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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747571/axonal-chronic-injury-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-adults-with-asymptomatic-neurocognitive-impairment-and-its-relationship-with-clinical-variables-and-cognitive-status
#1
Rui-Li Li, Jun Sun, Zhen-Chao Tang, Jing-Ji Zhang, Hong-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: HIV is a neurotropic virus, and it can bring about neurodegeneration and may even result in cognitive impairments. The precise mechanism of HIV-associated white matter (WM) injury is unknown. The effects of multiple clinical contributors on WM impairments and the relationship between the WM alterations and cognitive performance merit further investigation. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 20 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) adults and 20 healthy volunteers...
May 10, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746798/the-burden-of-influenza-a-and-b-in-mexico-from-the-year-2010-to-2013-an-observational-retrospective-database-study-on-records-from-the-directorate-general-of-epidemiology-database
#2
Ricardo Cortes-Alcala, Gaël Dos Santos, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Raghavendra Devadiga, Cuitlahuac Ruiz-Matus, Maria E Jimenez-Corona, Jose A Diaz-Quinonez, Luis Romano-Mazzotti, Maria Yolanda Cervantes-Apolinar, Pablo Kuri-Morales
Despite vaccination programs, influenza still represents a significant disease burden in Mexico. We conducted an observational, retrospective analysis to better understand the epidemiological situation of the influenza virus in Mexico. Analysis of the seasonal patterns of influenza A and B were based on the Directorate General of Epidemiology dataset of influenza-like illness(ILI), and severe acute respiratory infection(SARI) that were recorded between January 2010 and December 2013. Our objectives were 1) to describe influenza A and B activity, by age group, and subtype and, 2) to analyze the number of laboratory-confirmed cases presenting with ILI by influenza type, the regional distribution of influenza, and its clinical features...
May 10, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649550/healthcare-workers-exposure-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-corona-virus-mers-cov-revision-of-screening-strategies-urgently-needed
#3
Hala Amer, Abdulrahman S Alqahtani, Faisal Alaklobi, Juhaina Altayeb, Ziad A Memish
OBJECTIVES: MERS-CoV continues to cause frequent hospital outbreaks in Saudi Arabia with emergency departments as the initial site of the spread of this virus. METHODS: We assessed the transmission risks of MERS-CoV infection to HCWs in an outbreak in Riyadh. All HCWs with unprotected exposure to confirmed cases were tested after 24hours of exposure. Two negative results for MERS-CoV 3days apart and being free of any suggestive signs and symptoms were used to stop their isolation...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601601/prenylated-phloroglucinols-from-hypericum-scruglii-an-endemic-species-of-sardinia-italy-as-new-dual-hiv-1-inhibitors-effective-on-hiv-1-replication
#4
Cinzia Sanna, Monica Scognamiglio, Antonio Fiorentino, Angela Corona, Vittoria Graziani, Alessia Caredda, Pierluigi Cortis, Mariofilippo Montisci, Elisa Rita Ceresola, Filippo Canducci, Ferruccio Poli, Enzo Tramontano, Francesca Esposito
In a search for new potential multitarget anti-HIV compounds from natural products, we have identified in Hypericum scruglii, an endemic and exclusive species of Sardinia (Italy), a potent plant lead. The phytochemical study of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from its leaves led to the isolation of its most abundant secondary metabolites, belonging to different chemical classes. In particular, three phloroglucinols derivatives were identified, confirming their significance as chemotaxonomic markers of the Hypericum genus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584632/inhibition-of-zika-virus-replication-by-silvestrol
#5
Fabian Elgner, Catarina Sabino, Michael Basic, Daniela Ploen, Arnold Grünweller, Eberhard Hildt
The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in 2016 in South America with specific pathogenic outcomes highlighted the need for new antiviral substances with broad-spectrum activities to react quickly to unexpected outbreaks of emerging viral pathogens. Very recently, the natural compound silvestrol isolated from the plant Aglaia foveolata was found to have very potent antiviral effects against the (-)-strand RNA-virus Ebola virus as well as against Corona- and Picornaviruses with a (+)-strand RNA-genome. This antiviral activity is based on the impaired translation of viral RNA by the inhibition of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eukaryotic initiation factor-4A (eIF4A) which is required to unwind structured 5´-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) of several proto-oncogenes and thereby facilitate their translation...
