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Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817805/ltp-at-hilar-mossy-cell-dentate-granule-cell-synapses-modulates-dentate-gyrus-output-by-increasing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#1
Yuki Hashimotodani, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, Kyle R Jensen, Andrés E Chávez, Daniel Carrera, Pablo E Castillo
Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815576/microrna-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-whole-mirnome-profiling-of-human-hippocampus
#2
Petra Bencurova, Jiri Baloun, Katerina Musilova, Lenka Radova, Boris Tichy, Martin Pail, Martin Zeman, Eva Brichtova, Marketa Hermanova, Sarka Pospisilova, Marek Mraz, Milan Brazdil
OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. mTLE is frequently accompanied by neurodegeneration in the hippocampus resulting in hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common morphological correlate of drug resistance in mTLE patients. Incomplete knowledge of pathological changes in mTLE+HS complicates its therapy. The pathological mechanism underlying mTLE+HS may involve abnormal gene expression regulation, including posttranscriptional networks involving microRNAs (miRNAs)...
August 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803766/different-neural-routes-to-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-healthy-people-and-individuals-with-left-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews
Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here we examined these hypotheses by comparing connectivity amongst hippocampal regions and between vmPFC and other brain regions during construction (retrieval of a particular event) vs elaboration (retrieval of perceptual detail) phases of AM recall in 12 individuals with left mTLE and 12 matched controls...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802988/does-education-play-a-role-in-language-reorganization-after-surgery-in-drug-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-an-fmri-based-study
#4
Kapil Chaudhary, Bhargavi Ramanujam, S Senthil Kumaran, P Sarat Chandra, Ashima Nehra Wadhawan, Ajay Garg, Manjari Tripathi
OBJECTIVES: Patients with drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) and a high level of education may differ in their language recovery after surgery. Our aim was to determine whether there were differences in the extent of improvement and pattern of reorganization of language functions on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after surgery to treat refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) between patients with more than 12 years of formal education versus those with a shorter period of regular schooling...
July 29, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801064/can-different-mechanisms-underpin-the-geschwind-syndrome-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-in-temporal-lobe-variant-of-frontotemporal-degeneration
#5
Guido Gainotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800118/deep-source-localization-with-magnetoencephalography-based-on-sensor-array-decomposition-and-beamforming
#6
Yegang Hu, Yicong Lin, Baoshan Yang, Guangrui Tang, Tao Liu, Yuping Wang, Jicong Zhang
In recent years, the source localization technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) has played a prominent role in cognitive neuroscience and in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychological disorders. However, locating deep brain activities such as in the mesial temporal structures, especially in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy patients, may be more challenging. In this work we have proposed a modified beamforming approach for finding deep sources. First, an iterative spatiotemporal signal decomposition was employed for reconstructing the sensor arrays, which could characterize the intrinsic discriminant features for interpreting sensor signals...
August 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797975/characterisation-of-a-factual-knowledge-associated-brain-memory-area-by-functional-mr-imaging-and-implementation-in-tumour-and-epilepsy-brain-surgery
#7
Peter Grummich, Oliver Ganslandt, Michael Buchfelder, Karl Roessler
BACKGROUND: The role of the dominant hippocampus in verbal and episodical memory recall had been extensively investigated. However, there are categories of memory estimated independent of hippocampal function. Particularly, factual knowledge is solely constituted from written or spoken input independent from undertaken experience, but the temporal structures involved are not well defined yet. METHODS: In this retrospective study we mapped the activity of factual knowledge recall using functional MR imaging in 60 patients scheduled for tumour or epilepsy surgery and in 18 patients resected within or close to the left mesial temporal lobe...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795432/subcellular-reorganization-and-altered-phosphorylation-of-the-astrocytic-gap-junction-protein-connexin43-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Tushar Deshpande, Tingsong Li, Michel K Herde, Albert Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Martin K Schwarz, Christian Henneberger, Christian Steinhäuser, Peter Bedner
