowan, Chandra B Curry, Frederico Fiuza, Maxence Gauthier, René Gebhardt, Uwe Helbig, Axel Huebl, Uwe Hübner, Arie Irman, Lev Kazak, Jongjin B Kim, Thomas Kluge, Stephan Kraft, Markus Loeser, Josefine Metzkes, Rohini Mishra, Christian Rödel, Hans-Peter Schlenvoigt, Mathias Siebold, Josef Tiggesbäumker, Steffen Wolter, Tim Ziegler, Ulrich Schramm, Siegfried H Glenzer, Karl Zeil
We report on recent experimental results deploying a continuous cryogenic hydrogen jet as a debris-free, renewable laser-driven source of pure proton beams generated at the 150 TW ultrashort pulse laser Draco. Efficient proton acceleration reaching cut-off energies of up to 20 MeV with particle numbers exceeding 10(9) particles per MeV per steradian is demonstrated, showing for the first time that the acceleration performance is comparable to solid foil targets with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Two different target geometries are presented and their proton beam deliverance characterized: cylindrical (∅ 5 μm) and planar (20 μm × 2 μm)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Matthias Schmid, Dirk Trauner
The dragonbloodins are a pair of complex flavonoid trimers that have been isolated from the palm tree Daemonorops draco, one of the sources of the ancient resin known as "dragon's blood". We present a short synthesis that clarifies their relative configurations and sheds light on their origin in Nature. This synthesis features biomimetic cascade reactions that involve both ionic and radical intermediates. The biogenetic relationships between dracorhodin, the dracoflavans C, and the dragonbloodins A1 and A2 are discussed...
July 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Michael Josiassen, Søren Partoft, Pernille Leicht, Jakob Astrup
The greater weever (Trachinus draco) is the only venomous fish in Denmark, and if stung by the weever the venom may cause symptoms such as pain, headache, nausea, dizziness and in severe cases systemic allergic reaction or tissue necrosis. The venom is heat-labile and should therefore be treated with warm water to the afflicted area. We report a case of a patient who was stung in the second finger and because of the treatment, he got a second-degree burn, that may have enhanced the effect of the venom, thus resulting in partial finger amputation...
July 3, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Haifeng Gu, Qingjian Zhao, Zhibin Zhang
The scatter-hoarding behavior of granivorous rodents plays an important role in seed dispersal and seedling regeneration of trees, as well as the evolution of several well-known mutualisms between trees and rodents in forest ecosystems. Because it is difficult to identify seed hoarders and pilferers under field conditions by traditional methods, the full costs incurred and benefits accrued by scatter-hoarding have not been fully evaluated in most systems. By using infrared radiation camera tracking and seed tagging, we investigated the benefits and losses of scatter-hoarded seeds (Camellia oleifera) for 3 sympatric rodent species (Apodemus draco, Niviventer confucianus and Leopoldamys edwardsi) in a subtropical forest of Southwest China during 2013 to 2015...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Guillaume Cerutti, Olivier Ali, Christophe Godin
Context: The shoot apical meristem (SAM), origin of all aerial organs of the plant, is a restricted niche of stem cells whose growth is regulated by a complex network of genetic, hormonal and mechanical interactions. Studying the development of this area at cell level using 3D microscopy time-lapse imaging is a newly emerging key to understand the processes controlling plant morphogenesis. Computational models have been proposed to simulate those mechanisms, however their validation on real-life data is an essential step that requires an adequate representation of the growing tissue to be carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ping-Chung Kuo, Hsin-Yi Hung, Tsong-Long Hwang, Wen-Ke Du, Hsiang-Chih Ku, E-Jian Lee, Shih-Huang Tai, Fu-An Chen, Tian-Shung Wu
Four A-type flavan-3-ol-dihydroretrochalcone dimers, dragonins A-D (1-4), were characterized from the traditional Chinese medicine Sanguis Draconis. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant inhibition of fMLP/CB-induced superoxide anion and elastase. The signaling pathways accounting for the inhibitory effects of compound 2 were also elucidated. These purified A-type flavan-3-ol-dihydroretrochalcones are new potential leads for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, María Del Carmen Gómez Del Prado-Rosas, Laura Sánchez-Velasco, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez
Chaetognaths are abundant carnivores with broad distributions that are intermediate hosts of trophically transmitted parasites. Monthly variations in chaetognath and parasite species distributions, abundance, prevalence, and intensity related to seasonal environmental changes were recorded in 2004 and 2005 in Laguna Nichupté, a coral reef, and the adjoining continental shelf of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Of 12 chaetognath species plus Sagitta spp., only 5 (Ferosagitta hispida, Flaccisagitta enflata, Sagitta spp...
