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Auditory Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778062/unattended-processing-of-hierarchical-pitch-variations-in-spoken-sentences
#1
Xiaoqing Li, Yiya Chen
An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the unattended processing of pitch variation which functions to signal hierarchically different levels of meaning contrasts. Four oddball conditions were constructed by varying the pitch contour of critical words embedded in a Mandarin Chinese sentence. Two conditions included lexical-level word meaning contrasts (i.e. TONE condition) and the other two sentence-level information-status contrasts (i.e. ACCENTUATION condition). Both included stimuli with early vs...
May 16, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777676/cognitive-effects-of-rhythmic-auditory-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-p300-study
#2
Juan Lei, Nadine Conradi, Cornelius Abel, Stefan Frisch, Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Marcel Hildner, Christian A Kell, Jochen Kaiser, Maren Schmidt-Kassow
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) may compensate dysfunctions of the basal ganglia (BG), involved with intrinsic evaluation of temporal intervals and action initiation or continuation. In the cognitive domain, RAS containing periodically presented tones facilitates young healthy participants' attention allocation to anticipated time points, indicated by better performance and larger P300 amplitudes to periodic compared to random stimuli. Additionally, active auditory-motor synchronization (AMS) leads to a more precise temporal encoding of stimuli via embodied timing encoding than stimulus presentation adapted to the participants' actual movements...
May 16, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775640/prestimulus-delta-and-theta-contributions-to-equiprobable-go-nogo-processing-in-healthy-ageing
#3
Frances M De Blasio, Robert J Barry
Ongoing EEG activity contributes to ERP outcomes of stimulus processing, and each of these measures is known to undergo (sometimes significant) age-related change. Variation in their relationship across the life-span may thus elucidate mechanisms of normal and pathological ageing. This study assessed the relationships between low-frequency EEG prestimulus brain states, the ERP, and behavioural outcomes in a simple equiprobable auditory Go/NoGo paradigm, comparing these for 20 young (Mage  = 20.4 years) and 20 healthy older (Mage  = 68...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774478/number-line-estimation-and-complex-mental-calculation-is-there-a-shared-cognitive-process-driving-the-two-tasks
#4
Maria Montefinese, Carlo Semenza
It is widely accepted that different number-related tasks, including solving simple addition and subtraction, may induce attentional shifts on the so-called mental number line, which represents larger numbers on the right and smaller numbers on the left. Recently, it has been shown that different number-related tasks also employ spatial attention shifts along with general cognitive processes. Here we investigated for the first time whether number line estimation and complex mental arithmetic recruit a common mechanism in healthy adults...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774461/nonlinear-analysis-of-electrodermal-activity-signals-for-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Serife Gokce Caliskan, Mehmet Dincer Bilgin, Mehmet Polatli
It is known that signals recorded from physiological systems represent nonlinear features. Several recent studies report that quantitative information about signal complexity is obtained by using nonlinear analysis algorithms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the causes of mortality worldwide with an increasing prevalence. This study aims to investigate nonlinear parameters such as largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and correlation dimension of electrodermal activity signals recorded from healthy subjects and patients with COPD...
