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Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716963/chemokine-ccl2-ccr2-signaling-induces-neuronal-cell-death-via-stat3-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-production-after-status-epilepticus
#2
Dai-Shi Tian, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Lijie Feng, Jun-Li Liu, Ukpong B Eyo, Li-Jun Zhou, Rochelle Mogilevsky, Wei Wang, Long-Jun Wu
Elevated levels of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and in experimental seizures. However, the functional significance and molecular mechanism underlying CCL2-CCR2 signaling in epileptic brain remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the upregulated CCL2 was mainly expressed in hippocampal neurons and activated microglia from mice 1d after kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. Taking advantage of CX3CR1(GFP/+):CCR2(RFP/+) double transgenic mice, we demonstrated that CCL2-CCR2 signaling participated in resident microglial activation and blood-derived monocyte infiltration...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716782/the-reticular-activating-system-in-the-wake-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-dazed-and-confused
#3
EDITORIAL
John D Rolston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716058/srf-modulates-seizure-occurrence-activity-induced-gene-transcription-and-hippocampal-circuit-reorganization-in-the-mouse-pilocarpine-epilepsy-model
#4
Pascal Lösing, Cristina Elena Niturad, Merle Harrer, Christopher Meyer Zu Reckendorf, Theresa Schatz, Daniela Sinske, Holger Lerche, Snezana Maljevic, Bernd Knöll
A hallmark of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is hippocampal neuronal demise and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. In addition, unrestrained neuronal activity in TLE patients induces gene expression including immediate early genes (IEGs) such as Fos and Egr1.We employed the mouse pilocarpine model to analyze the transcription factor (TF) serum response factor (SRF) in epileptogenesis, seizure induced histopathology and IEG induction. SRF is a neuronal activity regulated TF stimulating IEG expression as well as nerve fiber growth and guidance...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715131/transcriptome-analysis-suggests-a-role-for-the-differential-expression-of-cerebral-aquaporins-and-the-mapk-signalling-pathway-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Mootaz M Salman, Mariam A Sheilabi, Dev Bhattacharyya, Philip Kitchen, Alex C Conner, Roslyn M Bill, M Nicola Woodroofe, Matthew T Conner, Alessandra P Princivalle
Epilepsies are common disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting up to 2% of the global population. Pharmaco-resistance is a major clinical challenge affecting about 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Water homeostasis has been shown crucial for regulation of neuronal excitability. The control of water movement is achieved through a family of small integral membrane channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Despite the fact that changes in water homeostasis occur in sclerotic hippocampi of people with TLE, the expression of AQPs in the epileptic brain is not fully characterised...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713955/altered-axon-initial-segment-in-hippocampal-newborn-neurons-associated-with-recurrence-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-rats
#6
Tian-Tian Liu, Li Feng, Heng-Fang Liu, Yi Shu, Bo Xiao
Hippocampal neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may result in alteration of the excitability of neurons, which contributes to spontaneous recurrent seizures. Axon initial segment (AIS) structural and functional plasticity is important in the control of neuronal excitability. It remains to be elucidated whether the plasticity of AIS occurs in hippocampal newly‑generated neurons that are involved in recurrent seizures following pilocarpine‑induced status epilepticus (SE). The present study first established a pilocarpine‑induced TLE rat model to assess the features of newborn neurons and AIS plasticity alterations using double immunofluorescence staining of Ankyrin G and doublecortin (DCX)...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713246/differential-contribution-of-ca-2-dependent-mechanisms-to-hyperexcitability-in-layer-v-neurons-of-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#7
Eric C Lin, Crescent L Combe, Sonia Gasparini
Temporal lobe epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures in one or both temporal lobes of the brain; some in vitro models show that epileptiform discharges initiate in entorhinal layer V neurons and then spread into other areas of the temporal lobe. We previously found that, in the presence of GABAA receptor antagonists, stimulation of afferent fibers, terminating both at proximal and distal dendritic locations, initiated hyperexcitable bursts in layer V medial entorhinal neurons. We investigated the differential contribution of Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms to the plateaus underlying these bursts at proximal and distal synapses...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711815/geschwind-syndrome-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-neuroanatomical-and-neuropsychological-features-over-9-years
#8
Laura Veronelli, Sara J Makaretz, Megan Quimby, Bradford C Dickerson, Jessica A Collins
Geschwind Syndrome, a characteristic behavioral syndrome frequently described in patients affected by temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), consists of the following features: hyper-religiosity, hypergraphia, hyposexuality, and irritability. Here we report the 9-year-clinical course of a case of Geschwind Syndrome that developed as a first and salient clinical expression of right temporal lobe variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Only one patient affected by frontotemporal dementia has previously been shown to present with Geschwind Syndrome...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711591/touching-the-void-first-and-third-person-perspectives-in-two-cases-of-autobiographical-amnesia-linked-to-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Adam Zeman, Marcus Byruck, Peter Tallis, Keith Vossel, Daniel Tranel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can be associated with a marked impairment of autobiographical memory. This is occasionally its presenting feature. We describe two individuals with severe epilepsy-associated autobiographical memory loss. Both MB and PT were reassured initially that their memory was intact on the basis of standard neuropsychological tests. Both have written detailed accounts of their symptoms. The key neuropsychological features of their cases are the relative normality of performance on standard memory tests, with preservation of semantic memory for impersonal information, in contrast to a profound amnesia for salient autobiographical episodes and an impoverishment of imaginative scene construction...