Dysfunctional astrocytes are increasingly recognized as key players in the development and progression of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). One of the dramatic changes astrocytes undergo in MTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is loss of gap junction coupling. To further elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying this alteration, we assessed expression, cellular localization and phosphorylation status of astrocytic gap junction proteins in human and experimental MTLE-HS. In addition to conventional confocal analysis of immunohistochemical staining we employed expansion microscopy, which allowed visualization of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) associated cellular elements at a sub-µm scale...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794979/identification-of-the-epileptogenic-zone-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-from-stereo-electroencephalography-signals-a-phase-transfer-entropy-and-graph-theory-approach
#9
Meng-Yang Wang, Jing Wang, Jian Zhou, Yu-Guang Guan, Feng Zhai, Chang-Qing Liu, Fei-Fei Xu, Yi-Xian Han, Zhao-Fen Yan, Guo-Ming Luan
The aim of this research is to apply an approach based on phase transfer entropy (PTE) and graph theory to study the interactions between the stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) activities recorded in multilobar origin, in order to evaluate their ability to detect the epileptogenic zone (EZ) of temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE). Forty-three patients were included in this retrospective study. Five to sixteen (median = 12) multilead electrodes were implanted per patient, and, for each patient, a sub-set of between 10 and 32 (median = 22) bipolar derivations was selected for analysis...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783762/using-postmortem-hippocampi-tissue-can-interfere-with-differential-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-epileptogenic-process
#10
João Paulo Lopes Born, Heloisa de Carvalho Matos, Mykaella Andrade de Araujo, Olagide Wagner Castro, Marcelo Duzzioni, José Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, João Pereira Leite, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Maria Luisa Paçó-Larson, Daniel Leite Góes Gitaí
Neuropathological studies often use autopsy brain tissue as controls to evaluate changes in protein or RNA levels in several diseases. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), several genes are up or down regulated throughout the epileptogenic and chronic stages of the disease. Given that postmortem changes in several gene transcripts could impact the detection of changes in case-control studies, we evaluated the effect of using autopsy specimens with different postmortem intervals (PMI) on differential gene expression of the Pilocarpine (PILO)induced Status Epilepticus (SE) of MTLE...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782512/quantitative-expression-and-localization-of-gabab-receptor-protein-subunits-in-hippocampi-from-patients-with-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Mariam A Sheilabi, Dev Battacharyya, Laura Caetano, Maria Thom, Markus Reuber, John S Duncan, Alessandra P Princivalle
This study investigates GABAB protein expression and mRNA levels in three types of specimens. Two types of specimens from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), secondary to hippocampal sclerosis, sclerotic hippocampal samples (TLE-HS), and tissue from the structurally preserved non-spiking ipsilateral superior temporal gyrus (TLE-STG) removed from the same patient during epilepsy surgery; and third specimen is hippocampal tissue from individuals with no history of epilepsy (post-mortem controls, PMC)...
August 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781107/epileptogenesis-meets-occam-s-razor
#12
REVIEW
Robert S Sloviter
Pharmacological treatment to prevent brain injury-induced temporal lobe epileptogenesis has been generally unsuccessful, raising the issues of exactly when the conversion process to an epileptic brain state occurs and reaches completion, and which cellular or network processes might be the most promising therapeutic targets. The time course of epileptogenesis is a central issue, with recent results suggesting that injury-induced epileptogenesis can be a much more rapid process than previously thought, and may be inconsistent with a delayed epileptogenic mechanism...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780154/chemokines-as-new-inflammatory-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Chiara Cerri, Matteo Caleo, Yuri Bozzi
A large series of clinical and experimental studies supports a link between inflammation and epilepsy, indicating that inflammatory processes within the brain are important contributors to seizure recurrence and precipitation. Systemic inflammation can precipitate seizures in children suffering from epileptic encephalopathies, and hallmarks of a chronic inflammatory state have been found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Research performed on animal models of epilepsy further corroborates the idea that seizures upregulate inflammatory mediators, which in turn may enhance brain excitability and neuronal degeneration...
