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Auditory Processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748487/predictions-of-speech-chimaera-intelligibility-using-auditory-nerve-mean-rate-and-spike-timing-neural-cues
#1
Michael R Wirtzfeld, Rasha A Ibrahim, Ian C Bruce
Perceptual studies of speech intelligibility have shown that slow variations of acoustic envelope (ENV) in a small set of frequency bands provides adequate information for good perceptual performance in quiet, whereas acoustic temporal fine-structure (TFS) cues play a supporting role in background noise. However, the implications for neural coding are prone to misinterpretation because the mean-rate neural representation can contain recovered ENV cues from cochlear filtering of TFS. We investigated ENV recovery and spike-time TFS coding using objective measures of simulated mean-rate and spike-timing neural representations of chimaeric speech, in which either the ENV or the TFS is replaced by another signal...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748447/cross-modal-working-memory-binding-and-l1-l2-word-learning
#2
Shinmin Wang, Richard J Allen, Shin-Yi Fang, Ping Li
The ability to create temporary binding representations of information from different sources in working memory has recently been found to relate to the development of monolingual word recognition in children. The current study explored this possible relationship in an adult word-learning context. We assessed whether the relationship between cross-modal working memory binding and lexical development would be observed in the learning of associations between unfamiliar spoken words and their semantic referents, and whether it would vary across experimental conditions in first- and second-language word learning...
July 26, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747870/neural-entrainment-and-sensorimotor-synchronization-to-the-beat-in-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-an-eeg-study
#3
Lincoln J Colling, Hannah L Noble, Usha Goswami
Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization) shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditory perception of the beat which in turn affect auditory-motor mapping, or may reflect an independent motor deficit. Here, we used a new methodology in EEG based on measuring beat-related steady-state evoked potentials (SS-EPs, Nozaradan et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746863/cortical-interneurons-differentially-regulate-the-effects-of-acoustic-context
#4
Elizabeth A K Phillips, Christoph E Schreiner, Andrea R Hasenstaub
Both behavioral and neural responses to sounds are generally modified by the acoustic context in which they are encountered. As an example, in the auditory cortex, preceding sounds can powerfully suppress responses to later, spectrally similar sounds-a phenomenon called forward suppression (FWS). Whether cortical inhibitory networks shape such suppression or whether it is wholly regulated by common mechanisms such as synaptic depression or spike frequency adaptation is controversial. Here, we show that optogenetically suppressing somatostatin-positive (Sst+) interneurons weakens forward suppression, often revealing facilitation in neurons that are normally forward-suppressed...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744950/neural-signature-of-inattentional-deafness
#5
Gautier Durantin, Frederic Dehais, Nicolas Gonthier, Cengiz Terzibas, Daniel E Callan
Inattentional deafness is the failure to hear otherwise audible sounds (usually alarms) that may occur under high workload conditions. One potential cause for its occurrence could be an attentional bottleneck that occurs when task demands are high, resulting in lack of resources for processing of additional tasks. In this fMRI experiment, we explore the brain regions active during the occurrence of inattentional deafness using a difficult perceptual-motor task in which the participants fly through a simulated Red Bull air race course and at the same time push a button on the joystick to the presence of audio alarms...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744893/tonotopic-alterations-in-inhibitory-input-to-the-medial-nucleus-of-the-trapezoid-body-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
Elizabeth A McCullagh, Ernesto Salcedo, Molly M Huntsman, Achim Klug
Hyperexcitability and the imbalance of excitation/inhibition are one of the leading causes of abnormal sensory processing in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The precise timing and distribution of excitation and inhibition is crucial for auditory processing at the level of the auditory brainstem, which is responsible for sound localization ability. Sound localization is one of the sensory abilities disrupted by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene. Using triple immunofluorescence staining we tested whether there were alterations in the number and size of presynaptic structures for the three primary neurotransmitters (glutamate, glycine and GABA) in the auditory brainstem of Fmr1 knockout mice...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743950/auditory-neuropathy-after-damage-to-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-mice-resulting-from-conditional-expression-of-diphtheria-toxin-receptors
#7
Haolai Pan, Qiang Song, Yanyan Huang, Jiping Wang, Renjie Chai, Shankai Yin, Jian Wang
Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a hearing disorder characterized by normal cochlear amplification to sound but poor temporal processing and auditory perception in noisy backgrounds. These deficits likely result from impairments in auditory neural synchrony; such dyssynchrony of the neural responses has been linked to demyelination of auditory nerve fibers. However, no appropriate animal models are currently available that mimic this pathology. In this study, Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR (+/+) ) mice were cross-mated with mice containing Cre (Bhlhb5-Cre (+/-) ) specific to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs)...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739348/senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-samp8-as-a-model-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#8
Aurore Marie, Philippe Larroze-Chicot, Sylvie Cosnier-Pucheu, Sergio Gonzalez-Gonzalez
Hearing loss is the most common form of sensory impairment in humans, affecting 5.3% worldwide population. In industrial countries, age-related hearing loss is a major health problem affecting one-third of individuals over 65years old. However, the physiological and molecular changes involved in this senescence process remain unclear. In this study, we determined the influence of age on auditory brainstem response (ABR) and the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in the premature senescence mouse model SAMP8 for five months...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739134/nmda-receptor-modulation-by-dextromethorphan-and-acute-stress-selectively-alters-electroencephalographic-indicators-of-partial-report-processing
#9
Lisa J Weckesser, Sören Enge, Philipp Riedel, Clemens Kirschbaum, Robert Miller
Proceeding from a biophysical network model, the present study hypothesized that glutamatergic neurotransmission across the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays a key role in visual perception and its modulation by acute stress. To investigate these hypotheses, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) indicators of partial report task processing were assessed in twenty-four healthy young men who randomly received a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist (0.8 mg/kg dextromethorphan, DXM) or a placebo, and concurrently accomplished a stress-induction (MAST) or control protocol in three consecutive sessions...
July 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738311/perception-is-key-does-perceptual-sensitivity-and-parenting-behavior-predict-children-s-reactivity-to-others-emotions
#10
Joyce Weeland, Alithe Van den Akker, Meike Slagt, Samuel Putnam
When interacting with other people, both children's biological predispositions and past experiences play a role in how they will process and respond to social-emotional cues. Children may partly differ in their reactions to such cues because they differ in the threshold for perceiving such cues in general. Theoretically, perceptual sensitivity (i.e., the amount of detection of slight, low-intensity stimuli from the external environment independent of visual and auditory ability) might, therefore, provide us with specific information on individual differences in susceptibility to the environment...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738189/surgical-landmarks-to-locating-the-main-trunk-of-the-facial-nerve-in-parotid-surgery-a-systematic-review
#11
Yisi D Ji, R Bruce Donoff, Zachary S Peacock, Eric R Carlson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe distances from commonly used anatomic landmarks to the main trunk of the facial nerve during parotid surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the published literature was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. All studies from January 1, 1990 to January 1, 2017 that measured distances to the main trunk of the facial nerve from common anatomic landmarks were eligible...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737245/exteroceptive-stimuli-override-interoceptive-state-in-reaction-time-control
#12
Xiao Yang, J Richard Jennings, Bruce H Friedman
The processing of reaction time (RT) stimulus is modulated by its timing relative to the cardiac cycle. RT stimulus processing is also influenced by task-irrelevant stimuli: a sensory stimulus speeds RT when it accompanies a cue to react in another sensory modality. Different theories have been proposed to explain this accessory stimulus effect (ASE). However, it is unclear whether the ASE interacts with the cardiac timing effect. In the present study, the relationship of the ASE, cardiac timing, and stimulus valence was examined...
July 24, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736736/feedback-driven-sensory-mapping-adaptation-for-robust-speech-activity-detection
#13
Ashwin Bellur, Mounya Elhilali
Parsing natural acoustic scenes using computational methodologies poses many challenges. Given the rich and complex nature of the acoustic environment, data mismatch between train and test conditions is a major hurdle in data-driven audio processing systems. In contrast, the brain exhibits a remarkable ability at segmenting acoustic scenes with relative ease. When tackling challenging listening conditions that are often faced in everyday life, the biological system relies on a number of principles that allow it to effortlessly parse its rich soundscape...