July 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711291/clinical-value-and-predictors-of-subclinical-seizures-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-undergoing-scalp-video-eeg-monitoring
#10
Shan Wang, Bo Jin, Linglin Yang, Cong Chen, Yao Ding, Yi Guo, Zhongjin Wang, Wenjie Ming, Yelei Tang, Shuang Wang, Meiping Ding
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical importance and predictors of SCSs in a large population of patients with temporal epilepsy (TLE) undergoing video electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring. We reviewed the VEEG data of 327 consecutive patients with TLE admitted to our epilepsy center between August 2012 and January 2017. Demographic, electro-clinical, and neuroimaging data were recorded and re-analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first study assessing SCSs recorded by long-term VEEG monitoring in patients with TLE...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710408/non-ketogenic-combination-of-nutritional-strategies-provides-robust-protection-against-seizures
#11
Glenn Dallérac, Julien Moulard, Jean-François Benoist, Stefan Rouach, Stéphane Auvin, Angèle Guilbot, Loïc Lenoir, Nathalie Rouach
Epilepsy is a neurological condition that affects 1% of the world population. Conventional treatments of epilepsy use drugs targeting neuronal excitability, inhibitory or excitatory transmission. Yet, one third of patients presents an intractable form of epilepsy and fails to respond to pharmacological anti-epileptic strategies. The ketogenic diet is a well-established non-pharmacological treatment that has been proven to be effective in reducing seizure frequency in the pharmaco-resistant patients. This dietary solution is however extremely restrictive and can be associated with complications caused by the high [fat]:[carbohydrate + protein] ratio...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709992/time-dependent-evolution-of-seizures-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Charles Behr, Maxime Lévesque, Thomas Stroh, Massimo Avoli
Low-voltage fast (LVF) and hypersynchronous (HYP) - onset seizures occur in the EEG obtained with depth electrodes from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients and animal models. In epileptic rats analyzed up to approximately two weeks after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), these patterns are associated with specific high-frequency oscillation (HFO) content: ripples (80-200Hz) or fast-ripples (250-500Hz) predominate in LVF or HYP seizures, respectively. To establish whether these features change over the course of the disease, we recorded the EEG from the hippocampal CA3 subfield, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus in two groups of pilocarpine-treated rats: the "early stage group" (n=8) was analyzed from day 3 to 20 post-SE while the "late stage group" (n=7) was studied from day 27 to 53 post-SE...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705496/the-effect-of-cxcr2-inhibition-on-seizure-activity-in-the-pilocarpine-epilepsy-mouse-model
#13
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Teng Wang, Ying Liu, Xi Liu, Shu Ou, Yangmei Chen
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is one of the most well characterized chemokine receptors and is a potential target for treating brain pathologies involving inflammatory processes, including epilepsy. However, the role of CXCR2 in epilepsy has not been investigated, and whether CXCR2 modulates seizure activity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of CXCR2 in intractable TLE patients and in pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice. Here, through Western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, we detected that CXCR2 protein expression was up-regulated (by nearly 50%) in the temporal neocortex of TLE patients and in the hippocampus and adjacent temporal cortex of pilocarpine mice model...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699215/automated-t2-relaxometry-of-the-hippocampus-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Gavin P Winston, Sjoerd B Vos, Jane L Burdett, M Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, is associated with hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal. These can be identified on quantitative imaging with hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry. Although hippocampal segmentation for volumetry has been automated, T2 relaxometry currently involves subjective and time-consuming manual delineation of regions of interest. In this work, we develop and validate an automated technique for hippocampal T2 relaxometry...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692930/evaluation-of-dynamic-scaling-of-growing-interfaces-in-eeg-fluctuations-of-seizures-in-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Claudia Lizbeth Martínez-González, Alexander Balankin, Tessy López, Joaquín Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Efraín José Martínez-Ortiz
Epileptic seizures, as a dynamic phenomenon in brain behavior, obey a scale-free behavior, frequently analyzed by electrical activity recording. This recording can be seen as a surface that roughens with time. Dynamic scaling studies roughening processes or growing interfaces. In this theory, a set of exponents -obtained from scale invariance properties- characterize rough interfaces growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate scaling behavior in EEG time series fluctuations of a chemical animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, with dynamic scaling to detect changes on seizure onset...