May 17, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774001/cognitive-motor-interference-in-an-ecologically-valid-street-crossing-scenario
#6
Christin Janouch, Uwe Drescher, Konstantin Wechsler, Mathias Haeger, Otmar Bock, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Laboratory-based research revealed that gait involves higher cognitive processes, leading to performance impairments when executed with a concurrent loading task. Deficits are especially pronounced in older adults. Theoretical approaches like the multiple resource model highlight the role of task similarity and associated attention distribution problems. It has been shown that in cases where these distribution problems are perceived relevant to participant's risk of falls, older adults prioritize gait and posture over the concurrent loading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773983/somatosensory-cross-modal-reorganization-in-adults-with-age-related-early-stage-hearing-loss
#7
Garrett Cardon, Anu Sharma
Under conditions of profound sensory deprivation, the brain has the propensity to reorganize. For example, intact sensory modalities often recruit deficient modalities' cortices for neural processing. This process is known as cross-modal reorganization and has been shown in congenitally and profoundly deaf patients. However, much less is known about cross-modal cortical reorganization in persons with less severe cases of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), even though such cases are far more common. Thus, we investigated cross-modal reorganization between the auditory and somatosensory modalities in older adults with normal hearing (NH) and mild-moderate ARHL in response to vibrotactile stimulation using high density electroencephalography (EEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773980/anatomical-inputs-from-the-sensory-and-value-structures-to-the-tail-of-the-rat-striatum
#8
Haiyan Jiang, Hyoung F Kim
The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS), is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773757/neural-signatures-of-the-processing-of-temporal-patterns-in-sound
#9
Björn Herrmann, Ingrid S Johnsrude
The ability to detect regularities in sound (i.e., recurring structure) is critical for effective perception, enabling, for example, change detection and prediction. Two seemingly unconnected lines of research concern the neural operations involved in processing regularities: one investigates how neural activity synchronizes with temporal regularities (e.g., frequency modulation; FM) in sounds, whereas the other focuses on increases in sustained activity during stimulation with repeating tone-frequency patterns...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773528/a-digital-app-to-aid-detection-monitoring-and-management-of-dyslexia-in-young-children-dimmand-protocol-for-a-digital-health-and-education-solution
#10
Mariam R Sood, Annet Toornstra, Martin I Sereno, Mark Boland, Daniele Filaretti, Anuj Sood
BACKGROUND: Dyslexia, a specific learning difficulty and a disability as defined in the Equality Act 2010, is a lifelong condition that affects a child from the start of education. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in language processing (reading, spelling, and writing) which do not correspond with the child's general intellectual abilities. Although dyslexia cannot be cured, there is a consensus that interventions are more effective and have greater impact the earlier they are administered...
May 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772380/task-dependent-modulation-of-the-visual-sensory-thalamus-assists-visual-speech-recognition
#11
Begoña Díaz, Helen Blank, Katharina von Kriegstein
The cerebral cortex modulates early sensory processing via feed-back connections to sensory pathway nuclei. The functions of this top-down modulation for human behavior are poorly understood. Here, we show that top-down modulation of the visual sensory thalamus (the lateral geniculate body, LGN) is involved in visual-speech recognition. In two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, LGN response increased when participants processed fast-varying features of articulatory movements required for visual-speech recognition, as compared to temporally more stable features required for face identification with the same stimulus material...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772117/changing-words-and-sounds-the-roles-of-different-cognitive-units-in-sound-change
#12
Márton Sóskuthy, Paul Foulkes, Vincent Hughes, Bill Haddican
This study considers the role of different cognitive units in sound change: phonemes, contextual variants and words. We examine /u/-fronting and /j/-dropping in data from three generations of Derby English speakers. We analyze dynamic formant data and auditory judgments, using mixed effects regression methods, including generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs). /u/-fronting is reaching its end-point, showing complex conditioning by context and a frequency effect that weakens over time. /j/-dropping is declining, with low-frequency words showing more innovative variants with /j/ than high-frequency words...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771359/neural-bases-of-social-communicative-intentions-in-speech
#13
Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler
Our ability to understand others' communicative intentions in speech is key to successful social interaction. Indeed, misunderstanding an "excuse me" as apology, while meant as criticism, may have important consequences. Recent behavioural studies have provided evidence that prosody, i.e., vocal tone, is an important indicator for speakers' intentions. Using a novel audio-morphing paradigm, the present fMRI study examined the neurocognitive mechanisms that allow listeners to 'read' speakers' intents from vocal-prosodic patterns...
