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Corona virus

Thaila Francini Corona, Beatriz Böger, Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha, Walfrido Külh Svoboda, Eliane Carneiro Gomes
INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute zoonotic disease, caused by a rhabdovirus that can affect all mammals, and is commonly transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal. The definitive diagnosis is laboratorial, by the Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) as a quick test and Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) as a confirmatory test (gold standard). Studies conducted over the past three decades indicate that MIT and Virus Isolation in Cell Culture (VICC) can provide the same effectiveness, the latter being considered superior in bioethics and animal welfare...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Elisa Fanunza, Aldo Frau, Marco Sgarbanti, Roberto Orsatti, Angela Corona, Enzo Tramontano
The interferon (IFN) system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Evasion of IFN signaling by Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of the infection and, hence, VP24 is a potential target for drug development. Since no drugs target VP24, the identification of molecules able to inhibit VP24, restoring and possibly enhancing the IFN response, is a goal of concern. Accordingly, we developed a dual signal firefly and Renilla luciferase cell-based drug screening assay able to quantify IFN-mediated induction of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) and its inhibition by VP24...
February 24, 2018: Viruses
Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Francesco Di Palma, Attilio V Vargiu, Angela Corona, Dario Piano, Paolo Ruggerone, Luca Zinzula, Enzo Tramontano
The multifunctional Ebola virus (EBOV) VP35 protein is a key determinant of virulence. VP35 is essential for EBOV replication, is a component of the viral RNA polymerase and participates in nucleocapsid formation. Furthermore, VP35 contributes to EBOV evasion of the host innate immune response by suppressing RNA silencing and blocking RIG-I like receptors' pathways that lead to type I interferon (IFN) production. VP35 homo-oligomerization has been reported to be critical for its replicative function and to increase its IFN-antagonism properties...
February 7, 2018: Virus Research
Binoy Babu, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Mathews L Paret
Several isothermal techniques for the detection of plant pathogens have been developed with the advent of molecular techniques. Among them, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is becoming an important technique for the rapid, sensitive and cost-effective detection of plant viruses. The RPA technology has the advantage to be implemented in field-based scenarios because the method requires a minimal sample preparation, and is performed at constant low temperature (37-42 °C). The RPA technique is rapidly becoming a promising tool for use in rapid detection and further diagnostics in plant clinics and monitoring quarantine services...
January 30, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Antonio Carta, Giuseppina Sanna, Irene Briguglio, Silvia Madeddu, Gabriella Vitale, Sandra Piras, Paola Corona, Alessandra Tiziana Peana, Erik Laurini, Maurizio Fermeglia, Sabrina Pricl, Alessandra Serra, Elisa Carta, Roberta Loddo, Gabriele Giliberti
Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens for which there are no specific antiviral agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration so far. Particularly, coxsackievirus infections have a worldwide distribution and can cause many important diseases. We here report the synthesis of new 14 quinoxaline derivatives and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses. Promisingly, three compounds showed a very potent and selective antiviral activity against coxsackievirus B5, with EC50 in the sub-micromolar range (0...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Willem J M Mulder, Mandy M T van Leent, Marnix Lameijer, Edward A Fisher, Zahi A Fayad, Carlos Pérez-Medina
Nature is an inspirational source for biomedical engineering developments. Particularly, numerous nanotechnological approaches have been derived from biological concepts. For example, among many different biological nanosized materials, viruses have been extensively studied and utilized, while exosome research has gained much traction in the 21st century. In our body, fat is transported by lipoproteins, intriguing supramolecular nanostructures that have important roles in cell function, lipid metabolism, and disease...
December 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Christin Müller, Falk W Schulte, Kerstin Lange-Grünweller, Wiebke Obermann, Ramakanth Madhugiri, Stephan Pleschka, John Ziebuhr, Roland K Hartmann, Arnold Grünweller
Coronaviruses (CoV) and picornaviruses are plus-strand RNA viruses that use 5' cap-dependent and cap-independent strategies, respectively, for viral mRNA translation initiation. Here, we analyzed the effects of the plant compound silvestrol, a specific inhibitor of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, on viral translation using a dual luciferase assay and virus-infected primary cells. Silvestrol was recently shown to have potent antiviral activity in Ebola virus-infected human macrophages. We found that silvestrol is also a potent inhibitor of cap-dependent viral mRNA translation in CoV-infected human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells...
December 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
Alberto Berardi, David J Evans, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, George P Lomonossoff
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant virus which is being extensively investigated as a drug delivery and vaccine nanocarrier for parenteral administration. However, to date little is known about the suitability of plant-based nanocarriers for oral delivery. In this study, the colloidal (i.e. aggregation), physical (i.e. denaturation) and chemical (i.e. digestion of the polypeptides) stability of CPMV and its empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) in conditions resembling the gastrointestinal fluids were evaluated...
January 25, 2018: Nanoscale
Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez, Hugo Arreola-De la Cruz, Keiko Taniguchi-Ponciano, Laura Gomez-Virgilio, Victor Huerta-Padilla, Gustavo Ponce-Navarrete, Sergio Andonegui-Elguera, Florinda Jimenez-Vega, Pablo Romero-Morelos, Miriam Rodriguez-Esquivel, Marco Meraz-Rios, Ma Del Pilar Figueroa-Corona, Alberto Monroy, Oscar Pérez-González, Mauricio Salcedo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Krüppel Like Factors (KLF) refers to a family of seventeen members of transcription factors. Involved in several cellular processes. As other cancer types, Cervical Cancer (CC) presents molecular deregulations in transcription factors, but especially Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sequences. Here in this work we analyzed the mRNA expression of all KLF family members in CC-derived cell lines and CC tissues. METHODS: The cell lines used were HeLa, INBL, RoVa, C4-I, Ms751, ViPa, CaLo, SiHa, CaSki, C33a and ViBo and the non-tumorigenic HaCaT...