July 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777257/chronic-levetiracetam-decreases-hippocampal-and-testicular-aromatase-expression-in-normal-but-not-kainic-acid-induced-experimental-model-of-acute-seizures-in-rats
#14
Mehtap Cincioğlu-Palabiyik, Meral Üner, Dilek Ertoy-Baydar, Yildirim Sara, Hande Karahan, Pelin Kelicen-Uğur
Reproductive disorders are more common in men with epilepsy taking anticonvulsant medications. Antiseizure/anticonvulsant drugs and seizures in medial temporal lobe structures may cause gonadal dysfunction, including infertility, decreased libido, and potency. Levels of circulating bioavailable testosterone are affected by the aromatase enzyme, which converts testosterone into estrogen and may be affected by seizure medications. However, the relationship of anticonvulsant drugs with central aromatase levels is not clear...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776646/postoperative-seizure-freedom-does-not-normalize-altered-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Luigi Maccotta, Mayra A Lopez, Babatunde Adeyemo, Beau M Ances, Brian K Day, Lawrence N Eisenman, Joshua L Dowling, Eric C Leuthardt, Bradley L Schlaggar, Robert Edward Hogan
OBJECTIVES: Specific changes in the functional connectivity of brain networks occur in patients with epilepsy. Yet whether such changes reflect a stable disease effect or one that is a function of active seizure burden remains unclear. Here, we longitudinally assessed the connectivity of canonical cognitive functional networks in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), both before and after patients underwent epilepsy surgery and achieved seizure freedom. METHODS: Seventeen patients with intractable TLE who underwent epilepsy surgery with Engel class I outcome and 17 matched healthy controls took part in the study...
August 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774708/epileptologist-s-view-laser-interstitial-thermal-ablation-for-treatment-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Joon Y Kang, Michael R Sperling
A procedure called laser interstitial thermal ablation has been utilized to treat drug resistant epilepsy. With this technique, a probe is stereotactically inserted into a target structure responsible for seizures, such as mesial temporal lobe, hypothalamic hamartoma, or a small malformation of cortical development, and the tip is then heated by application of laser energy to ablate structures adjacent to the probe tip. This procedure has the advantage of selectively targeting small lesions responsible for seizures, and is far less invasive than open surgery with shorter hospitalization, less pain, and rapid return to normal activities...
July 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774647/discrimination-of-a-medial-functional-module-within-the-temporal-lobe-using-an-effective-connectivity-model-a-ccep-study
#17
Julien Krieg, Laurent Koessler, Jacques Jonas, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Christian G Bénar, Louis G Maillard
The temporal lobe is classically divided in two functional systems: the ventral visual pathway and the medial temporal memory system. However, their functional separation has been challenged by studies suggesting that the medial temporal lobe could be best understood as an extension of the hierarchically organized ventral visual pathway. Our purpose was to investigate (i) whether cerebral regions within the temporal lobe could be grouped into distinct functional assemblies, and (ii) which regions were central within these functional assemblies...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772197/effects-of-acute-physical-exercise-in-the-light-phase-of-sleep-in-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Cristiano de Lima, Ricardo Mario Arida, Monica Levy Andersen, Daniel Ninello Polesel, Tathiana Aparecida Fernandes de Alvarenga, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Gabriela Matos, Sergio Tufik
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the influence of an acute exercise session on sleep pattern in rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control (C); acute exercise (EX); epilepsy (E) and epilepsy acute exercise (EEX). Two sleep electrocorticography recordings were performed during the light phase [baseline and day 2 (after the acute physical exercise session)]. After baseline recording, the exercise groups (EX and EEX) were submitted to an exercise session on a motor-driven treadmill at 12m/min for 30min...
July 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766694/musicogenic-reflex-seizures-in-epilepsy-with-glutamic-acid-decarbocylase-antibodies
#19
M Falip, L Rodriguez-Bel, S Castañer, J Miro, S Jaraba, J Mora, J Bas, M Carreño
BACKGROUND: Musicogenic reflex seizures (MRS) are a rare form of seizures described in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), mainly of unknown etiology. Epilepsy with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-ab) is a form of autoimmune epilepsy for which no specific semiology has been described. AIM OF THE STUDY: To retrospectively review the incidence of MRS in the general epileptic population and in the series of patients with epilepsy and GAD-ab and to describe its clinical and paraclinical characteristics...
August 2, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766041/the-role-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-the-control-of-seizure
#20
REVIEW
J Vuong, Annaelle Devergnas
Epilepsy is a network disorder and each type of seizure involves distinct cortical and subcortical network, differently implicated in the control and propagation of the ictal activity. The role of the basal ganglia has been revealed in several cases of focal and generalized seizures. Here, we review the data that show the implication of the basal ganglia in absence, temporal lobe, and neocortical seizures in animal models (rodent, cat, and non-human primate) and in human. Based on these results and the advancement of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia neuromodulation has been tested with some success that can be equally seen as promising or disappointing...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
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