March 27, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562185/enteroviruses-remodel-autophagic-trafficking-through-regulation-of-host-snare-proteins-to-promote-virus-replication-and-cell-exit
#6
Abigail K Corona, Holly M Saulsbery, Angel F Corona Velazquez, William T Jackson
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a medically important respiratory plus-strand RNA virus of children that has been linked to acute flaccid myelitis. We have determined that EV-D68 induces autophagic signaling and membrane formation. Autophagy, a homeostatic degradative process that breaks down protein aggregates and damaged organelles, promotes replication of multiple plus-strand viruses. Induction of autophagic signals promotes EV-D68 replication, but the virus inhibits the downstream degradative steps of autophagy in multiple ways...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513840/comparative-analysis-of-mouse-inoculation-test-and-virus-isolation-in-cell-culture-for-rabies-diagnosis-in-animals-of-parana-brazil
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thaila Francini Corona, Beatriz Böger, Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha, Walfrido Külh Svoboda, Eliane Carneiro Gomes
INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute zoonotic disease, caused by a rhabdovirus that can affect all mammals, and is commonly transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal. The definitive diagnosis is laboratorial, by the Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) as a quick test and Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) as a confirmatory test (gold standard). Studies conducted over the past three decades indicate that MIT and Virus Isolation in Cell Culture (VICC) can provide the same effectiveness, the latter being considered superior in bioethics and animal welfare...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495311/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-dual-luciferase-reporter-gene-assay-to-quantify-ebola-virus-vp24-inhibition-of-ifn-signaling
#8
Elisa Fanunza, Aldo Frau, Marco Sgarbanti, Roberto Orsatti, Angela Corona, Enzo Tramontano
The interferon (IFN) system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Evasion of IFN signaling by Ebola viral protein 24 (VP24) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of the infection and, hence, VP24 is a potential target for drug development. Since no drugs target VP24, the identification of molecules able to inhibit VP24, restoring and possibly enhancing the IFN response, is a goal of concern. Accordingly, we developed a dual signal firefly and Renilla luciferase cell-based drug screening assay able to quantify IFN-mediated induction of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) and its inhibition by VP24...
February 24, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427597/insights-into-the-homo-oligomerization-properties-of-n-terminal-coiled-coil-domain-of-ebola-virus-vp35-protein
#9
Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Francesco Di Palma, Attilio V Vargiu, Angela Corona, Dario Piano, Paolo Ruggerone, Luca Zinzula, Enzo Tramontano
The multifunctional Ebola virus (EBOV) VP35 protein is a key determinant of virulence. VP35 is essential for EBOV replication, is a component of the viral RNA polymerase and participates in nucleocapsid formation. Furthermore, VP35 contributes to EBOV evasion of the host innate immune response by suppressing RNA silencing and blocking RIG-I like receptors' pathways that lead to type I interferon (IFN) production. VP35 homo-oligomerization has been reported to be critical for its replicative function and to increase its IFN-antagonism properties...
March 2, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408177/recombinase-polymerase-amplification-applied-to-plant-virus-detection-and-potential-implications
#10
Binoy Babu, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Mathews L Paret
Several isothermal techniques for the detection of plant pathogens have been developed with the advent of molecular techniques. Among them, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is becoming an important technique for the rapid, sensitive and cost-effective detection of plant viruses. The RPA technology has the advantage to be implemented in field-based scenarios because the method requires a minimal sample preparation, and is performed at constant low temperature (37-42 °C). The RPA technique is rapidly becoming a promising tool for use in rapid detection and further diagnostics in plant clinics and monitoring quarantine services...
April 1, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339251/quinoxaline-derivatives-as-new-inhibitors-of-coxsackievirus-b5
#11
Antonio Carta, Giuseppina Sanna, Irene Briguglio, Silvia Madeddu, Gabriella Vitale, Sandra Piras, Paola Corona, Alessandra Tiziana Peana, Erik Laurini, Maurizio Fermeglia, Sabrina Pricl, Alessandra Serra, Elisa Carta, Roberta Loddo, Gabriele Giliberti
Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens for which there are no specific antiviral agents approved by the US Food and Drug Administration so far. Particularly, coxsackievirus infections have a worldwide distribution and can cause many important diseases. We here report the synthesis of new 14 quinoxaline derivatives and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses. Promisingly, three compounds showed a very potent and selective antiviral activity against coxsackievirus B5, with EC50 in the sub-micromolar range (0...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281244/high-density-lipoprotein-nanobiologics-for-precision-medicine
#12
Willem J M Mulder, Mandy M T van Leent, Marnix Lameijer, Edward A Fisher, Zahi A Fayad, Carlos Pérez-Medina
Nature is an inspirational source for biomedical engineering developments. Particularly, numerous nanotechnological approaches have been derived from biological concepts. For example, among many different biological nanosized materials, viruses have been extensively studied and utilized, while exosome research has gained much traction in the 21st century. In our body, fat is transported by lipoproteins, intriguing supramolecular nanostructures that have important roles in cell function, lipid metabolism, and disease...
January 16, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258862/broad-spectrum-antiviral-activity-of-the-eif4a-inhibitor-silvestrol-against-corona-and-picornaviruses
#13
Christin Müller, Falk W Schulte, Kerstin Lange-Grünweller, Wiebke Obermann, Ramakanth Madhugiri, Stephan Pleschka, John Ziebuhr, Roland K Hartmann, Arnold Grünweller
Coronaviruses (CoV) and picornaviruses are plus-strand RNA viruses that use 5' cap-dependent and cap-independent strategies, respectively, for viral mRNA translation initiation. Here, we analyzed the effects of the plant compound silvestrol, a specific inhibitor of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, on viral translation using a dual luciferase assay and virus-infected primary cells. Silvestrol was recently shown to have potent antiviral activity in Ebola virus-infected human macrophages. We found that silvestrol is also a potent inhibitor of cap-dependent viral mRNA translation in CoV-infected human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells...