May 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Hossein Keyvani, Mohsen Moghoofei, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Shayan Mostafaei, Seyed-Ali Javad Mousavi, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Maryam Esghaei
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and ultimately fatal lung disease. One of the risk factors involved in the acquisition of IPF is viral infections, especially respiratory viruses. In the present study, we investigated the detection of respiratory viruses and the possible relationship between these viruses and IPF. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was supported by the Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran. A total of 40 respiratory samples (five nasopharyngeal and 35 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens) were obtained from IPF patients referred to IUMS hospitals between April 2015 and December 2016...
November 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
S M Huijts, F E J Coenjaerts, M Bolkenbaas, C H van Werkhoven, D E Grobbee, M J M Bonten
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate whether vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) prevents the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by influenza (influenza-associated CAP, IA-CAP) or other respiratory viruses in the elderly. METHODS: This analysis was part of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA); a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 84 496 immunocompetent individuals aged ≥65 years...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Anirban Ghosh, Dipita Bhattacharyya, Anirban Bhunia
In recent years, several studies based on the interaction of self-assembling short peptides derived from viroporins with model membranes, have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of corona virus (CoV) infection under physiological conditions. In this study, we have characterized the mechanism of membrane interaction of a short, 9-residue peptide TK9 (T55 VYVYSRVK63 ) that had been derived from the carboxyl terminal of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) corona virus (SARS CoV) envelope (E) protein...
February 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tianyu Zheng, Caroline Finn, Christopher J Parrett, Kunal Dhume, Ji Hae Hwang, David Sidhom, Tara M Strutt, Yuen Yee Li Sip, Karl K McKinstry, Qun Huo
The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses...
November 10, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
Angela Corona, Valentina Onnis, Alessandro Deplano, Giulia Bianco, Monica Demurtas, Simona Distinto, Yung-Chi Cheng, Stefano Alcaro, Francesca Esposito, Enzo Tramontano
In the continuous effort to identify new HIV-1 inhibitors endowed with innovative mechanisms, the dual inhibition of different viral functions would provide a significant advantage against drug-resistant variants. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is the only viral-encoded enzymatic activity that still lacks an efficient inhibitor. We synthesized a library of 3,5-diamino-N-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbothioamide and 4-amino-5-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-(substituted-amino)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbothioamide derivatives and tested them against RNase H activity...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
Aisha M Al-Osail, Marwan J Al-Wazzah
Corona viruses cause common cold, and infections caused by corona viruses are generally self-resolving. During the last 4 years, corona viruses have become the most important viruses worldwide because of the occurrence of several recent deaths caused by corona viruses in Saudi Arabia. Spread of the infection occurred worldwide; however, most cases of mortality have occurred in the Middle East. Owing to the predominance of outbreaks in the Middle Eastern countries, the virus was renamed a Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) by the Corona virus Study Group...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Mijeong Park
OBJECTIVES: This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS: The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
Aruna Amarasinghe, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Sadiya Nazir, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Frank van der Meer, Susan Catherine Cork, Susantha Gomis, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes respiratory disease leading to loss of egg and meat production in chickens. Although it is known that macrophage numbers are elevated in the respiratory tract of IBV infected chickens, the role played by macrophages in IBV infection, particularly as a target cell for viral replication, is unknown. In this study, first, we investigated the ability of IBV to establish productive replication in macrophages in lungs and trachea in vivo and in macrophage cell cultures in vitro using two pathogenic IBV strains...
2017: PloS One
Mumtaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Ishaq, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Asim Altaf, Mirza Aamir Baig, Safdar Rana, Jaleel Kamran, Muazam Abbas Ranjha, Jawad Asgher Rana
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory-Corona virus (MERS-CoV), SARS like virus, identified in September 2012 in Middle-East. February 2013, an elderly man, who visited Pakistan and KSA, was confirmed as MRS-CoV in UK. A team visited Mirpur to assess current and past SARI trends in major indoor facilities, to explore possible contact of the patient with known or suspected SARI case during his stay in Pakistan and enlist close contacts. METHODS: Review of indoor records in hospitals, interviews with relatives & physicians and active contact tracing using operational case definition...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Xu-Sheng Zhang, Richard Pebody, Andre Charlett, Daniela de Angelis, Paul Birrell, Hunseok Kang, Marc Baguelin, Yoon Hong Choi
BACKGROUND: Emerging respiratory infections represent a significant public health threat. Because of their novelty, there are limited measures available to control their early spread. Learning from past outbreaks is important for future preparation. The Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus (MERS-CoV ) 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea (ROK) provides one such opportunity. OBJECTIVES: We demonstrated through quantitative methodologies how to estimate MERS-CoV's transmissibility and identified the effective countermeasures that stopped its spread...
September 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Natalia Rodriguez-Valero, Alberto M Borobia, Mar Lago, Maria Paz Sánchez-Seco, Fernando de Ory, Ana Vázquez, Jose Luis Pérez-Arellano, Cristina Carranza Rodríguez, Miguel J Martínez, Alicia Capón, Elias Cañas, Joaquin Salas-Coronas, Arkaitz Azcune Galparsoro, Jose Muñoz
We evaluated the risk for the Spanish Olympic Team acquiring Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2016. We recruited 117 team members, and all tested negative for Zika virus. Lack of cases in this cohort supports the minimum risk estimates made before the Games.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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