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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621563/reduced-mastication-impairs-memory-function
#1
Y Fukushima-Nakayama, Takehito Ono, M Hayashi, M Inoue, H Wake, Takashi Ono, T Nakashima
Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592561/vaccine-priming-is-restricted-to-draining-lymph-nodes-and-controlled-by-adjuvant-mediated-antigen-uptake
#2
Frank Liang, Gustaf Lindgren, Kerrie J Sandgren, Elizabeth A Thompson, Joseph R Francica, Anja Seubert, Ennio De Gregorio, Susan Barnett, Derek T O'Hagan, Nancy J Sullivan, Richard A Koup, Robert A Seder, Karin Loré
The innate immune mechanisms by which adjuvants enhance the potency and protection of vaccine-induced adaptive immunity are largely unknown. We introduce a model to delineate the steps of how adjuvant-driven innate immune activation leads to priming of vaccine responses using rhesus macaques. Fluorescently labeled HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) was administered together with the conventional aluminum salt (alum) adjuvant. This was compared to Env given with alum with preabsorbed Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) ligand (alum-TLR7) or the emulsion MF59 because they show superiority over alum for qualitatively and quantitatively improved vaccine responses...
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577103/neuromotor-activity-anxiety-and-cognitive-function-in-the-in-vivo-model-of-alimentary-hyperlipidemia-and-obesity
#3
S A Apryatin, Yu S Sidorova, V A Shipelin, A Balakina, N V Trusov, V K Mazo
Behavioral indicators characterizing specific features of the pathological process of alimentary-dependent diseases were studied using in vivo model of alimentary hyperlipidemia in rats and mice. Rats and mice of the control groups received balanced semisynthetic diet for 63 days; animals of the experimental groups received a diet with high fat content (30% dry weight), balanced or high-fat diet with fructose solution instead of water, balanced cholesterol-enriched diet (0.5% dry weight), or balanced cholesterol-enriched diet with fructose solution...
June 3, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576261/-critical-analysis-of-reference-studies-on-aluminium-based-adjuvants-toxicokinetics
#4
REVIEW
J-D Masson, G Crépeaux, F-J Authier, C Exley, R K Gherardi
We reviewed the three reference toxicokinetic studies commonly used to suggest innocuity of aluminum (Al)-based adjuvants. A single experimental study was carried out using isotopic (26)Al (Flarend et al., 1997). This study ignored adjuvant cell capture. It was conducted over a short period of time (28 days) and used only two rabbits per adjuvant. At the endpoint, Al retention was 78% for aluminum phosphate and 94% for aluminum hydroxide, both results being incompatible with quick elimination of vaccine-derived Al in urines...
May 30, 2017: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574478/toxoplasma-gondii-moderates-the-association-between-multiple-folate-cycle-factors-and-cognitive-function-in-u-s-adults
#5
Andrew N Berrett, Shawn D Gale, Lance D Erickson, Bruce L Brown, Dawson W Hedges
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a microscopic, apicomplexan parasite that can infect muscle or neural tissue, including the brain, in humans. While T. gondii infection has been associated with changes in mood, behavior, and cognition, the mechanism remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that T. gondii may harvest folate from host neural cells. Reduced folate availability is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cognitive decline. We hypothesized that impairment in cognitive functioning in subjects seropositive for T...
June 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564651/pro-angiogenesis-therapy-and-aging-a-mini-review
#6
Charles T Ambrose
Apart from major illnesses and chronic afflictions, the elderly experience lesser ailments, such as muscle weakness, cold intolerance, and transient memory lapses. Physical signs in the aged include wrinkled skin and the slow healing of skin abrasions. These ailments and signs are grouped together because they may be due in part to an age-linked, waning microcirculation. A reduced capillary density (CD) throughout the body of aged people and animals has been reported in over 40 papers. The reduced CD is due in turn to declining levels of angiogenic growth factors (AGFs) throughout the body during old age, as documented in 7 reports in the literature...
June 1, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559180/modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-by-short-term-aerobic-exercise-in-adult-mice
#7
G D'Arcangelo, T Triossi, A Buglione, G Melchiorri, V Tancredi
Physiological effects of different types, of continuous and interval aerobic training, have been largely described and studied in the adult man. It was previously indicated that interval training plays an important role in maximizing both peripheral muscle and central cardiorespiratory adaptations, permitting significant functional improvement even in healthy sedentary subjects. Since the outcome of different aerobic training trials on cognitive processes had never been evaluated, we compared, on an experimental mouse model, the effects of four training exercise protocols, named respectively C100, I100, C50 and I50 depending on the volume and on the type of training proposed, continuous or interval method...
