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Muscle memory

John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Qingyu Peng, Hongqiu Wei, Yuyang Qin, Zaishan Lin, Xu Zhao, Fan Xu, Jinsong Leng, Xiaodong He, Anyuan Cao, Yibin Li
Electrical stimulation of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) has many advantages over thermal methods; creating an efficient conductive path through the bulk polymers is essential for developing high performance electroactive systems. Here, we show that a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon nanotube sponge can serve as a built-in integral conductive network to provide internal, homogeneous, in situ Joule heating for shape-memory polymers, thus significantly improving the mechanical and thermal behavior of SMPs. As a result, the 3D nanocomposites show a fast response and produce large exerting forces (with a maximum flexural stress of 14...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Paul Strecker, Susann Ludewig, Marco Rust, Tabea A Mundinger, Andreas Görlich, Elisa G Krächan, Christina Mehrfeld, Joachim Herz, Martin Korte, Suzanne Y Guénette, Stefan Kins
The FE65 adaptor proteins (FE65, FE65L1 and FE65L2) bind proteins that function in diverse cellular pathways and are essential for specific biological processes. Mice lacking both FE65 and FE65L1 exhibit ectopic neuronal positioning in the cortex and muscle weakness. p97FE65-KO mice, expressing a shorter FE65 isoform able to bind amyloid precursor protein family members (APP, APLP1, APLP2), develop defective long-term potentiation (LTP) and aged mice display spatial learning and memory deficits that are absent from young mice...
May 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rameshwar K Sharma, Teresa Duda, Clint L Makino
This monograph presents a historical perspective of cornerstone developments on the biochemistry and physiology of mammalian membrane guanylate cyclases (MGCs), highlighting contributions made by the authors and their collaborators. Upon resolution of early contentious studies, cyclic GMP emerged alongside cyclic AMP, as an important intracellular second messenger for hormonal signaling. However, the two signaling pathways differ in significant ways. In the cyclic AMP pathway, hormone binding to a G protein coupled receptor leads to stimulation or inhibition of an adenylate cyclase, whereas the cyclic GMP pathway dispenses with intermediaries; hormone binds to an MGC to affect its activity...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Matteo Cesari, Yves Rolland, Anne Sophie Salabert, Pierre Payoux, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine the cross-sectional and prospective associations of muscle functional performance as assessed by a chair rise test and brain amyloid load among nondemented older adults with spontaneous memory complaints. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis, with an observational design, using data from the MAPT randomized controlled trial. Individuals assessed for brain amyloid load (florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography) and without clinical dementia (N = 269 aged 75...
September 30, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Farrukh Jamal, Quazi S Haque, Sangram Singh
BACKGROUND: Diverse group of agro-chemicals are indiscriminately sprayed by the farmers for pest control to enhance crop yield. About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase- like organophosphates (OPs). OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers of mango plantation in rural Malihabad, Lucknow, in terms of neuro-cognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and hematological factors...
2016: Open Biochemistry Journal
Cherriere Claire, Melissa Martel, Sylvie Fortin, Marie-Joanie Raymond, Louis Nicolas Veilleux, Sylvie D'Arcy, Martin Lemay
OBJECTIVE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a hereditary peripheral neuropathy and belongs to neuromuscular diseases. CMT affects motor function of children, but its clinical expressions are heterogeneous and it could also influence cognitive and psychosocial dimensions of patients. Physical activity is recommended for adults with CMT, but any study has been conducted with children. It is important to propose to children with CMT an adapted physical activity that enables a global approach of the patient...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Fabrice Michel, Arnaud Dupeyron, Jean Jacques Labat, Etienne Aleton, Bernard Parratte
OBJECTIVE: Among pelvitrochanteric muscles, the internal obturator muscle is implicated in some pain projected at the buttock or perineum. Even though the pathophysiology is not completely understood, its responsibility is often held in clinical practice and in the literature due to effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections, constituting a therapeutic test. The objective is to enhance the couple ultrasound/EMG in difficult injections. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients were treated in the physical medicine department (Besançon) from September 2015 to February 2016 for gluteal or perineal pain suspected to be related to abnormal spasm of the internal obturator muscle...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Yoshimitsu Maki, Hiroshi Takashima
Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is characterized by heterogeneous neurological symptoms. HE is diagnosed based on three criteria-the presence of antithyroid antibodies, neurological symptoms from the cerebrum and/or cerebellum, and a positive response to immunotherapy. We clinically analyzed 18 patients (3 men, 15 women; age range, 38-81years) diagnosed with HE in our hospital from May 2013 to January 2016. Eleven patients showed sensory abnormalities such as strong pain, deep muscle pain, dysesthesia, paresthesia, or neuralgia...
September 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Zexing Deng, Yi Guo, Xin Zhao, Longchao Li, Ruonan Dong, Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Development of flexible degradable electroactive shape memory polymers (ESMPs) with tunable switching temperature (around body temperature) for tissue engineering is still a challenge. Here we designed and synthesized a series of shape memory copolymers with electroactivity, super stretchability and tunable recovery temperature based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with different molecular weight and conductive amino capped aniline trimer, and demonstrated their potential to enhance myogenic differentiation from C2C12 myoblast cells...
