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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241296/evolving-aptamers-with-unnatural-base-pairs
#1
Michiko Kimoto, Ken-Ichiro Matsunaga, Ichiro Hirao
A novel technology, genetic alphabet expansion, has rapidly advanced through the successful creation of unnatural base pairs that function as a third base pair in replication. Recently, genetic alphabet expansion has been applied to some practical areas. Among them, the application to DNA aptamer generation is a good example of the broad utility of this technology. A hydrophobic unnatural base pair, Ds-Px, which exhibits high fidelity in replication as a third base pair, has been applied to an evolutionary engineering method called SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) to generate DNA aptamers that bind to targets...
December 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241233/hyperbaric-oxygen-in-the-treatment-of-acute-retinal-artery-occlusion
#2
Mark J Elder, John A Rawstron, Michael Davis
INTRODUCTION: Acute retinal artery occlusion (ARAO) is a major cause of sudden, painless visual loss, often leaving no useful vision in the affected eye. Its incidence is cited at 0.85 per 100,000 persons per year but may be higher because of under-reporting. The natural history is difficult to study, but a spontaneous resolution rate of < 1-8% for acute, non-arteritic ARAO has been cited. Occurrence in an only eye is devastating for the patient. There is currently no consensus regarding management of ARAO and little evidence to support any treatment modality...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241218/analysis-of-the-cariogenic-potential-of-various-almond-milk-beverages-using-a-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-model-in-vitro
#3
Janelle Lee, Janice A Townsend, Tatyana Thompson, Thomas Garitty, Arpan De, Qingzhao Yu, Brian M Peters, Zezhang T Wen
To evaluate the cariogenic properties of almond milk beverages, 6 almond milks, along with soy and whole bovine milk, were analyzed for their abilities to support Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and acid production, and their capacity to buffer changes in pH. Biofilm formation by S. mutans was analyzed using an in vitro 96-well plate model and measured by crystal violet staining. Acid production by S. mutans was evaluated by a colorimetric L-lactate assay and pH measurement of bacterial cultures. Buffering capacity was assessed by a pH titration assay...
December 15, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241140/ammonium-haloacetates-an-alternative-to-glyphosate
#4
Marika Turek, Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska, Ewa Różycka-Sokołowska, Bernard Marciniak, Małgorzata Deska, Joanna Skalik, Piotr Bałczewski
This study shows the design, synthesis and evaluation of eco(phyto)toxic and herbicidal activities of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), derived from haloacetic acids, in context of the search for safer alternatives to the commonly used herbicide, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate). The structure of the investigated QASs refers to the heteroatom sequence in the anion of glyphosate in which the (P-C)-N nitrogen atom was replaced by one or more halogens (F, Cl). The ecotoxicity of the synthesized QASs was tested against luminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox® test) and the crustaceans Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracodtoxkit F™)...
December 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241117/influence-of-direct-and-alternating-current-electric-fields-on-efficiency-promotion-and-leaching-risk-alleviation-of-chelator-assisted-phytoremediation
#5
Jie Luo, Limei Cai, Shihua Qi, Jian Wu, Xiaowen Sophie Gu
Direct and alternating current electric fields with various voltages were used to improve the decontamination efficiency of chelator assisted phytoremediation for multi-metal polluted soil. The alleviation effect of electric field on leaching risk caused by chelator application during phytoremediation process was also evaluated. Biomass yield, pollutant uptake and metal leaching retardation under alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) electric fields were compared. The biomass yield of Eucalyptus globulus under AC fields with various voltages (2, 4 and 10 V) were 3...
December 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241087/development-of-a-fast-hplc-dad-method-for-simultaneous-quantitation-of-three-immunosuppressant-drugs-in-whole-blood-samples-using-intelligent-chemometrics-resolving-of-coeluting-peaks-in-the-presence-of-blood-interferences
#6
Maryam Vosough, Sadaf Mosleh Tehrani
The present study describes a fast high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection analytical methodology for quantification of tacrolimus, everolimus and cyclosporine A in whole blood samples, with minimum sample preparation steps. A short isocratic chromatographic elution was coupled with second-order calibration using multivariate curve resolution to stablish a smart and green methodology. Due to presence of matrix effect, a sample-added calibration strategy was used for quantification purposes...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241066/agronomic-efficiency-of-phosphate-fertilizers-produced-by-the-re-use-of-a-metallurgical-acid-residue
#7
Matheus Sampaio Carneiro Barreto, Edson Marcio Mattiello, Wedisson Oliveira Santos, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo Melo, Leonardus Vergütz, Roberto Ferreira Novais
The production of fertilizers with industrial wastes reduces the environmental impacts of waste disposal and improves environmental sustainability by generating added-value products. Our objective with this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance and potential soil/plant contamination with heavy metals of alternative phosphate (P) fertilizers, obtained from the acidulation of phosphate rocks (PR) by a metallurgical acidic waste. Seven P fertilizers were evaluated: three PR (Araxá, Patos, and Bayóvar), their respective acidulated products (PAPR), and triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240963/proximal-buddy-in-jail-technique-a-bail-out-technique-to-increase-guide-support
#8
Tao Tu, Jianjun Tang, Zhenfei Fang, Xinqun Hu, Liang Tang, Yanshu Zhao, Qiming Liu, Shenghua Zhou
BACKGROUND: During percutaneous coronary intervention, "buddy-in-jail" technique is often used to facilitate stent delivery in complex coronary artery lesions. However, the safety and efficacy of this technique when used with different jailed wire and applied in different target vessel lesions remain elusive. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the effectiveness of "buddy-in-jail" technique in the tortuous and rigid lesions of both the common and neighboring coronary arteries...