March 30, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Danielle A Klomp, Devi Stuart-Fox, Indraneil Das, Terry J Ord
Effective communication requires animal signals to be readily detected by receivers in the environments in which they are typically given. Certain light conditions enhance the visibility of colour signals and these conditions can vary depending on the orientation of the sun and the position of the signaller. We tested whether Draco sumatranus gliding lizards modified their position relative to the sun to enhance the conspicuousness of their throat-fan (dewlap) during social display to conspecifics. The dewlap was translucent, and we found that lizards were significantly more likely to orient themselves perpendicular to the sun when displaying...
February 2017: Biology Letters
Alexey V Shavrin, Aleš Smetana
Nine new species of the genus Deinopteroloma Jansson, 1946 are described and illustrated: D. bisbisinuatum sp.n. and D. draco sp.n. from China, Sichuan (Gongga Shan), D. emeicola sp.n., D. minor sp.n., D. ruzickai sp.n., D. sextuberculatum sp.n. and D. yinyang sp.n. from China, Sichuan (Emei Shan), D. rougemonti sp.n. from China, Yunnan (Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture) and D. vesiculosum sp.n. from North Vietnam. Three species groups within the genus are identified and characterized and closely relationships among them are briefly discussed...
November 22, 2016: Zootaxa
Joanna Jura-Morawiec
Tracheary elements within the secondary body of a dragon tree shared features characteristic of fibres. Their considerable intrusive growth resulted in a rigid network with a braid-like arrangement which contributes towards the tree-like form of the plant. Monocot cambium gives rise to xylem and phloem which become organized into vascular bundles. The xylem consists entirely of tracheids, and these undergo considerable intrusive elongation during their development, unlike the tracheids of conifers and those of vesselless dicotyledons...
January 2017: Planta
Ramla Azizi, Luis F Rangel, Ricardo Castro, Maria J Santos, Sihem Bahri
We describe a new myxosporean species, Zschokkella trachini n. sp., infecting the gallbladder of greater weever Trachinus draco Linnaeus 1758 from Tunisia. This is the first record of Zschokkella species in T. draco. Plasmodia were polysporic producing six to eight mature spores; they were attached to the gallbladder epithelium or free floating in the bile. Mature spores were sub-ovoid in the frontal view, measured 15.2 ± 0.6 (14.4-16.0) μm in length and 9.8 ± 0.7 (9.0-10.8) μm in width. Two equal spherical polar capsules 4...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
D A Klomp, T J Ord, I Das, A Diesmos, N Ahmad, D Stuart-Fox
Sexual ornamentation needs to be conspicuous to be effective in attracting potential mates and defending territories and indeed, a multitude of ways exists to achieve this. Two principal mechanisms for increasing conspicuousness are to increase the ornament's colour or brightness contrast against the background and to increase the size of the ornament. We assessed the relationship between the colour and size of the dewlap, a large extendible throat-fan, across a range of species of gliding lizards (Agamidae; genus Draco) from Malaysia and the Philippines...
September 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Haixue Wei, Qiang Jia, Fengjun Li, Yongcheng Liu, Shunde Chen, Bin Yong
The genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields. They are also one of the best species for biogeographic study and understanding the environmental changes. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Apodemus draco is determined. The mitogenome is 16 220 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region, with a base composition of 35.1% A, 29.0% T, 23.8% C and 12.1% G. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of Apodemus draco and other 23 rodents were used for mitochondrial genome phylogenetic analyses...
July 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Jacek Drobnik
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zhi Siang Toh, Hongyu Wang, Yew Mun Yip, Yuyun Lu, Benedict Jeffrey Ang Lim, Daiwei Zhang, Dejian Huang
A high throughput assay was applied to guide the isolation of a new pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor, dracoflavan B, from the dragon's blood resin from Daemonorops draco. Applying C18 column, we successfully isolated both diastereomers and their structures verified by (1)H NMR spectra in comparison with the literature values. Their activity in inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase with comparable IC50 values of 23μM (A type) and 27μM (B type) that are similar to that of acarbose. Dracoflavan B shows much weaker activity in inhibiting bacterial α-amylase and no activity towards fungal α-amylase...
December 15, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Haixue Wei, Qiang Jia, Fengjun Li, Yongcheng Liu, Shunde Chen, Bin Yong
The genus Apodemus are the most common small rodents in fields. They are also one of the best species for biogeographic study and understanding the environmental changes. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Apodemus draco is determined. The mitogenome is 16 220 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region, with a base composition of 35.1% A, 29.0% T, 23.8% C and 12.1% G. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of Apodemus draco and other 23 rodents were used for mitochondrial genome phylogenetic analyses...
August 14, 2015: Mitochondrial DNA
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