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Muscle memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915162/the-effect-of-perinatal-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-on-adult-mice-behavior
#1
Miski Aghnia Khairinisa, Yusuke Takatsuru, Izuki Amano, Khongorzul Erdene, Takahito Nakajima, Satomi Kameo, Hiroshi Koyama, Yoshito Tsushima, Noriyuki Koibuchi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perinatal exposure to gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on the behavior of adulthood offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Balb/C mice (n = 5 per group) were intravenously injected with gadoterate meglumine (Magnescope, macrocyclic GBCA), gadodiamide (Omniscan, linear GBCA), or vehicle from pregnancy day 15 to 19, corresponding to embryonic day 15 to 19 of the fetus, at 2 mmol/kg body weight per day...
September 14, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888298/rehabilitation-in-the-acute-versus-outpatient-setting
#2
REVIEW
Gabriel Hundeshagen, Oscar E Suman, Ludwik K Branski
Rehabilitation of patients with burn injuries aims to restore strength, coordination, and mobility as closely to normal as possible and should begin immediately after initial admission. In the acute phase, baseline assessments are made against which all subsequent rehabilitation success is held. In the intermediate phase, active, full range-of-motion movement, ambulation of steadily increasing distances, and resistive exercise and stretching aid in the prevention of muscle and bone atrophy and preserve muscle memory and coordination...
October 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853161/jaw-sensorimotor-control-in-healthy-adults-and-effects-of-aging
#3
REVIEW
Limor Avivi-Arber, Barry J Sessle
The orofacial sensorimotor system is a unique system significantly distinguished from the spinal sensorimotor system. The jaw muscles are involved in mastication, swallowing and articulatory speech movements and their integration with respiration. These sensorimotor functions are vital for sustaining life and necessitate complex neuromuscular processing to provide for exquisite sensorimotor control of numerous orofacial muscles. The function of the jaw muscles in relation to sensorimotor control of these movements may be subject to aging-related declines...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846707/kek-6-a-truncated-trk-like-receptor-for-drosophila-neurotrophin-2-regulates-structural-synaptic-plasticity
#4
Suzana Ulian-Benitez, Simon Bishop, Istvan Foldi, Jill Wentzell, Chinenye Okenwa, Manuel G Forero, Bangfu Zhu, Marta Moreira, Mark Phizacklea, Graham McIlroy, Guiyi Li, Nicholas J Gay, Alicia Hidalgo
Neurotrophism, structural plasticity, learning and long-term memory in mammals critically depend on neurotrophins binding Trk receptors to activate tyrosine kinase (TyrK) signaling, but Drosophila lacks full-length Trks, raising the question of how these processes occur in the fly. Paradoxically, truncated Trk isoforms lacking the TyrK predominate in the adult human brain, but whether they have neuronal functions independently of full-length Trks is unknown. Drosophila has TyrK-less Trk-family receptors, encoded by the kekkon (kek) genes, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved functions for this receptor class may exist...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835127/unraveling-the-complex-story-of-immune-responses-to-aav-vectors-trial-after-trial
#5
Celine Vandamme, Oumeya Adjali, Federico Mingozzi
Over the past decade, vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) have established themselves as a powerful tool for in vivo gene transfer, allowing long-lasting and safe transgene expression in a variety of human tissues. Nevertheless, clinical trials demonstrated how B and T cell immune responses directed against the AAV capsid, likely arising after natural infection with wild-type AAV, might potentially impact gene transfer safety and efficacy in patients. Seroprevalence studies have evidenced that most individuals carry anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies that can inhibit rAAV transduction of target cells following in vivo administration of vector particles...
