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Auditory Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342918/evidence-of-the-impact-of-visuo-spatial-processing-on-magnitude-representation-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#1
Lucie Attout, Marie-Pascale Noël, Line Vossius, Laurence Rousselle
The influence of visuo-spatial skills on numerical magnitude processing is the subject of a long-standing debate. As most of the numerical and non-numerical magnitude abilities underpinning mathematical development are visual by nature, they are often assessed in the visual modality, thereby confusing visuo-spatial and numerical processing. In order to assess the influence of visuo-spatial processing on numerical magnitude representation, we examined magnitude processing in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a genetic condition characterized by a cognitive profile with a relative weakness in visuo-spatial abilities but with preserved verbal abilities...
March 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340375/repetitive-tms-in-right-sensorimotor-areas-affects-the-selection-and-completion-of-contralateral-movements
#2
Maria Gutierrez-Herrera, Styrmir Saevarsson, Thomas Huber, Joachim Hermsdörfer, Waltraud Stadler
Although the existence of directional motor deficits (DMD) associated with movement planning and/or execution seems to be widely recognized, neglect and single cell studies examining their neuroanatomical foundation have produced contradictory and inconclusive findings. The present study assessed the occurrence of DMD following the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over two regions, as commonly reported in the neglect literature, namely the right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG) and the right angular gyrus (rAG)...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339777/support-system-for-fine-focusing-and-astigmatism-correction-using-an-auditory-signal-in-scanning-electron-microscopy
#3
Eisaku Oho, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Sadao Yamazaki
The current study describes a new support system for fine focusing and near-perfect astigmatism correction for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The signal-to-noise ratio of a series of SEM images obtained from fast scan rates (TV scan) was adopted as a new metric for evaluating focus. Measured signal-to-noise ratio values were converted to an acoustic signal (sound wave frequency) using digital image processing techniques, enabling the SEM user to evaluate image focus using the auditory modality. Accurate focusing and correcting astigmatism in general-purpose SEM is traditionally time-consuming and difficult...
February 24, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#4
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337410/damage-to-white-matter-bottlenecks-contributes-to-language-impairments-after-left-hemispheric-stroke
#5
Joseph C Griffis, Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Damage to the white matter underlying the left posterior temporal lobe leads to deficits in multiple language functions. The posterior temporal white matter may correspond to a bottleneck where both dorsal and ventral language pathways are vulnerable to simultaneous damage. Damage to a second putative white matter bottleneck in the left deep prefrontal white matter involving projections associated with ventral language pathways and thalamo-cortical projections has recently been proposed as a source of semantic deficits after stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337137/an-adaptive-neural-mechanism-for-acoustic-motion-perception-with-varying-sparsity
#6
Danish Shaikh, Poramate Manoonpong
Biological motion-sensitive neural circuits are quite adept in perceiving the relative motion of a relevant stimulus. Motion perception is a fundamental ability in neural sensory processing and crucial in target tracking tasks. Tracking a stimulus entails the ability to perceive its motion, i.e., extracting information about its direction and velocity. Here we focus on auditory motion perception of sound stimuli, which is poorly understood as compared to its visual counterpart. In earlier work we have developed a bio-inspired neural learning mechanism for acoustic motion perception...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337135/deficits-in-letter-speech-sound-associations-but-intact-visual-conflict-processing-in-dyslexia-results-from-a-novel-erp-paradigm
#7
Sarolta Bakos, Karin Landerl, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Kristina Moll
The reading and spelling deficits characteristic of developmental dyslexia (dyslexia) have been related to problems in phonological processing and in learning associations between letters and speech-sounds. Even when children with dyslexia have learned the letters and their corresponding speech sounds, letter-speech sound associations might still be less automatized compared to children with age-adequate literacy skills. In order to examine automaticity in letter-speech sound associations and to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with the frequently used visual-auditory oddball paradigm, we developed a novel electrophysiological letter-speech sound interference paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337114/precondition-of-right-frontal-region-with-anodal-tdcs-can-restore-the-fear-memory-impairment-induced-by-acpa-in-male-mice
#8
Fariborz Manteghi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Fear memory and learning cause behavioural patterns such as fight or flight responses, which increase survival probability, but unfit processing of fear memory and learning can lead to maladaptive behaviours and maladies such as phobias, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorders. The growing prevalence of these maladies shows the need to quest novel methods for their treatment. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the right frontal region as a precondition neuromodulator and arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, as a fear memory impairing agent to assess their effects on contextual and auditory fear conditioning (reliable model for fear studies)...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336337/mismatch-negativity-as-a-potential-neurobiological-marker-of-early-stage-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia
#9
Shixiang Jiang, Chang Yan, Zhengxue Qiao, Haiqian Yao, Shiquan Jiang, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiuxian Yang, Deyu Fang, Yanjie Yang, Limei Zhang, Lina Wang, Liming Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD)...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335695/impact-of-cognition-and-noise-reduction-on-speech-perception-in-adults-with-unilateral-cochlear-implants
#10
Suzanne Carolyn Purdy, David Welch, Ellen Giles, Catherine Louise Anne Morgan, Renique Tenhagen, Abin Kuruvilla-Mathew
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cognition and noise reduction (NR) technology in cochlear implants (CIs) on speech perception and listening effort. METHODS: Thirteen adults fitted with unilateral CIs (Nucleus(®) 6, CP900) participated in this study. Participants performed: (I) cognitive tests of working memory and processing speed, (II) speech perception in noise tests, and (III) an auditory-visual dual-task paradigm to quantify listening effort, as a part of the three-phase experimental study...