September 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Anat V Lubetzky, Robert Price, Sarah W McCoy
Functional ankle instability is associated with decreased ankle muscle function. Compliant surfaces and eyes-closed training are commonly used for rehabilitation and prevention of ankle sprains. Brief Achilles tendon vibration is commonly used in the study of postural control. To test the level of activation of tibialis anterior (TIB) and fibularis longus (FIB), bilateral Achilles tendon vibration was applied for the middle 20 s in a series of 60-s trials, when 10 healthy young adults and 10 adults with history of repeated ankle sprains were standing bipedal: on floor, on memory foam, or on a Both Sides Up (BOSU) ball, with eyes open, and on floor and foam with eyes closed...
July 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Kurt A Mossberg, William J Durham, Dennis J Zgaljardic, Charles R Gilkison, Christopher P Danesi, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Brent E Masel, Randall J Urban
We explored the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement on physical and cognitive functioning in subjects with a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with abnormal growth hormone (GH) secretion. Fifteen individuals who sustained a TBI at least 12 months prior to study enrollment were identified as having abnormal GH secretion by glucagon stimulation testing (maximum GH response less than 8 ng/mL). Peak cardiorespiratory capacity, body composition, and muscle force testing were assessed at baseline and one year after rhGH replacement...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Chenlin Pei, Chao Zhao, An-Jiang Wang, Anya X Fan, Viktoriya Grinchuk, Allen Smith, Rex Sun, Yue Xie, Nonghua Lu, Joseph F Urban, Terez Shea-Donohue, Aiping Zhao, Zhonghan Yang
Infection of humans with parasitic nematodes especially gastrointestinal geohelminths affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide and thus poses a major risk to global health. The host defense mechanism against enteric nematode infection remains to be fully understood, but it involves a polarized type 2 immunity leading to alterations in intestinal function that facilitates worm expulsion. We investigated the role of IL-25 in host protection against Heligmosomoides (H.) polygyrus bakeri infection in mice...
September 12, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Tom M McLellan, John A Caldwell, Harris R Lieberman
Caffeine is consumed by over 80% of U.S. adults. This review examines the effects caffeine has on cognitive and physical function, since most real-world activities require complex decision making, motor processing and movement. Caffeine exerts its effects by blocking adenosine receptors. Following low (∼40mg or ∼0.5mgkg(-1)) to moderate (∼300mg or 4mgkg(-1)) caffeine doses, alertness, vigilance, attention, reaction time and attention improve, but less consistent effects are observed on memory and higher-order executive function, such as judgment and decision making...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jonathan S Barnhoorn, Falko R Döhring, Edwin H F Van Asseldonk, Willem B Verwey
Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Tao Gong, Kun Zhao, Xian Liu, Liuxuan Lu, Dian Liu, Shaobing Zhou
Regulation of the growth of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with artificial vascular grafts at vascularization is well-known to regenerate functional blood vessels for treating cardiovascular disease; however, little research has been published on this subject. Here, a novel polymer vascular graft is presented, whose inner surface contains an assembled circular microgroove pattern decorated with a combination of concentric circular microgrooves and radial, straight microgrooves inspired by the orientation of SMCs and ECs in natural tissues...
September 6, 2016: Small
Gülru Kayık, Nurcan Ş Tüzün, Serdar Durdagi
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase enzymes (PDEs) have functions in regulating the levels of intracellular second messengers, 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), via hydrolysis and decomposing mechanisms in cells. They take essential roles in modulating various cellular activities such as memory and smooth muscle functions. PDE type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors enhance the vasodilatory effects of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum and they are used to treat erectile dysfunction...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Tsuyoshi Deguchi, Shunji Tsutsui, Hiroki Iwahashi, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Munehito Yoshida
Recently, low-frequency multi-train stimulation (MTS) was shown to effectively enhance transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEPs). In contrast, high- frequency double-train stimulation was reported to elicit a marked facilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high-frequency MTS in the augmentation of potentials. In addition, we investigated the safety of high-frequency MTS, behaviorally and histologically. TcMEPs were recorded from the triceps surae muscle in 38 rats. A multipulse stimulus was delivered repeatedly at different rates (2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 Hz), and was defined as MTS...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Jacob B Lindheimer, Patrick J OʼConnor, Kevin K McCully, Rod K Dishman
OBJECTIVE: Prior attempts to measure psychological responses to exercise are potentially limited by a failure to account for participants' expectations, the absence of a valid exercise placebo, and demand characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore the main and interactive effects of a manipulation designed to increase expectations about the psychological benefits of an acute bout of active, light-intensity (treatment), and passive (placebo) cycling on mood and cognition...
August 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Ruchi Malik, Richa Gupta, Shubham Srivastava, Bhanwar Singh Choudhary, Manish Sharma
The present paper describes design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of some 3-[3-(amino)propoxy]benzenamines as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using mice as a model and piracetam as a reference drug. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectral analysis and compounds were tested for memory enhancing activity using elevated plus maze test and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory assay. The inhibitory range of synthesized compounds was from 8.99 to 28.31 μM. The synthesized compounds possessed higher or equivalent percent retention as compared to piracetam at 1 mg/kg with no other CNS-related activities (locomotor and muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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