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Exercise prescription

Francesco Giallauria, Neil Andrew Smart, Antonio Cittadini, Carlo Vigorito
Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Erik Skobel, Christian Knackstedt, Alvaro Martinez-Romero, Dario Salvi, Cecilia Vera-Munoz, Andreas Napp, Jean Luprano, Ramon Bover, Sigrid Glöggler, Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens, Nikolaus Marx, Alan Rigby, John Cleland
Low adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) might be improved by remote monitoring systems that can be used to motivate and supervise patients and tailor CR safely and effectively to their needs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a smartphone-guided training system (GEX) and whether it could improve exercise capacity compared to CR delivered by conventional methods for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A prospective, randomized, international, multi-center study comparing CR delivered by conventional means (CG) or by remote monitoring (IG) using a new training steering/feedback tool (GEx System)...
October 11, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Rebecca Wilson, Richard Kendall
Low back pain and obesity are both rising epidemics. This manuscript will examine global trends in obesity, contributory lifestyle and societal factors, and morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. Using this background information, the article will explore the complex physiological process of atherosclerosis and association between impaired lumbar perfusion and low back pain. It will also give specific guidance on exercise and nutrition to help treat these potential underlying and contributory mechanisms of spine pathology...
October 6, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Emily L Aaronson, Michael R Filbin, David F M Brown, Kathy Tobin, Elizabeth A Mort
BACKGROUND: The release of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service's (CMS) latest quality measure, Severe Sepsis/Septic Shock Early Management Bundle (SEP-1), has intensified the long-standing debate over optimal care for severe sepsis and septic shock. Although the last decade of research has demonstrated the importance of comprehensive bundled care in conjunction with compliance mechanisms to reduce patient mortality, it is not clear that SEP-1 achieves this aim. The heterogeneous and often cryptic presentation of severe sepsis and septic shock, along with the multifaceted criteria for the definition of this clinical syndrome, pose a particular challenge for fitting requirements to this disease, and implementation could have unintended consequences...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ahmad Sabbahi, Ross Arena, Ahmed Elokda, Shane A Phillips
Hypertension (HTN) has recently been determined to be the number one overall risk factor of disease. With direct and indirect costs amounting to $46.4 billion in 2011 and projections of six-fold increases by 2030, the importance of low-cost nonpharmacological interventions can be appreciated. Vascular structural changes, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic overstimulation are major contributing factors to the pathophysiology of HTN. Exercise training (ET) for blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to be an effective and integral component of nonpharmacological interventions for BP control...
September 30, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
P-M Leprêtre, M Ghannem, S Delanaud, T Porcher, A Barnabé, L Gaillard, N Jaunet, T Weissland
: Exercise prescription was generally based on the determination of ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Changes in surface electromyographic activity (EMGth1, EMGth2) were also related to VT1 and VT2 in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: To observe the occurrence of EMGth1 and EMGth2 and whether these events accompany VT1 and VT2 during CPX in cardiac patients (CP). METHOD: Thirty-four CP (62.1±7.3years, 172...
September 30, 2016: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Sara Saberi, Sharlene M Day
Inherited cardiomyopathies have highly variable expression in terms of symptoms, functional limitations, and disease severity. Associated risk of sudden cardiac death is also variable. International guidelines currently recommend restriction of all athletes with cardiomyopathy from participation in competitive sports. While the guidelines are necessarily conservative because predictive risk factors for exercise-triggered SCD have not been clearly identified, the risk is clearly not uniform across all athletes and all sports...
November 2016: Cardiology Clinics
Mark J Haykowsky, Kathryn M Daniel, Paul S Bhella, Satyam Sarma, Dalane W Kitzman
The primary chronic symptom in patients with clinically stable heart failure (HF) is reduced exercise tolerance, measured as decreased peak aerobic power (peak oxygen consumption [Vo2]), and is associated with reduced quality of life and survival. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (EBCR) is a safe and effective intervention to improve peak Vo2, muscle strength, physical functional performance, and quality of life and is associated with a reduction in overall and HF-specific hospitalization in clinically stable patients with HF...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Thomas M Gooding, Mark A Feger, Joseph M Hart, Jay Hertel
CONTEXT:  The intrinsic foot muscles maintain the medial longitudinal arch and aid in force distribution and postural control during gait. Impaired intrinsic foot-muscle function has been linked to various foot conditions. Several rehabilitative exercises have been proposed to improve it; however, literature that identifies which individual muscles are activated during specific intrinsic foot-muscle exercises is lacking. OBJECTIVE:  To describe changes in activation of the intrinsic plantar foot muscles after 4 exercises as measured with T2 time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
C Duchesne, F Gheysen, A Bore, G Albouy, A Nadeau, M E Robillard, F Bobeuf, A L Lafontaine, O Lungu, L Bherer, J Doyon
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to provide general health benefits, and to improve motor behaviours in particular, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of AET on their motor learning capacities, as well as the change in neural substrates mediating this effect remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we employed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of a 3-month AET program on the neural correlates of implicit motor sequence learning (MSL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lisa Wickerson, Dmitry Rozenberg, Tania Janaudis-Ferreira, Robin Deliva, Vincent Lo, Gary Beauchamp, Denise Helm, Chaya Gottesman, Polyana Mendes, Luciana Vieira, Margaret Herridge, Lianne G Singer, Sunita Mathur
