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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713963/sexual-dimorphism-of-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment-potential-underlying-mechanisms-review
#1
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'onofrio, Tao Wu, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo, Zhuowei Yu
The aim of the present study was to assess systematically gender differences in susceptibility to frailty and cognitive performance decline, and the underlying mechanisms. A systematic assessment was performed of the identified reviews of cohort, mechanistic and epidemiological studies. The selection criteria of the present study included: i) Sexual dimorphism of frailty, ii) sexual dimorphism of subjective memory decline (impairment) and atrophy of hippocampus during early life, iii) sexual dimorphism of late‑onset Alzheimer's disease and iv) sexual dimorphism mechanisms underlying frailty and cognitive impairment...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707283/multimodal-physical-activity-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-improves-cognition-in-institutionalized-older-women
#2
Kelem Vedovelli, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Andréa Wieck, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women...
July 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706566/motor-vehicle-collisions-caused-by-the-super-strength-synthetic-cannabinoids-mam-2201-5f-pb-22-5f-ab-pinaca-5f-amb-and-5f-adb-in-japan-experienced-from-2012-to-2014
#3
REVIEW
Shuji Kaneko
From 2012 to 2014 in Japan, 214 cases of motor vehicle collisions were attributed to the use of illegal drugs. In 93 out of 96 investigated cases, the causative agents were a variety of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). These SCs can be classified into three groups according to the lineage of the chemical structures: (1) naphthoyl indoles, such as MAM-2201, (2) quinolinyl ester indoles, such as 5F-PB-22, and (3) indazole carboxamides, such as 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-AMB, and 5F-ADB. These SCs became available sequentially with increasing cannabinoid CB1 agonist potencies and reached a nationwide outbreak in the summer of 2014...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684590/heat-acclimation-has-a-protective-effect-on-the-central-but-not-peripheral-nervous-system
#4
Sebastien Racinais, Mathew G Wilson, Nadia Gaoua, Julien D Périard
This study aimed to clarify the pathway mediating hyperthermia-induced alterations in neural drive transmission, and determine if heat acclimation protects voluntary muscle activation and cognitive function in hyperthermic humans. Electrically evoked potentials (H-reflex and M-wave), executive function (special planning and working memory) and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (120 s) were assessed in fourteen participants in control condition (CON, 24ºC, 40% RH) and hyperthermic states (HYP, 44-50ºC, 50% RH), on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681943/exercise-makes-your-brain-bigger-skeletal-muscle-vegf-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#5
Heather J Ballard
The hippocampus plays an important role in learning and memory. Unlike most brain cells (whose numbers are fixed before birth), thousands of new hippocampal granule cells continue to be generated every day throughout adult life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677012/persistent-impairments-3%C3%A2-years-after-neo-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer-results-from-the-matox-project
#6
Hans-Jürgen Hurtz, Hans Tesch, Thomas Göhler, Ulrich Hutzschenreuter, Johanna Harde, Lisa Kruggel, Martina Jänicke, Norbert Marschner
PURPOSE: Although treatment for early breast cancer improved prognosis greatly, it can have significant long-term consequences, which must be considered during treatment decision. METHODS: 453 patients with neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment intention were recruited into the MaTox project within the prospective, multicentre, population-based German TMK cohort study (Tumour Registry Breast Cancer) between 2008 and 2009. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) on 26 treatment-related symptoms were assessed via a specifically designed questionnaire at 4 weeks, 6 months, 18 months and 3 years after start of systemic treatment...
July 5, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673760/the-influence-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#7
Paulo Bugalho, Marcelo Mendonça, Raquel Barbosa, Manuel Salavisa
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Because both REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) can present with similar symptoms, it is important to understand the influence of OSA in the clinical manifestations of RBD and whether RBD modulates OSA severity. Our objectives were to compare: 1. the intensity of non-motor symptoms between RBD patients with (RBD-OSA) and without OSA (RBD-non-OSA), and 2. polysomnographic features between RBD-OSA and OSA without RBD (OSA-non-RBD) patients...