May 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545587/type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-induce-similar-transcriptional-reprogramming-in-human-myocytes
#8
Leif Väremo, Tora Ida Henriksen, Camilla Scheele, Christa Broholm, Maria Pedersen, Mathias Uhlén, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is one of the primary tissues involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The close association between obesity and T2D makes it difficult to isolate specific effects attributed to the disease alone. Therefore, here we set out to identify and characterize intrinsic properties of myocytes, associated independently with T2D or obesity. METHODS: We generated and analyzed RNA-seq data from primary differentiated myotubes from 24 human subjects, using a factorial design (healthy/T2D and non-obese/obese), to determine the influence of each specific factor on genome-wide transcription...
May 25, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540725/bioinspired-3d-multilayered-shape-memory-scaffold-with-a-hierarchically-changeable-micropatterned-surface-for-efficient-vascularization
#9
Dian Liu, Tao Xiang, Tao Gong, Tian Tian, Xian Liu, Shaobing Zhou
How to achieve three-dimensional (3D) cell alignment and subsequent prompt tissue regeneration remains a great challenge. Here, inspired by the interior 3D architecture of native arteries, we develop a new 3D multilayered shape memory vascular scaffold with a hierarchically changeable micropatterned surface for vascularization. The shape memory function renders the implantation of the scaffold safe and convenient via minimally invasive surgery. By co-culturing endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) on the 3D multilayered structure, the inner monolayer, which has a square micropatterned surface, can promote EC adhesion and migration, resulting in a rapid endothelialization, and the outer multilayers, which have rectangular micropatterned surfaces, can induce a circumferential alignment of VSMCs...
June 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529527/skeletal-muscle-cell-induction-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Yusaku Kodaka, Gemachu Rabu, Atsushi Asakura
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various types of cells including skeletal muscle cells. The approach of converting ESCs/iPSCs into skeletal muscle cells offers hope for patients afflicted with the skeletal muscle diseases such as the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Patient-derived iPSCs are an especially ideal cell source to obtain an unlimited number of myogenic cells that escape immune rejection after engraftment. Currently, there are several approaches to induce differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs to skeletal muscle...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515312/astrocytic-glycogen-derived-lactate-fuels-the-brain-during-exhaustive-exercise-to-maintain-endurance-capacity
#11
Takashi Matsui, Hideki Omuro, Yu-Fan Liu, Mariko Soya, Takeru Shima, Bruce S McEwen, Hideaki Soya
Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507260/reprogramming-cells-from-gulf-war-veterans-into-neurons-to-study-gulf-war-illness
#12
Liang Qiang, Anand N Rao, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Marianne F James, Nicole Comfort, Kimberly Sullivan, Peter W Baas
Gulf War illness (GWI), which afflicts at least 25% of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf, is thought to be caused by deployment exposures to various neurotoxicants, including pesticides, anti-nerve gas pills, and low-level nerve agents including sarin/cyclosarin. GWI is a multisymptom disorder characterized by fatigue, joint pain, cognitive problems, and gastrointestinal complaints. The most prominent symptoms of GWI (memory problems, poor attention/concentration, chronic headaches, mood alterations, and impaired sleep) suggest that the disease primarily affects the CNS...
May 16, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495803/on-the-run-for-hippocampal-plasticity
#13
C'iana Cooper, Hyo Youl Moon, Henriette van Praag
Accumulating research in rodents and humans indicates that exercise benefits brain function and may prevent or delay onset of neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, exercise modifies the structure and function of the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. This review addresses the central and peripheral mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on the hippocampus. We focus on running-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, neural circuitry, neurotrophins, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitters, and vasculature...