December 14, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240906/differential-inhibition-of-helicoverpa-armigera-lep-noctuidae-gut-digestive-trypsin-by-extracted-and-purified-inhibitor-of-datura-metel-solanales-solanaceae
#9
Reza Navaei-Bonab, Majid Kazzazi, Moosa Saber, Mohammad Vatanparast
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lep: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of numerous major food crops worldwide. Protease inhibitors from plants, expressed constitutively in transgenic crops, have potential for pest management as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, a protease inhibitor was isolated, purified, and characterized from Datura metel L. seeds. The purity of the isolated inhibitor was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and activity staining showed one major peak and one clear activity band for the protein...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240819/use-of-thermal-analysis-coupled-with-differential-scanning-calorimetry-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-and-infrared-spectroscopy-tg-dsc-qms-ftir-to-monitor-chemical-properties-and-thermal-stability-of-fulvic-and-humic-acids
#10
Patrycja Boguta, Zofia Sokołowska, Kamil Skic
Thermogravimetry-coupled with differential scanning calorimetry, quadrupole mass spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR)-was applied to monitor the thermal stability (in an N2 pyrolytic atmosphere) and chemical properties of natural polymers, fulvic (FA) and humic acids (HA), isolated from chemically different soils. Three temperature ranges, R1, 40-220°C; R2, 220-430°C; and R3, 430-650°C, were distinguished from the DSC data, related to the main thermal processes of different structures (including transformations without weight loss)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240774/pharmacological-inactivation-does-not-support-a-unique-causal-role-for-intraparietal-sulcus-in-the-discrimination-of-visual-number
#11
Nicholas K DeWind, Jiyun Peng, Andrew Luo, Elizabeth M Brannon, Michael L Platt
The "number sense" describes the intuitive ability to quantify without counting. Single neuron recordings in non-human primates and functional imaging in humans suggest the intraparietal sulcus is an important neuroanatomical locus of numerical estimation. Other lines of inquiry implicate the IPS in numerous other functions, including attention and decision making. Here we provide a direct test of whether IPS has functional specificity for numerosity judgments. We used muscimol to reversibly and independently inactivate the ventral and lateral intraparietal areas in two monkeys performing a numerical discrimination task and a color discrimination task, roughly equilibrated for difficulty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240769/specific-excitatory-connectivity-for-feature-integration-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#12
Dylan R Muir, Patricia Molina-Luna, Morgane M Roth, Fritjof Helmchen, Björn M Kampa
Local excitatory connections in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) are stronger and more prevalent between neurons that share similar functional response features. However, the details of how functional rules for local connectivity shape neuronal responses in V1 remain unknown. We hypothesised that complex responses to visual stimuli may arise as a consequence of rules for selective excitatory connectivity within the local network in the superficial layers of mouse V1. In mouse V1 many neurons respond to overlapping grating stimuli (plaid stimuli) with highly selective and facilitatory responses, which are not simply predicted by responses to single gratings presented alone...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240766/estimated-clinical-impact-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-cartridge-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-modeling-study
#13
Emily A Kendall, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) but still suffers from imperfect sensitivity. The newer Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra cartridge has shown improved sensitivity in recent field trials, but at the expense of reduced specificity. The clinical implications of switching from the existing Xpert cartridge to the Xpert Ultra cartridge in different populations remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a Markov microsimulation model of hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 individuals undergoing diagnostic sputum evaluation with Xpert for suspected pulmonary TB, in each of 3 emblematic settings: an HIV clinic in South Africa, a public TB center in India, and an adult primary care setting in China...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240691/absence-of-correlation-between-chimeric-rna-and-aging
#14
Reyna Huang, Shailesh Kumar, Hui Li
Chimeric RNAs have been recognized as a phenomenon not unique to cancer cells. They also exist in normal physiology. Aging is often characterized by deregulation of molecular and cellular mechanisms, including loss of heterochromatin, increased transcriptional noise, less tight control on alternative splicing, and more stress-induced changes. It is thus assumed that chimeric RNAs are more abundant in older people. In this study, we conducted a preliminary investigation to identify any chimeric RNAs with age-based trends in their expression levels in blood samples...