June 1, 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666833/ludwigia-octovalvis-extract-improves-glycemic-control-and-memory-performance-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Wei-Sheng Lin, Jung-Hsin Lo, Jo-Hsuan Yang, Hao-Wei Wang, Shou-Zen Fan, Jui-Hung Yen, Pei-Yu Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae) extracts have historically been consumed as a healthful drink for treating various conditions, including edema, nephritis, hypotension and diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: We have previously shown that Ludwigia octovalvis extract (LOE) can significantly extend lifespan and improve age-related memory deficits in Drosophila melanogaster through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655701/impact-of-oral-supplementation-of-glutamate-and-gaba-on-memory-performance-and-neurochemical-profile-in-hippocampus-of-rats
#9
Saiqa Tabassum, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Saima Khaliq, Sidrah Shahzad, Zehra Batool, Saida Haider
Glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) are essential amino acids (AA) for brain function serving as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter respectively. Their tablets are available in market for improving gut function and muscle performance. Despite of having a major role during memory formation and processing, effects of these tablets on brain functioning like learning and memory have not been investigated. Therefore, present study is aimed to investigate the effects of orally supplemented GLU and GABA on learning and memory performance and further to monitor related effects of these orally supplemented GLU and GABA on brain levels of these AA...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653925/nsaids-ameliorate-cognitive-and-motor-impairment-in-a-model-of-parkinsonism-induced-by-chlorpromazine
#10
Sadaf Naeem, Rahila Ikram, Saira Saeed Khan, Sadia Saleem Rao
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-lasting neurodegenerative brain disease. It is characterized by a gradual decline in motor and non motor symptoms especially postural instability, tremors and memory impairment with localized loss of neurons mainly in the Substantia nigra. In the current research we evaluated the effects of Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on motor coordination and memory in chlorpromazine (CPZ) induced Parkinson's experimental model. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CPZ (3 mg/kg) was given to all rats for 21 days to induce Parkinson like symptoms; ibuprofen (40mg/kg/day) and celecoxib (20mg/kg) were administered 30 minutes after CPZ injection...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621563/reduced-mastication-impairs-memory-function
#11
Y Fukushima-Nakayama, Takehito Ono, M Hayashi, M Inoue, H Wake, Takashi Ono, T Nakashima
Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592561/vaccine-priming-is-restricted-to-draining-lymph-nodes-and-controlled-by-adjuvant-mediated-antigen-uptake
#12
Frank Liang, Gustaf Lindgren, Kerrie J Sandgren, Elizabeth A Thompson, Joseph R Francica, Anja Seubert, Ennio De Gregorio, Susan Barnett, Derek T O'Hagan, Nancy J Sullivan, Richard A Koup, Robert A Seder, Karin Loré
The innate immune mechanisms by which adjuvants enhance the potency and protection of vaccine-induced adaptive immunity are largely unknown. We introduce a model to delineate the steps of how adjuvant-driven innate immune activation leads to priming of vaccine responses using rhesus macaques. Fluorescently labeled HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) was administered together with the conventional aluminum salt (alum) adjuvant. This was compared to Env given with alum with preabsorbed Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) ligand (alum-TLR7) or the emulsion MF59 because they show superiority over alum for qualitatively and quantitatively improved vaccine responses...
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577103/neuromotor-activity-anxiety-and-cognitive-function-in-the-in-vivo-model-of-alimentary-hyperlipidemia-and-obesity
#13
S A Apryatin, Yu S Sidorova, V A Shipelin, A Balakina, N V Trusov, V K Mazo
Behavioral indicators characterizing specific features of the pathological process of alimentary-dependent diseases were studied using in vivo model of alimentary hyperlipidemia in rats and mice. Rats and mice of the control groups received balanced semisynthetic diet for 63 days; animals of the experimental groups received a diet with high fat content (30% dry weight), balanced or high-fat diet with fructose solution instead of water, balanced cholesterol-enriched diet (0.5% dry weight), or balanced cholesterol-enriched diet with fructose solution...
