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Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

H-Y Li, F Liu, H-R Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) expression and drug resistance in the brain of rats with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and the animal model of epilepsy was established by electrical stimulation. These rats were randomly divided into the control group and the drug-resistant group. The model of drug-resistant epilepsy was screened with phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB); the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex tissues were isolated from rats; the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels of Nurr1 in the hippocampus and cortex tissues of the two groups of rats were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Chen Jia, Shanshan Han, Liming Wei, Xiangji Dang, Qianqian Niu, Mengyu Chen, Boqun Cao, Yuting Liu, Haisheng Jiao
CONTEXT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is associated with cognitive impairment. The modern Chinese medicine, compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDP), is clinically effective in treating epilepsy and improving cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the protective effects of CDDP alone and in combination with carbamazepine (CBZ) on kainic acid-induced TLE and cognitive impairment in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (sham operated), model, CDDP, CBZ and combined...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit.We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xiaosong He, Danielle S Bassett, Ganne Chaitanya, Michael R Sperling, Lauren Kozlowski, Joseph I Tracy
Temporal lobe epilepsy tends to reshape the language system causing maladaptive reorganization that can be characterized by task-based functional MRI, and eventually can contribute to surgical decision making processes. However, the dynamic interacting nature of the brain as a complex system is often neglected, with many studies treating the language system as a static monolithic structure. Here, we demonstrate that as a specialized and integrated system, the language network is inherently dynamic, characterized by rich patterns of regional interactions, whose transient dynamics are disrupted in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ji-Eun Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disorder in adulthood. For translational studies of chronic epilepsy, pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is frequently selected to recapitulate spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Here we present a protocol of SE induction by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pilocarpine and monitoring of chronic recurring seizures in live animals using a wireless telemetry video and electroencephalogram (EEG) system. We demonstrated notable behavioral changes that need attention after pilocarpine injection and their correlation with hippocampal neuronal loss at 7 days and 6 weeks post-pilocarpine...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Roberta Di Giacomo, Macarena Vásquez, Claudia Cárcamo, Jaime Godoy, Giorgio Lo Russo, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this retrospective study was to explore whether corpus callosum atrophy could predict the post-surgical seizure control in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS). METHODS: We used the Corpus Callosum Index (CCI) obtained from best mid-sagittal T2/FLAIR or T1-weighted MRI at two time-points, more than one year apart. CCI has been mainly used in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but not in epilepsy, so we tested the validity of our results performing a proof of concept cohort, incorporating MS patients with and without epilepsy...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Marija Bošnjak Pašić, Emina Horvat Velić, Luka Fotak, Hanna Pašić, Azijada Srkalović Imširagić, Davorka Milat, Helena Šarac, Sarah Bjedov, Željka Petelin GadŽe
French expression standing for the phrase "already seen" is a déjà vu. It is thought that as much as 97% of the population have experienced déjà vu at least once in their lifetime and 67% experience it regularly. The explanations of this phenomenon in novels and poems include reincarnation, dreams, organic factors, and unconscious memories. In this narrative review connection between déjà vu and various other conditions has been mentioned: false memories, temporal lobe epilepsy and other neurological conditions...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Wei-En J Tseng, Siew-Na Lim, Lu-An Chen, Shuo-Bin Jou, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Han-Tao Li, Hsing-I Chiang, Tony Wu
Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ahmed Abbas, Elfatih Suliman Ahmed, Noushad Shereef Mytheen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Practical Neurology
Shahram Saghafi, Lisa Ferguson, Olivia Hogue, Jordan M Gales, Richard Prayson, Robyn M Busch
OBJECTIVE: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a classification system for hippocampal sclerosis (HS) based on location and extent of hippocampal neuron loss. The literature debates the usefulness of this classification system when studying memory in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and determining memory outcome after temporal lobe resection (TLR). This study further explores the relationship between HS ILAE subtypes and episodic memory performance in patients with TLE and examines memory outcomes after TLR...