May 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473323/gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-4-subunit-knockout-enhances-lung-inflammation-and-airway-reactivity-in-a-murine-asthma-model
#14
Gene T Yocum, Damian L Turner, Jennifer Danielsson, Matthew B Barajas, Yi Zhang, Dingbang Xu, Neil Harrison, Gregg E Homanics, Donna L Farber, Charles W Emala
Emerging evidence indicates that hypnotic anesthetics affect immune function. Many anesthetics potentiate γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) activation, and these receptors are expressed on multiple subtypes of immune cells, providing a potential mechanistic link. Like immune cells, airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells also express GABAARs, particularly isoforms containing α4 subunits, and activation of these receptors leads to ASM relaxation. We sought to determine if GABAAR signaling modulates the ASM contractile and inflammatory phenotype of a murine allergic asthma model utilizing GABAAR α4 subunit global knockout (KO; Gabra4(0/0)) mice...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468263/an-evaluation-of-a-continuing-education-program-for-family-caregivers-of-ventilator-dependent-children-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-sma
#15
Deborah S Boroughs
Until 25 years ago, there were limited options for long-term mechanical ventilation of children, and the majority of children were cared for in hospitals. However, with improving technology, the pediatric intensive care unit has moved from the hospital to a home setting, as children with increasingly complex healthcare needs are now often cared for by family members. One of the most complex care conditions involves ventilator and tracheostomy support. Advanced respiratory technologies that augment natural respiratory function prolong the lives of children with respiratory compromise; however, this care often comes with serious risks, including respiratory muscle impairment, respiratory failure, and chronic pulmonary disease...
April 29, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458714/antiaging-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-combinatory-formulas-based-on-four-medicinal-herbs
#16
Rui Li, Wingman Chan, Waikin Mat, Yiucheong Ho, Rigil K Yeung, Shuiying Tsang, Hong Xue
The objective of the present study was to search for medicinal-herb combinations based on Radix Bupleurum chinense DC ("B"), Rhizoma Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang ("Y"), Caulis Polygonum multiflorum Thunb ("P"), and Flos Albizia julibrissin Durazz ("A") for antiaging, anxiolytic, and sedative effects. Application of the D-galactose induced accelerated-aging model employing male ICR mice showed that oral administration of some combinations of B, Y, P, and A significantly improved spatial memory in Y-maze test and reduced brain levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 based on immunoassays and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde, based on the thiobarbituric acid test, and the loss of whiskers, indicating antiaging and antineurodegeneration effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446119/neurobionics-and-the-brain-computer-interface-current-applications-and-future-horizons
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Yan Tat Wong
The brain-computer interface (BCI) is an exciting advance in neuroscience and engineering. In a motor BCI, electrical recordings from the motor cortex of paralysed humans are decoded by a computer and used to drive robotic arms or to restore movement in a paralysed hand by stimulating the muscles in the forearm. Simultaneously integrating a BCI with the sensory cortex will further enhance dexterity and fine control. BCIs are also being developed to: provide ambulation for paraplegic patients through controlling robotic exoskeletons; restore vision in people with acquired blindness; detect and control epileptic seizures; and improve control of movement disorders and memory enhancement...
May 1, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445755/mapping-ryanodine-binding-sites-in-the-pore-cavity-of-ryanodine-receptors
#18
Van A Ngo, Laura L Perissinotti, Williams Miranda, S R Wayne Chen, Sergei Y Noskov
Ryanodine (Ryd) irreversibly targets ryanodine receptors (RyRs), a family of intracellular calcium release channels essential for many cellular processes ranging from muscle contraction to learning and memory. Little is known of the atomistic details about how Ryd binds to RyRs. In this study, we used all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with both enhanced and bidirectional sampling to gain direct insights into how Ryd interacts with major residues in RyRs that were experimentally determined to be critical for its binding...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418030/the-bmp2-nuclear-variant-nbmp2-is-expressed-in-mouse-hippocampus-and-impacts-memory
#19
Ryan D Cordner, Lindsey N Friend, Jaime L Mayo, Corinne Badgley, Andrew Wallmann, Conrad N Stallings, Peter L Young, Darla R Miles, Jeffrey G Edwards, Laura C Bridgewater
The novel nuclear protein nBMP2 is synthesized from the BMP2 gene by translational initiation at an alternative start codon. We generated a targeted mutant mouse, nBmp2NLS(tm), in which the nuclear localization signal (NLS) was inactivated to prevent nuclear translocation of nBMP2 while still allowing the normal synthesis and secretion of the BMP2 growth factor. These mice exhibit abnormal muscle function due to defective Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that neurological function, which also depends on intracellular Ca(2+) transport, could be affected by the loss of nBMP2...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413654/hepatic-perivascular-epithelioid-cell-neoplasm-a-clinical-and-pathological-experience-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
Wenying Chen, Yeqing Liu, Yanyan Zhuang, Juanfei Peng, Fengting Huang, Shineng Zhang
Hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm (PEComa) is a rare type of neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tumors that is often misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic hemangioma or other liver malignancies. The clinical and histological characteristics of PEComa have yet to be fully documented. To optimize the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, a retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of 7 patients diagnosed with hepatic PEComa in the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital between January 2004 and December 2015...
April 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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