May 16, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769366/mate-choice-in-the-eye-and-ear-of-the-beholder-female-multimodal-sensory-configuration-influences-her-preferences
#14
Kelly L Ronald, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Jeffrey R Lucas
A common assumption in sexual selection studies is that receivers decode signal information similarly. However, receivers may vary in how they rank signallers if signal perception varies with an individual's sensory configuration. Furthermore, receivers may vary in their weighting of different elements of multimodal signals based on their sensory configuration. This could lead to complex levels of selection on signalling traits. We tested whether multimodal sensory configuration could affect preferences for multimodal signals...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769152/startle-habituation-sensory-and-sensorimotor-gating-in-trauma-affected-refugees-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Hanieh Meteran, Erik Vindbjerg, Sigurd Wiingaard Uldall, Birte Glenthøj, Jessica Carlsson, Bob Oranje
BACKGROUND: Impairments in mechanisms underlying early information processing have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, findings in the existing literature are inconsistent. This current study capitalizes on technological advancements of research on electroencephalographic event-related potential and applies it to a novel PTSD population consisting of trauma-affected refugees. METHODS: A total of 25 trauma-affected refugees with PTSD and 20 healthy refugee controls matched on age, gender, and country of origin completed the study...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766379/relative-salience-of-syllable-structure-and-syllable-order-in-zebra-finch-song
#16
Shelby L Lawson, Adam R Fishbein, Nora H Prior, Gregory F Ball, Robert J Dooling
There is a rich history of behavioral and neurobiological research focused on the 'syntax' of birdsong as a model for human language and complex auditory perception. Zebra finches are one of the most widely studied songbird species in this area of investigation. As they produce song syllables in a fixed sequence, it is reasonable to assume that adult zebra finches are also sensitive to the order of syllables within their song; however, results from electrophysiological and behavioral studies provide somewhat mixed evidence on exactly how sensitive zebra finches are to syllable order as compared, say, to syllable structure...
May 15, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763575/social-isolation-reduces-serotonergic-fiber-density-in-the-inferior-colliculus-of-female-but-not-male-mice
#17
Sarah M Keesom, Mitchell D Morningstar, Rebecca Sandlain, Bradley M Wise, Laura M Hurley
Early-life experiences, including maternal deprivation and social isolation during adolescence, have a profound influence on a range of adult social behaviors. Post-weaning social isolation in rodents influences behavior in part through the alteration of neuromodulatory systems, including the serotonergic system. Of significance to social behavior, the serotonergic system richly innervates brain areas involved in vocal communication, including the auditory system. However, the influence of isolation on serotonergic input to the auditory system remains underexplored...
May 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762100/top-down-control-of-alpha-phase-adjustment-in-anticipation-of-temporally-predictable-visual-stimuli
#18
Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Ole Jensen, Mathilde Bonnefond
Alpha oscillations (8-14 Hz) are proposed to represent an active mechanism of functional inhibition of neuronal processing. Specifically, alpha oscillations are associated with pulses of inhibition repeating every ∼100 msec. Whether alpha phase, similar to alpha power, is under top-down control remains unclear. Moreover, the sources of such putative top-down phase control are unknown. We designed a cross-modal (visual/auditory) attention study in which we used magnetoencephalography to record the brain activity from 34 healthy participants...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761891/processed-electroencephalogram-and-evoked-potential-techniques-for-amelioration-of-postoperative-delirium-and-cognitive-dysfunction-following-non-cardiac-and-non-neurosurgical-procedures-in-adults
#19
REVIEW
Yodying Punjasawadwong, Waraporn Chau-In, Malinee Laopaiboon, Sirivimol Punjasawadwong, Pathomporn Pin-On
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) may complicate a patient's postoperative recovery in several ways. Monitoring of processed electroencephalogram (EEG) or evoked potential (EP) indices may prevent or minimize POD and POCD, probably through optimization of anaesthetic doses. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the use of processed EEG or auditory evoked potential (AEP) indices (bispectral index (BIS), narcotrend index, cerebral state index, state entropy and response entropy, patient state index, index of consciousness, A-line autoregressive index, and auditory evoked potentials (AEP index)) as guides to anaesthetic delivery can reduce the risk of POD and POCD in non-cardiac surgical or non-neurosurgical adult patients undergoing general anaesthesia compared with standard practice where only clinical signs are used...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759684/how-aging-impacts-the-encoding-of-binaural-cues-and-the-perception-of-auditory-space
#20
REVIEW
Ann Clock Eddins, Erol J Ozmeral, David A Eddins
Over the years, the effect of aging on auditory function has been investigated in animal models and humans in an effort to characterize age-related changes in both perception and physiology. Here, we review how aging may impact neural encoding and processing of binaural and spatial cues in human listeners with a focus on recent work by the authors as well as others. Age-related declines in monaural temporal processing, as estimated from measures of gap detection and temporal fine structure discrimination, have been associated with poorer performance on binaural tasks that require precise temporal processing...
May 5, 2018: Hearing Research
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