March 24, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335686/grammatical-gender-effects-in-noun-noun-compound-production-evidence-from-german
#11
Antje Lorenz, Andreas Mädebach, Jörg D Jescheniak
We examined how noun-noun compound nouns and their syntactic properties are lexically stored and processed in speech production. Using gender-marked determiner primes (dermasc, diefem, dasneut [the]) in a picture naming task, we tested for specific effects from determiners congruent with either the modifier or the head of the compound target (e.g., Teemasckannefem [teapot]) to examine whether the constituents are processed independently at the syntactic level. Experiment 1 assessed effects of auditory gender-marked determiner primes in bare noun picture naming, and Experiment 2 assessed effects of visual gender-marked determiner primes in determiner-noun picture naming...
March 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#12
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#13
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334383/a-critical-role-of-inhibition-in-temporal-processing-maturation-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex
#14
Dongqin Cai, Rongrong Han, Miaomiao Liu, Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Yi Zheng, Limin Zhao, Jun Yao, Yiwei Wang, Yin Yue, Christoph E Schreiner, Kexin Yuan
Faithful representation of sound envelopes in primary auditory cortex (A1) is vital for temporal processing and perception of natural sounds. However, the emergence of cortical temporal processing mechanisms during development remains poorly understood. Although cortical inhibition has been proposed to play an important role in this process, direct in-vivo evidence has been lacking. Using loose-patch recordings in rat A1 immediately after hearing onset, we found that stimulus-following ability in fast-spiking neurons was significantly better than in regular-spiking (RS) neurons...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334352/the-human-neural-alpha-response-to-speech-is-a-proxy-of-attentional-control
#15
Malte Wöstmann, Sung-Joo Lim, Jonas Obleser
Human alpha (~10 Hz) oscillatory power is a prominent neural marker of cognitive effort. When listeners attempt to process and retain acoustically degraded speech, alpha power enhances. It is unclear whether these alpha modulations reflect the degree of acoustic degradation per se or the degradation-driven demand to a listener's attentional control. Using an irrelevant-speech paradigm and measuring the electroencephalogram (EEG), the current experiment demonstrates that the neural alpha response to speech is a surprisingly clear proxy of top-down control, entirely driven by the listening goals of attending versus ignoring degraded speech...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334281/blocking-c-fos-expression-reveals-the-role-of-auditory-cortex-plasticity-in-sound-frequency-discrimination-learning
#16
Livia de Hoz, Dorota Gierej, Victoria Lioudyno, Jacek Jaworski, Magda Blazejczyk, Hugo Cruces-Solís, Anna Beroun, Tomasz Lebitko, Tomasz Nikolaev, Ewelina Knapska, Israel Nelken, Leszek Kaczmarek
The behavioral changes that comprise operant learning are associated with plasticity in early sensory cortices as well as with modulation of gene expression, but the connection between the behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular changes is only partially understood. We specifically manipulated c-Fos expression, a hallmark of learning-induced synaptic plasticity, in auditory cortex of adult mice using a novel approach based on RNA interference. Locally blocking c-Fos expression caused a specific behavioral deficit in a sound discrimination task, in parallel with decreased cortical experience-dependent plasticity, without affecting baseline excitability or basic auditory processing...
March 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334187/individual-differences-in-human-auditory-processing-insights-from-single-trial-auditory-midbrain-activity-in-an-animal-model
#17
Travis White-Schwoch, Trent Nicol, Catherine M Warrier, Daniel A Abrams, Nina Kraus
Auditory-evoked potentials are classically defined as the summations of synchronous firing along the auditory neuraxis. Converging evidence supports a model whereby timing jitter in neural coding compromises listening and causes variable scalp-recorded potentials. Yet the intrinsic noise of human scalp recordings precludes a full understanding of the biological origins of individual differences in listening skills. To delineate the mechanisms contributing to these phenomena, in vivo extracellular activity was recorded from inferior colliculus in guinea pigs to speech in quiet and noise...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334175/attenuated-fast-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-during-human-sleep
#18
Omer Sharon, Yuval Nir
During sleep, external sensory events rarely elicit a behavioral response or affect perception. However, how sensory processing differs between wakefulness and sleep remains unclear. A major difficulty in this field stems from using brief auditory stimuli that often trigger nonspecific high-amplitude "K-complex" responses and complicate interpretation. To overcome this challenge, here we delivered periodic visual flicker stimulation across sleep and wakefulness while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in humans...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333707/the-effect-of-sedation-on-cortical-activation-a-randomized-study-comparing-the-effects-of-sedation-with-midazolam-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-on-auditory-processing
#19
Michael A Frölich, Catiffaney Banks, Timothy J Ness
BACKGROUND: Every day, millions of people undergo surgical procedures facilitated by anesthesia. Yet, there is no clinically accepted measure to predict the effects of sedation or anesthesia on the central nervous system. Auditory brain activation may provide an objective and quantifiable method to measure of the effects of sedation on neuronal processing. METHODS: This is a randomized clinical trial. Forty-eight healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 sedative drugs (midazolam [n = 11], propofol [n = 12], or dexmedetomidine [n = 12]) at a concentration adjusted to achieve mild sedation by self-rating, or to a no-drug control group (n = 13)...
March 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330777/altered-visual-repetition-suppression-in-fragile-x-syndrome-new-evidence-from-erps-and-oscillatory-activity
#20
Simon Rigoulot, Inga S Knoth, Marc-Philippe Lafontaine, Phetsamone Vannasing, Philippe Major, Sébastien Jacquemont, Jacques L Michaud, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippe
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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