June 3, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576261/-critical-analysis-of-reference-studies-on-aluminium-based-adjuvants-toxicokinetics
#14
REVIEW
J-D Masson, G Crépeaux, F-J Authier, C Exley, R K Gherardi
We reviewed the three reference toxicokinetic studies commonly used to suggest innocuity of aluminum (Al)-based adjuvants. A single experimental study was carried out using isotopic (26)Al (Flarend et al., 1997). This study ignored adjuvant cell capture. It was conducted over a short period of time (28 days) and used only two rabbits per adjuvant. At the endpoint, Al retention was 78% for aluminum phosphate and 94% for aluminum hydroxide, both results being incompatible with quick elimination of vaccine-derived Al in urines...
May 30, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574478/toxoplasma-gondii-moderates-the-association-between-multiple-folate-cycle-factors-and-cognitive-function-in-u-s-adults
#15
Andrew N Berrett, Shawn D Gale, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a microscopic, apicomplexan parasite that can infect muscle or neural tissue, including the brain, in humans. While T. gondii infection has been associated with changes in mood, behavior, and cognition, the mechanism remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that T. gondii may harvest folate from host neural cells. Reduced folate availability is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cognitive decline. We hypothesized that impairment in cognitive functioning in subjects seropositive for T...
June 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564651/pro-angiogenesis-therapy-and-aging-a-mini-review
#16
Charles T Ambrose
Apart from major illnesses and chronic afflictions, the elderly experience lesser ailments, such as muscle weakness, cold intolerance, and transient memory lapses. Physical signs in the aged include wrinkled skin and the slow healing of skin abrasions. These ailments and signs are grouped together because they may be due in part to an age-linked, waning microcirculation. A reduced capillary density (CD) throughout the body of aged people and animals has been reported in over 40 papers. The reduced CD is due in turn to declining levels of angiogenic growth factors (AGFs) throughout the body during old age, as documented in 7 reports in the literature...
June 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559180/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-by-short-term-aerobic-exercise-in-adult-mice
#17
G D'Arcangelo, T Triossi, A Buglione, G Melchiorri, V Tancredi
Physiological effects of different types, of continuous and interval aerobic training, have been largely described and studied in the adult man. It was previously indicated that interval training plays an important role in maximizing both peripheral muscle and central cardiorespiratory adaptations, permitting significant functional improvement even in healthy sedentary subjects. Since the outcome of different aerobic training trials on cognitive processes had never been evaluated, we compared, on an experimental mouse model, the effects of four training exercise protocols, named respectively C100, I100, C50 and I50 depending on the volume and on the type of training proposed, continuous or interval method...
May 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545587/type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-induce-similar-transcriptional-reprogramming-in-human-myocytes
#18
Leif Väremo, Tora Ida Henriksen, Camilla Scheele, Christa Broholm, Maria Pedersen, Mathias Uhlén, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is one of the primary tissues involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The close association between obesity and T2D makes it difficult to isolate specific effects attributed to the disease alone. Therefore, here we set out to identify and characterize intrinsic properties of myocytes, associated independently with T2D or obesity. METHODS: We generated and analyzed RNA-seq data from primary differentiated myotubes from 24 human subjects, using a factorial design (healthy/T2D and non-obese/obese), to determine the influence of each specific factor on genome-wide transcription...
May 25, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540725/bioinspired-3d-multilayered-shape-memory-scaffold-with-a-hierarchically-changeable-micropatterned-surface-for-efficient-vascularization
#19
Dian Liu, Tao Xiang, Tao Gong, Tian Tian, Xian Liu, Shaobing Zhou
How to achieve three-dimensional (3D) cell alignment and subsequent prompt tissue regeneration remains a great challenge. Here, inspired by the interior 3D architecture of native arteries, we develop a new 3D multilayered shape memory vascular scaffold with a hierarchically changeable micropatterned surface for vascularization. The shape memory function renders the implantation of the scaffold safe and convenient via minimally invasive surgery. By co-culturing endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) on the 3D multilayered structure, the inner monolayer, which has a square micropatterned surface, can promote EC adhesion and migration, resulting in a rapid endothelialization, and the outer multilayers, which have rectangular micropatterned surfaces, can induce a circumferential alignment of VSMCs...
June 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529527/skeletal-muscle-cell-induction-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
REVIEW
Yusaku Kodaka, Gemachu Rabu, Atsushi Asakura
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle...
2017: Stem Cells International
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