July 4, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687722/a-meta-analysis-on-progressive-atrophy-in-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-time-is-brain
#16
REVIEW
Lorenzo Caciagli, Andrea Bernasconi, Samuel Wiebe, Matthias J Koepp, Neda Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt
OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with cumulative brain damage, with no expert consensus and no quantitative syntheses of the available evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of MRI studies on progressive atrophy, searching PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for cross-sectional and longitudinal quantitative MRI studies on drug-resistant TLE. RESULTS: We screened 2,976 records and assessed eligibility of 248 full-text articles...
July 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687122/evaluation-of-ex-vivo-9-4t-mri-in-post-surgical-specimens-from-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#17
Benjamin Y M Kwan, Fateme Salehi, Ryan Kope, Donald H Lee, Manas Sharma, Robert Hammond, Jorge G Burneo, David Steven, Terry Peters, Ali R Khan
PURPOSE: This study evaluates hippocampal pathology through usage of ultra-high field 9.4T ex-vivo imaging of resected surgical specimens in patients who have undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. METHOD AND MATERIALS: This is a retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data. MRI scanning of resected surgical specimens from patients who have undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery was performed on a 9.4T small bore Varian MR magnet. Structural images employed a balanced steady-state free precession sequence (TrueFISP)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686803/the-calcium-sensor-synaptotagmin-1-is-expressed-and-regulated-in-hippocampal-postsynaptic-spines
#18
Suleman Hussain, Daniel Lawer Egbenya, Yi-Chen Lai, Zita J Dosa, Jakob B Sørensen, Anne Anderson, Svend Davanger
Synaptotagmin 1 is a presynaptic calcium sensor, regulating SNARE-mediated vesicle exocytosis of transmitter. Increasing evidence indicate roles of SNARE proteins in postsynaptic glutamate receptor trafficking. However, a possible postsynaptic expression of synaptotagmin 1 has not been demonstrated previously. Here, we used postembedding immunogold electron microscopy to determine the subsynaptic localization of synaptotagmin 1 in rat hippocampal CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. We report for the first time that synaptotagmin 1 is present in rat hippocampal postsynaptic spines, both on cytoplasmic vesicles and at the postsynaptic density (PSD)...
July 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685385/exclusive-activation-of-caspase-3-in-mossy-fibers-and-altered-dynamics-of-autophagy-markers-in-the-mice-hippocampus-upon-status-epilepticus-induced-by-kainic-acid
#19
A Rami, A Benz
Epileptic seizures are generally associated with pathological changes in the hippocampus such as astrogliosis, mossy fiber sprouting, and neuronal damage. However, more than 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy in humans shows neither neuronal damage nor mossy fiber sprouting despite chronic epileptic seizures. A similar situation exists in certain commonly used strains of mice, specifically C57BL/6 and BALB/c, which exhibit epileptic seizures, but no neuronal damage upon kainic acid administration. This suggests that intrinsic factors may influence the pathological manifestations of epilepsy...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681459/familial-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-the-borderland-of-d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu
#20
Piero Perucca, Douglas E Crompton, Susannah T Bellows, Anne M McIntosh, Tomas Kalincik, Mark R Newton, Frank J E Vajda, Ingrid E Scheffer, Patrick Kwan, Terence J O'Brien, K Meng Tan, Samuel F Berkovic
OBJECTIVE: The cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is often unknown. We ascertained to what extent newly-diagnosed non-lesional MTLE actually represents familial MTLE (FMTLE). METHODS: We identified all consecutive patients presenting to the Austin Heath First Seizure Clinic with MTLE and a normal MRI or MRI-evidence of hippocampal sclerosis over a 10-year period. Patients' first-degree relatives and pairwise age- and sex-matched controls underwent a comprehensive epilepsy interview...
July 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
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