Physical rehabilitation of lung transplant candidates and recipients plays an important in optimizing physical function prior to transplant and facilitating recovery of function post-transplant. As medical and surgical interventions in lung transplantation have evolved over time, there has been a demographic shift of individuals undergoing lung transplantation including older individuals, those with multiple co-morbidites, and candidates with respiratory failure requiring bridging to transplantation. These changes have an impact on the rehabilitation needs of lung transplant candidates and recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Johann Beaudreuil, Jean Marie Coudreuse, Christelle N Guyen, Philippe Deat, Aurore Chabaud, Bruno Pereira, Alain Lorenzo, Frédéric Sailhan, François Rannou, Emmanuel Coudeyre
OBJECTIVE: To develop an algorithm to help orthosis prescription for knee osteoarthritis patients. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Systematic review of the literature using a qualitative analysis on Pubmed databases, Cochrane Library and Pedro from 1966 to 2015, using the keywords "knee osteoarthritis", "orthosis" with recommendations and highest quality trials. Development of a preliminary version of the algorithm using data from the literature and taking into account experience of different health professionals involved in the management of osteoarthritis patients...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Tiphaine Bourseau, Flavie Fremondière, Valérie Dubus, Bénédicte Gohier, Dewi Le Gal, Fabien Cave, Isabelle Richard, Nicolas Lerolle
OBJECTIVE: After critical illness, some survivors experience long-term physical, functional, neurocognitive and/or mental health impairments, which has been termed "Post-Intensive Care syndrome" (PICS) [1]. A specific follow-up is required and many specialized follow-up clinics have been created both abroad and in France. The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term outcomes after critical illness, through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and to analyse rehabilitation needs after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Pallav Deka, Bunny Pozehl, Mark A Williams, Bernice Yates
Exercise training has been shown to be beneficial in patients with heart failure, and its effectiveness is connected to adherence to the exercise program. Nonetheless, adherence to exercise in these patients remains a concern. Heart failure patients can be considered adherent to an exercise program if they meet 80 % of the recommended dose. We summarize exercise recommendations for patients with heart failure, identify exercise prescription methodologies used in studies that have reported exercise adherence, identify strategies and tools used to improve adherence and examine whether these strategies were developed using a theoretical platform with the primary aim to change behavior and improve adherence to exercise...
September 26, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Elizabeth F Nagle, Mary E Sanders, Bethany B Gibbs, Barry A Franklin, Jacquelyn A Nagle, Philip J Prins, Caleb D Johnson, Robert J Robertson
A standardized fitness assessment is critical for the development of an individualized exercise prescription. Although the benefits of aquatic exercise have been well established, there remains the need for a standardized non-swimming protocol to accurately assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in shallow water. The present investigation was designed to assess: 1) reliability of a standardized Shallow Water Run (SWR) test of CRF; and 2) accuracy of a standardized SWR compared with a land-based treadmill test (LTM)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sophie Heywood, Jodie McClelland, Benjamin Mentiplay, Paula Geigle, Ann Rahmann, Ross Clark
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of aquatic exercise in improving lower limb strength in people with musculoskeletal conditions. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search utilized five databases including MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, SPORTdiscus and The Cochrane Library. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials evaluating aquatic exercise with a resistance training component for adults with musculoskeletal conditions compared with no intervention or land-based exercise were identified...
September 22, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Simon Spencer, Alex Wolf, Alison Rushton
CONTEXT:  Identification of strategies to prevent spinal injury, optimize rehabilitation, and enhance performance is a priority for practitioners. Different exercises produce different effects on neuromuscular performance. Clarity of the purpose of a prescribed exercise is central to a successful outcome. Spinal exercises need to be classified according to the objective of the exercise and planned physical outcome. OBJECTIVE:  To define the modifiable spinal abilities that underpin optimal function during skilled athletic performance, clarify the effect of spinal pain and pathologic conditions, and classify spinal exercises according to the objective of the exercise and intended physical outcomes to inform training and rehabilitation...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Stacy A Mandras, Hector O Ventura, Paul A Corris
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and fatal disease. While many treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life, exercise tolerance, and hemodynamics in PAH, survival remains poor, in part due to the advanced stage at which patients present to PAH specialists. METHODS: This perspective paper explores challenges related to the timing of referral, diagnosis, and initiation of therapy. RESULTS: Multiple factors account for the delay in referral, including fallacies in physician education, commercial influence resulting in inappropriate prescribing practices, and barriers in access to care...
2016: Ochsner Journal
Nick W Bray, Rowan R Smart, Jennifer M Jakobi, Gareth R Jones
Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome caused by physiological deficits across multiple systems. These deficits make it challenging to sustain homeostasis required for the demands of everyday life. Exercise is likely the best therapy to reverse frailty status. Literature to date suggests that pre-frail older adults, those with 1-2 deficits on the Cardiovascular Health Study-Frailty Phenotype (CHS-frailty phenotype), should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated but resistance and balance activities should be emphasized...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Raffaele Bruno, Elisabetta Petrella, Valentina Bertarini, Giulia Pedrielli, Isabella Neri, Fabio Facchinetti
This study aims to determine whether the prescription of a detailed lifestyle programme in overweight/obese pregnant women influences the occurrence of gestational diabetes (GDM), and if this kind of prescription increases the adherence to a healthier lifestyle in comparison to standard care. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial, with open allocation, enrolling women at 9-12 weeks of pregnancy with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) . The women assigned to the Intervention group (I = 96) received a hypocaloric, low-glycaemic, low-saturated fat diet and physical activity recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
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