August 23, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830124/postmortem-fluid-and-tissue-concentrations-of-thc-11-oh-thc-and-thc-cooh
#6
Sunday R Saenz, Russell J Lewis, Mike K Angier, Jarrad R Wagner
Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug worldwide. Marijuana is used for its euphoric and relaxing properties. However, marijuana use has been shown to result in impaired memory, cognitive skills and psychomotor function. The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute conducts toxicological analysis on aviation fatalities. Due to severe trauma associated with aviation accidents, blood is not always available; therefore, the laboratory must rely on specimens other than blood for toxicological analysis in ~30-40% of cases...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827285/cxcr3-signaling-is-required-for-restricted-homing-of-parenteral-tuberculosis-vaccine-induced-t-cells-to-both-the-lung-parenchyma-and-airway
#7
Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Sam Afkhami, Amandeep Khera, Talveer Mandur, Daniela Damjanovic, Yushi Yao, Rocky Lai, Siamak Haddadi, Anna Dvorkin-Gheva, Manel Jordana, Steven L Kunkel, Zhou Xing
Although most novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines are designed for delivery via the muscle or skin for enhanced protection in the lung, it has remained poorly understood whether systemic vaccine-induced memory T cells can readily home to the lung mucosa prior to and shortly after pathogen exposure. We have investigated this issue by using a model of parenteral TB immunization and intravascular immunostaining. We find that systemically induced memory T cells are restricted to the blood vessels in the lung, unable to populate either the lung parenchymal tissue or the airway under homeostatic conditions...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818539/playing-a-rigged-game-inequality-s-effect-on-physiological-stress-responses
#8
Martin S Shapiro, Rhanda Rylant, Amanda de Lima, Andrea Vidaurri, Herman van de Werfhorst
High income and wealth inequality corresponds with high rates of various health and social problems. One possible factor that could be contributing to this correlation is stress experienced by those being treated unfairly in an unequal society. The present experiment attempted to simulate aspects of income inequality in a lab setting while recording several measures of stress. Participants (n=96) were assigned to one of four groups and played a memory game against a confederate opponent to earn "money" to spend in a lab market...
August 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807038/nlr-mlp-svm-and-lda-a-comparative-analysis-on-emg-data-from-people-with-trans-radial-amputation
#9
Alberto Dellacasa Bellingegni, Emanuele Gruppioni, Giorgio Colazzo, Angelo Davalli, Rinaldo Sacchetti, Eugenio Guglielmelli, Loredana Zollo
BACKGROUND: Currently, the typically adopted hand prosthesis surface electromyography (sEMG) control strategies do not provide the users with a natural control feeling and do not exploit all the potential of commercially available multi-fingered hand prostheses. Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques applied to sEMG can be effective for a natural control based on the residual muscles contraction of amputated people corresponding to phantom limb movements. As the researches has reached an advanced grade accuracy, these algorithms have been proved and the embedding is necessary for the realization of prosthetic devices...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795001/evaluation-and-management-of-sport-related-concussions-in-adolescent-athletes
#10
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Venu Parachuri, Amrith Shettigar
Sport-related concussions in young athletes are common, generally under reported and often go unrecognized. Concussion in sport may result either from a direct impact to the head or from indirect forces transmitted to the brain from impact elsewhere on the body. Concussions may also result from sudden acceleration, deceleration or rotational forces to the brain. The key features of concussion include confusion, impaired memory and reduced speed of information processing. Recovery may occur from a few days to several weeks or months...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782078/leg-local-neural-mechanisms-for-searching-and-learning-enhance-robotic-locomotion
#11
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Roger D Quinn
Adapting motor output based on environmental forces is critical for successful locomotion in the real world. Arthropods use at least two neural mechanisms to adjust muscle activation while walking based on detected forces. Mechanism 1 uses negative feedback of leg depressor force to ensure that each stance leg supports an appropriate amount of the body's weight. Mechanism 2 encourages searching for ground contact if the leg supports no body weight. We expand the neural controller for MantisBot, a robot based upon a praying mantis, to include these mechanisms by incorporating leg-local memory and command neurons, as observed in arthropods...
August 7, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779801/editorial-commentary-the-grapefruit-so-much-more-than-an-annoying-breakfast-item-a-valuable-tool-for-arthroscopic-simulation-training
#12
EDITORIAL
Laith M Jazrawi
As our industry is continually developing more technologically advanced and expensive virtual training equipment, the grapefruit may represent an economic and accessible approach to arthroscopic simulation. This won't replace simulators, but it could become an important tool in the armamentarium of arthroscopic educators as it provides inexpensive haptic feedback necessary to create the muscle memory pathways for the improvement of arthroscopic skills.