March 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736519/isolating-discriminant-neural-activity-in-the-presence-of-eye-movements-and-concurrent-task-demands
#14
Jon Touryan, Vernon J Lawhern, Patrick M Connolly, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Anthony J Ries
A growing number of studies use the combination of eye-tracking and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures to explore the neural processes that underlie visual perception. In these studies, fixation-related potentials (FRPs) are commonly used to quantify early and late stages of visual processing that follow the onset of each fixation. However, FRPs reflect a mixture of bottom-up (sensory-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) processes, in addition to eye movement artifacts and unrelated neural activity. At present there is little consensus on how to separate this evoked response into its constituent elements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736517/resolution-of-cochlear-inflammation-novel-target-for-preventing-or-ameliorating-drug-noise-and-age-related-hearing-loss
#15
REVIEW
Gilda M Kalinec, Gwen Lomberk, Raul A Urrutia, Federico Kalinec
A significant number of studies support the idea that inflammatory responses are intimately associated with drug-, noise- and age-related hearing loss (DRHL, NRHL and ARHL). Consequently, several clinical strategies aimed at reducing auditory dysfunction by preventing inflammation are currently under intense scrutiny. Inflammation, however, is a normal adaptive response aimed at restoring tissue functionality and homeostasis after infection, tissue injury and even stress under sterile conditions, and suppressing it could have unintended negative consequences...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736204/neural-stability-a-reflection-of-automaticity-in-reading
#16
Silvia Siu-Yin Lam, Travis White-Schwoch, Steven G Zecker, Jane Hornickel, Nina Kraus
Automaticity, the ability to perform a task rapidly with minimal effort, plays a key role in reading fluency and is indexed by rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed. Yet little is known about automaticity's neurophysiologic underpinnings. The more efficiently sound is encoded, the more automatic sound processing can be. In turn, this automaticity could free up cognitive resources such as attention and working memory to help build an integrative reading network. Therefore, we hypothesized that automaticity and reading fluency correlate with stable neural representation of sounds, given a larger body of literature suggesting the close relationship between neural stability and the integrative function in the central auditory system...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735495/neuroanatomical-and-resting-state-eeg-power-correlates-of-central-hearing-loss-in-older-adults
#17
Nathalie Giroud, Sarah Hirsiger, Raphaela Muri, Andrea Kegel, Norbert Dillier, Martin Meyer
To gain more insight into central hearing loss, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness and surface area, speech-relevant resting state EEG power, and above-threshold auditory measures in older adults and younger controls. Twenty-three older adults and 13 younger controls were tested with an adaptive auditory test battery to measure not only traditional pure-tone thresholds, but also above individual thresholds of temporal and spectral processing. The participants' speech recognition in noise (SiN) was evaluated, and a T1-weighted MRI image obtained for each participant...
July 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735368/mdma-induced-indifference-to-negative-sounds-is-mediated-by-the-5-ht2a-receptor
#18
K P C Kuypers, R de la Torre, Farre, N Pizarro, L Xicota, J G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND: MDMA has been shown to induce feelings of sociability, a positive emotional bias and enhanced empathy. While previous research has used only visual emotional stimuli, communication entails more than that single dimension and it is known that auditory information is also crucial in this process. In addition, it is, however, unclear what the neurobiological mechanism underlying these MDMA effects on social behaviour is. Previously, studies have shown that MDMA-induced emotional excitability and positive mood are linked to the action on the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735101/electrophysiological-correlates-of-speaker-segregation-and-foreground-background-selection-in-ambiguous-listening-situations
#19
Katharina Gandras, Sabine Grimm, Alexandra Bendixen
In everyday listening environments, a main task for our auditory system is to follow one out of multiple speakers talking simultaneously. The present study was designed to find electrophysiological indicators of two central processes involved - segregating the speech mixture into distinct speech sequences corresponding to the two speakers, and then attending to one of the speech sequences. We generated multistable speech stimuli that were set up to create ambiguity as to whether only one or two speakers are talking...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735013/simultaneous-intrinsic-signal-imaging-of-auditory-and-visual-cortex-reveals-profound-effects-of-acute-hearing-loss-on-visual-processing
#20
Manuel Teichert, Jürgen Bolz
It has been suggested that primary sensory cortices do not work in isolation but receive subthreshold inputs originating from other senses. However, repercussions of an acute loss of one sense on multimodal sensory processing remain elusive. Here we investigated the early effects of acute hearing loss on visual processing in adult mice. For this, we developed a method to simultaneously map the primary auditory (A1) and visual cortex (V1) using periodic intrinsic optical imaging. We found that reducing sound evoked A1 responsiveness due to the induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) led to a concomitant increase of visually driven V1 activity...
July 19, 2017: NeuroImage
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