March 14, 2018: Epilepsia
Firas Bannout, Sheri Harder, Michael Lee, Alexander Zouros, Ravi Raghavan, Travis Fogel, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Travis Losey
The neurosurgical treatment of skull base temporal encephalocele for patients with epilepsy is variable. We describe two adult cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with spheno-temporal encephalocele, currently seizure-free for more than two years after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and lesionectomy sparing the hippocampus without long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Encephaloceles were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by maxillofacial head computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
F Wang, D N Feng, Y Liu, Z Liu, T Sun
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of microsurgical in the treatment of temporal lobe cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) with epilepsy. Methods: Temporal lobe CCM patients with epilepsy admitted to our department were collected from January 2010 to September 2016. Locations of the CCM were divided into (1) lateral-lateral to the collateral sulcus; (2) mesial-mesial to the collateral sulcus. In the lateral group, patients were underwent intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG)-guided resection of lesion and hemosiderin rim...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Aditya Jain, Aaron F Struck, Kaitlin M Woo, Christine J Jaskowiak, Lance T Hall
The aim of this study was to investigate thalamic and basal ganglia (BG) metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on interictal18 F-FDG PET using standardized uptake value (SUV). Retrospective review of data was undertaken for patients who were surgically treated for medically intractable TLE. All patients underwent18 F-FDG PET, MRI brain and EEG as preoperative workup, and subsequently underwent temporal lobe resection. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed as without or with residual disabling seizures. SUVmax and SUVpeak values were calculated for thalamus and BG...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Vejay N Vakharia, Rachel Sparks, Kuo Li, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew W McEvoy, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan, Chengyuan Wu
OBJECTIVE: Surgical resection of the mesial temporal structures brings seizure remission in 65% of individuals with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) is a novel therapy that may provide a minimally invasive means of ablating the mesial temporal structures with similar outcomes, while minimizing damage to the neocortex. Systematic trajectory planning helps ensure safety and optimal seizure freedom through adequate ablation of the amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC)...
March 12, 2018: Epilepsia
Thibault Verhoeven, Ana Coito, Gijs Plomp, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Francesca Pittau, Eugen Trinka, Roland Wiest, Karl Schaller, Christoph Michel, Margitta Seeck, Joni Dambre, Serge Vulliemoz, Pieter van Mierlo
Objective: To diagnose and lateralise temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by building a classification system that uses directed functional connectivity patterns estimated during EEG periods without visible pathological activity. Methods: Resting-state high-density EEG recording data from 20 left TLE patients, 20 right TLE patients and 35 healthy controls was used. Epochs without interictal spikes were selected. The cortical source activity was obtained for 82 regions of interest and whole-brain directed functional connectivity was estimated in the theta, alpha and beta frequency bands...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lisa Vaugier, Stanislas Lagarde, Aileen McGonigal, Agnès Trébuchon, Mathieu Milh, Anne Lépine, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Fabrice Bartolomei
Management of patients after initial epilepsy surgical failure is challenging. In this study, we report our experience in using the stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) method in the reevaluation of patients after initial epilepsy surgical failure. We selected 28 patients examined through SEEG in our department for drug-resistant focal epilepsy following initial epilepsy surgical failure. For each patient, the residual seizure onset zone (rSOZ) as defined by SEEG was classified as either contiguous if the seizure onset zone (SOZ) was focal and close to the surgical cavity (same lobe) or noncontiguous in cases where the SOZ included site(s) distant from the surgical cavity...
March 8, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
O Fernández-Concepción, M López Jiménez, C Valencia-Calderón, A Calderón-Valdivieso, A Recasén-Linares, L Reyes-Haro, C Vásquez-Ham
INTRODUCTION: There is sufficient evidence on the usefulness of surgery as a therapeutic alternative for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy; however this treatment is underutilized, especially in developing countries. METHODS: We describe the outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 27 paediatric patients at Hospital Baca Ortiz in Quito, Ecuador. Our analysis considered the following variables: reduction in seizure frequency, surgery outcome according to the Engel classification, improvement in quality of life, and serious complications due to surgery...
March 7, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Karl Roessler, Burkhard S Kasper, Roland Coras, Soheil Arinrad, Michael Scholz, Hajo H Hamer, Ingmar Blümcke, Michael Buchfelder
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe resection (TLR) including amygdalo-hippocampectomy (AHE) is the most frequent performed procedure in epilepsy surgery. Due to close anatomical relationship of the mesial temporal structures and the midbrain and choroidal fissure, the risk of severe complications like postoperative stroke is up to 2.5%. METHODS: We developed a modification of the classical technique for AHE by early entering the choroidal fissure for identification of crus cerebri, posterior cerebri artery and oculomotor nerve via the anterior part of the fronto- mesial temporal horn cleft...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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