August 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777180/sleep-wake-disorders-of-childhood
#13
Suresh Kotagal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders occur in 10% to 28% of children and differ somewhat in pathophysiology and management from sleep-wake disorders in adults. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of key childhood sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of sleep in memory consolidation and in the facilitation of learning has been increasingly recognized, even at the toddler stage. Cataplexy, a key feature of narcolepsy type 1, may be subtle in childhood and characterized by transient muscle weakness isolated to the face...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729438/electrophysiological-evidence-that-the-retrosplenial-cortex-displays-a-strong-and-specific-activation-phased-with-hippocampal-theta-during-paradoxical-rem-sleep
#14
Bruna Del Vechio Koike, Kelly Soares Farias, Francesca Billwiller, Daniel Almeida-Filho, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Alix Tiran-Cappello, Régis Parmentier, Wilfredo Blanco, Sidarta Ribeiro, Pierre-Herve Luppi, Claudio Marcos Queiroz
It is widely accepted that cortical neurons are similarly more activated during waking and paradoxical sleep (PS; aka REM) than during slow-wave sleep (SWS). However, we recently reported using Fos labeling that only a few limbic cortical structures including the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACA) contain a large number of neurons activated during PS hypersomnia. Our aim in the present study was to record local field potentials and unit activity from these two structures across all vigilance states in freely moving male rats to determine whether the RSC and the ACA are electrophysiologically specifically active during basal PS episodes...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720467/intradermal-immunization-with-raav1-vector-induces-robust-memory-cd8-t-cell-responses-independently-of-transgene-expression-in-dcs
#15
Alexandre Ghenassia, David-Alexandre Gross, Stéphanie Lorain, Fabiola Tros, Dominique Urbain, Sofia Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Alain Charbit, Jean Davoust, Pascal Chappert
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors exhibit interesting properties as vaccine carriers for their ability to induce long-lasting antibody responses. However, rAAV-based vaccines have been suggested to trigger functionally impaired long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses, in part due to poor dendritic cell (DC) transduction. Such results, albeit limited to intramuscular immunization, undermined the use of rAAV as vaccine vehicles against intracellular pathogens. We report here that intradermal immunization with a model rAAV2/1-based vaccine drives the development of bona fide long-term memory CD8(+) T cell responses...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713963/sexual-dimorphism-of-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment-potential-underlying-mechanisms-review
#16
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'onofrio, Tao Wu, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo, Zhuowei Yu
The aim of the present study was to assess systematically gender differences in susceptibility to frailty and cognitive performance decline, and the underlying mechanisms. A systematic assessment was performed of the identified reviews of cohort, mechanistic and epidemiological studies. The selection criteria of the present study included: i) Sexual dimorphism of frailty, ii) sexual dimorphism of subjective memory decline (impairment) and atrophy of hippocampus during early life, iii) sexual dimorphism of late‑onset Alzheimer's disease and iv) sexual dimorphism mechanisms underlying frailty and cognitive impairment...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707283/multimodal-physical-activity-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-improves-cognition-in-institutionalized-older-women
#17
Kelem Vedovelli, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Andréa Wieck, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women...
July 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706566/motor-vehicle-collisions-caused-by-the-super-strength-synthetic-cannabinoids-mam-2201-5f-pb-22-5f-ab-pinaca-5f-amb-and-5f-adb-in-japan-experienced-from-2012-to-2014
#18
REVIEW
Shuji Kaneko
From 2012 to 2014 in Japan, 214 cases of motor vehicle collisions were attributed to the use of illegal drugs. In 93 out of 96 investigated cases, the causative agents were a variety of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). These SCs can be classified into three groups according to the lineage of the chemical structures: (1) naphthoyl indoles, such as MAM-2201, (2) quinolinyl ester indoles, such as 5F-PB-22, and (3) indazole carboxamides, such as 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-AMB, and 5F-ADB. These SCs became available sequentially with increasing cannabinoid CB1 agonist potencies and reached a nationwide outbreak in the summer of 2014...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684590/heat-acclimation-has-a-protective-effect-on-the-central-but-not-peripheral-nervous-system
#19
Sebastien Racinais, Mathew G Wilson, Nadia Gaoua, Julien D Périard
This study aimed to clarify the pathway mediating hyperthermia-induced alterations in neural drive transmission, and determine if heat acclimation protects voluntary muscle activation and cognitive function in hyperthermic humans. Electrically evoked potentials (H-reflex and M-wave), executive function (special planning and working memory) and maximal voluntary isometric contractions (120 s) were assessed in fourteen participants in control condition (CON, 24ºC, 40% RH) and hyperthermic states (HYP, 44-50ºC, 50% RH), on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681943/exercise-makes-your-brain-bigger-skeletal-muscle-vegf-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#20
Heather J Ballard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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