February 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231944/stability-of-plant-virus-based-nanocarriers-in-gastrointestinal-fluids
#14
Alberto Berardi, David J Evans, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, George P Lomonossoff
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a plant virus which is being extensively investigated as a drug delivery and vaccine nanocarrier for parenteral administration. However, to date little is known about the suitability of plant-based nanocarriers for oral delivery. In this study, the colloidal (i.e. aggregation), physical (i.e. denaturation) and chemical (i.e. digestion of the polypeptides) stability of CPMV and its empty virus-like particles (eVLPs) in conditions resembling the gastrointestinal fluids were evaluated...
January 25, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157672/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factors-family-expression-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#15
Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez, Hugo Arreola-De la Cruz, Keiko Taniguchi-Ponciano, Laura Gomez-Virgilio, Victor Huerta-Padilla, Gustavo Ponce-Navarrete, Sergio Andonegui-Elguera, Florinda Jimenez-Vega, Pablo Romero-Morelos, Miriam Rodriguez-Esquivel, Marco Meraz-Rios, Ma Del Pilar Figueroa-Corona, Alberto Monroy, Oscar Pérez-González, Mauricio Salcedo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Krüppel Like Factors (KLF) refers to a family of seventeen members of transcription factors. Involved in several cellular processes. As other cancer types, Cervical Cancer (CC) presents molecular deregulations in transcription factors, but especially Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sequences. Here in this work we analyzed the mRNA expression of all KLF family members in CC-derived cell lines and CC tissues. METHODS: The cell lines used were HeLa, INBL, RoVa, C4-I, Ms751, ViPa, CaLo, SiHa, CaSki, C33a and ViBo and the non-tumorigenic HaCaT...
May 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068280/prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-iranian-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Hossein Keyvani, Mohsen Moghoofei, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Shayan Mostafaei, Seyed-Ali Javad Mousavi, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Maryam Esghaei
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and ultimately fatal lung disease. One of the risk factors involved in the acquisition of IPF is viral infections, especially respiratory viruses. In the present study, we investigated the detection of respiratory viruses and the possible relationship between these viruses and IPF. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was supported by the Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran. A total of 40 respiratory samples (five nasopharyngeal and 35 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens) were obtained from IPF patients referred to IUMS hospitals between April 2015 and December 2016...
November 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050992/the-impact-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-virus-associated-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-elderly-exploratory-analysis-of-the-capita-trial
#17
S M Huijts, F E J Coenjaerts, M Bolkenbaas, C H van Werkhoven, D E Grobbee, M J M Bonten
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to evaluate whether vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) prevents the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by influenza (influenza-associated CAP, IA-CAP) or other respiratory viruses in the elderly. METHODS: This analysis was part of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA); a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 84 496 immunocompetent individuals aged ≥65 years...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038024/structural-insights-of-a-self-assembling-9-residue-peptide-from-the-c-terminal-tail-of-the-sars-corona-virus-e-protein-in-dpc-and-sds-micelles-a-combined-high-and-low-resolution-spectroscopic-study
#18
Anirban Ghosh, Dipita Bhattacharyya, Anirban Bhunia
In recent years, several studies based on the interaction of self-assembling short peptides derived from viroporins with model membranes, have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of corona virus (CoV) infection under physiological conditions. In this study, we have characterized the mechanism of membrane interaction of a short, 9-residue peptide TK9 (T55 VYVYSRVK63 ) that had been derived from the carboxyl terminal of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) corona virus (SARS CoV) envelope (E) protein...
February 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918638/a-rapid-blood-test-to-determine-the-active-status-and-duration-of-acute-viral-infection
#19
Tianyu Zheng, Caroline Finn, Christopher J Parrett, Kunal Dhume, Ji Hae Hwang, David Sidhom, Tara M Strutt, Yuen Yee Li Sip, Karl K McKinstry, Qun Huo
The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses...
November 10, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859311/design-synthesis-and-antiviral-evaluation-of-novel-heteroarylcarbothioamide-derivatives-as-dual-inhibitors-of-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-associated-rnase-h-and-rddp-functions
#20
Angela Corona, Valentina Onnis, Alessandro Deplano, Giulia Bianco, Monica Demurtas, Simona Distinto, Yung-Chi Cheng, Stefano Alcaro, Francesca Esposito, Enzo Tramontano
In the continuous effort to identify new HIV-1 inhibitors endowed with innovative mechanisms, the dual inhibition of different viral functions would provide a significant advantage against drug-resistant variants. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is the only viral-encoded enzymatic activity that still lacks an efficient inhibitor. We synthesized a library of 3,5-diamino-N-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbothioamide and 4-amino-5-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-(substituted-amino)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbothioamide derivatives and tested them against RNase H activity...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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