December 14, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240676/from-ion-current-to-electroosmotic-flow-rectification-in-asymmetric-nanopore-membranes
#15
REVIEW
Juliette Experton, Xiaojian Wu, Charles R Martin
Asymmetrically shaped nanopores have been shown to rectify the ionic current flowing through pores in a fashion similar to a p-n junction in a solid-state diode. Such asymmetric nanopores include conical pores in polymeric membranes and pyramidal pores in mica membranes. We review here both theoretical and experimental aspects of this ion current rectification phenomenon. A simple intuitive model for rectification, stemming from previously published more quantitative models, is discussed. We also review experimental results on controlling the extent and sign of rectification...
December 14, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240665/airborne-or-fomite-transmission-for-norovirus-a-case-study-revisited
#16
Shenglan Xiao, Julian W Tang, Yuguo Li
Norovirus infection, a highly prevalent condition associated with a high rate of morbidity, comprises a significant health issue. Although norovirus transmission mainly occurs via the fecal-oral and vomit-oral routes, airborne transmission has been proposed in recent decades. This paper re-examines a previously described norovirus outbreak in a hotel restaurant wherein airborne transmission was originally inferred. Specifically, the original evidence that suggested airborne transmission was re-analyzed by exploring an alternative hypothesis: could this outbreak instead have occurred via fomite transmission? This re-analysis was based on whether fomite transmission could have yielded similar attack rate distribution patterns...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240662/essential-oils-from-neotropical-piper-species-and-their-biological-activities
#17
REVIEW
Joyce Kelly da Silva, Rafaela da Trindade, Nayara Sabrina Alves, Pablo Luís Figueiredo, José Guilherme S Maia, William N Setzer
The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240542/phase-ii-study-of-everolimus-in-patients-with-thymoma-and-thymic-carcinoma-previously-treated-with-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy
#18
Paolo Andrea Zucali, Tommaso De Pas, Giovannella Palmieri, Adolfo Favaretto, Antonio Chella, Marcello Tiseo, Michele Caruso, Matteo Simonelli, Matteo Perrino, Fabio De Vincenzo, Francesca Toffalorio, Vincenzo Damiano, Giulia Pasello, Erika Garbella, Marco Ali, Fabio Conforti, Margaret Ottaviano, Angela Cioffi, Sabino De Placido, Laura Giordano, Monica Bertossi, Annarita Destro, Luca Di Tommaso, Armando Santoro
Purpose No effective salvage treatments are available for patients with advanced/recurrent thymoma (T) or thymic carcinoma (TC) who have progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy. This study evaluated the activity of everolimus in patients with advanced/recurrent T or TC previously treated with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. Patients and Methods This was a single-arm, single-stage, open-label, multicenter, phase II trial. Patients received oral everolimus 10 mg/d until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or patient refusal...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240397/functionalization-of-sio2-surfaces-for-si-monolayer-doping-with-minimal-carbon-contamination
#19
Maart van Dreunen, Gillian Collins, Colm Glynn, Colm O'Dwyer, Justin D Holmes
Monolayer Doping (MLD) involves the functionalization of semiconductor surfaces followed by an annealing step to diffuse the dopant into the substrate. We report an alternative doping method, oxide-MLD, where ultra-thin SiO2 overlayers are functionalized with phosphonic acids for doping Si. Similar peak carrier concentrations were achieved when compared to hydrosilylated surfaces (~2 × 1020 atoms/cm3). Oxide-MLD offers several advantages over conventional MLD such as ease of sample processing, superior ambient stability and minimal carbon contamination...
December 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240307/use-and-limitations-of-offsite-consequence-analysis-tools-from-south-korea-and-the-united-states-in-hydrogen-fluoride-accidental-release
#20
Min-Uk Kim, Sang-Hoon Byeon
We investigated the characteristics and limitations in the event of hydrofluoric acid (HF) leakage by comparing and analyzing of the offsite consequence analysis (OCA) tools based on the chemical plant operating conditions. We reviewed the tools Korea Offsite Risk Assessment (KORA) from South Korea and RMP*CompTM and Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) from the United States. The scenario studied was based on a leak event from a 50% HF aqueous solution storage tank, and the operating conditions taken into consideration were the operating temperature and dike installation conditions...
December 14, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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