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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641070/elmo-proteins-transduce-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signal-to-control-reorganization-of-actin-cytoskeleton-in-chemotaxis-of-eukaryotic-cells
#1
Xuehua Xu, Tian Jin
Chemotaxis, which is chemoattractant-guided directional cell migration, plays major roles in recruitment of neutrophils, the metastasis of cancer cells, and the development of the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. These cells share remarkable similarities in the signaling pathways by which they control chemotaxis. They all use a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signal transduction pathway to sense the chemotactic gradient to guide cell migration. Diverse chemokines activate Rac through conserved GPCR signaling pathways...
June 22, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627346/-study-on-rac1-mapk-erk-pathway-mediated-mechanism-and-role-in-rats-with-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#2
Guanghua Tao, Linghui Pan, Ren Jing, Fei Lin, Huijun Dai, Wanyun Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Rac1/MAPK/ERK) signal pathway in rats with ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) and its mechanism. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into spontaneous respiration group, normal tidal volume (VT) group and high VT group with 10 rats in each group. The rats in spontaneous respiration group were kept their spontaneous breathing...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621544/interrogating-charge-storage-on-redox-active-colloids-via-combined-raman-spectroscopy-and-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy
#3
Zachary T Gossage, Noah Benjamin Schorr, Kenneth Hernandez-Burgos, Jingshu Hui, Burton H Simpson, Elena C Montoto, Joaquin Rodriguez-Lopez
Redox active colloids (RACs) are dispersible, cross-linked polymeric materials that incorporate a high concentration of redox-active motifs, making them attractive for next-generation size-exclusion redox flow batteries. In order to tap into their full potential for energy storage, it is essential to understand their internal charge mobility, capacity, and cyclability. Here we focus on using a combined suite of Raman spectroscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) tools for evaluating three important parameters that govern charge storage in viologen-RACs: their intra-particle redox active concentration, their reduction/oxidation mechanism, and their charge transfer rate...
June 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618259/synthesis-of-tricyclic-butenolides-and-comparison-their-effects-with-known-smoke-butenolide-kar1
#4
Ewa Krawczyk, Marek Koprowski, Danuta Cembrowska-Lech, Agata Wójcik, Jan Kępczyński
Plant-derived smoke - butenolide, called at present karrikin 1 (KAR1) is known as an important inductor of seed germination and seedling growth. In this study, tricyclic butenolides were synthesized and their effects on germination of dormant and non-dormant Avena fatua caryopses were compared, as were also their effects versus those of KAR1 on seedling growth. KAR1 was found to be most effective and to completely remove dormancy. Butenolides, rac-8 and (S)-8a, showed a low stimulatory effect on germination of dormant caryopses, visible only when applied at very high concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618054/ethics-intimacy-and-sexuality-in-aged-care
#5
Catherine Cook, Vanessa Schouten, Mark Henrickson, Sandra Mcdonald
AIM: To analyse the accounts of staff, family and residents in order to advance ethical insights into intimacy and sexuality in residential care. BACKGROUND: Discourses of ageing readily construct people in residential aged care as post-sexual, vulnerable and at risk of sexual exploitation and therefore expressions of intimacy and sexuality may be responded to as deviant and inherently risky. Staff may manage decision-making tacitly, without recourse to policies and education...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607113/antigen-availability-and-dock2-driven-motility-govern-cd4-t-cell-interactions-with-dendritic-cells-in-vivo
#6
Markus Ackerknecht, Kathrin Gollmer, Philipp Germann, Xenia Ficht, Jun Abe, Yoshinori Fukui, Jim Swoger, Jorge Ripoll, James Sharpe, Jens V Stein
Parenchymal migration of naive CD4(+) T cells in lymph nodes (LNs) is mediated by the Rac activator DOCK2 and PI3Kγ and is widely assumed to facilitate efficient screening of dendritic cells (DCs) presenting peptide-MHCs (pMHCs). Yet how CD4(+) T cell motility, DC density, and pMHC levels interdependently regulate such interactions has not been comprehensively examined. Using intravital imaging of reactive LNs in DC-immunized mice, we show that pMHC levels determined the occurrence and timing of stable CD4(+) T cell-DC interactions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604794/a-metal-artifact-reduction-algorithm-in-ct-using-multiple-prior-images-by-recursive-active-contour-segmentation
#7
Haewon Nam, Jongduk Baek
We propose a novel metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm for CT images that completes a corrupted sinogram along the metal trace region. When metal implants are located inside a field of view, they create a barrier to the transmitted X-ray beam due to the high attenuation of metals, which significantly degrades the image quality. To fill in the metal trace region efficiently, the proposed algorithm uses multiple prior images with residual error compensation in sinogram space. Multiple prior images are generated by applying a recursive active contour (RAC) segmentation algorithm to the pre-corrected image acquired by MAR with linear interpolation, where the number of prior image is controlled by RAC depending on the object complexity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601010/heavy-metal-fractions-and-ecological-risk-assessment-in-sediments-from-urban-rural-and-reclamation-affected-rivers-of-the-pearl-river-estuary-china
#8
Guangliang Zhang, Junhong Bai, Rong Xiao, Qingqing Zhao, Jia Jia, Baoshan Cui, Xinhui Liu
Rapid urbanization and reclamation processes in coastal areas have resulted in serious pollution to the aquatic environment. Less is known on the geochemical fractions and ecological risks in river sediment under various human activities pressures, which is essential for addressing the connections between heavy metal pollution and anthropogenic influences. River sediments were collected from different landscapes (i.e., urban, rural and reclamation areas) to investigate the impacts of urbanization and reclamation on the metallic pollution levels and ecological risks in the Pear River Estuary of China...
May 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600358/cell-adhesion-controlled-by-adhesion-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr124-adgra2-is-mediated-by-a-protein-complex-comprising-intersectins-and-elmo-dock
#9
Magda Nohemí Hernández-Vásquez, Sendi Rafael Adame-García, Noumeira Hamoud, Rony Chidiac, Guadalupe Reyes-Cruz, Jean Philippe Gratton, Jean-François Côté, José Vázquez-Prado
Developmental angiogenesis and the maintenance of blood brain barrier involve endothelial cell adhesion, which are linked to cytoskeletal dynamics. GPR124 (also known as TEM5/ADGRA2) is an Adhesion GPCR-family member that plays a pivotal role in brain angiogenesis and in ensuring a tight blood-brain barrier. However, the signaling properties of GPR124 remain poorly defined. Here, we show that ectopic expression of GPR124 promotes cell adhesion, additive to extracellular matrix-dependent effect, coupled with filopodia and lamellipodia formation and an enrichment of a pool of the GPCR at actin-rich cellular protrusions containing VASP, a filopodial marker...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600187/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-influences-migration-and-focal-adhesions-but-not-proliferation-or-viability-of-human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-olfactory-epithelium
#10
Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo Rodrigo Perera-Murcia, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Harish Babu, Maria García-Anaya, Jorge Julio González-Olvera
In humans, new neurons are continuously added in the olfactory epithelium even in the adulthood. The resident neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs-OE) in the olfactory epithelium are influenced by several growth factors and neurotrophins. Among these modulators the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has attracted attention due its implicated in cell proliferation, survival and migration of other type of neural/stem progenitor cells. Interestingly, VEGFr2 receptor expression in olfactory epithelium has been described in amphibians but not in humans...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599139/risk-factors-associated-with-residential-aged-care-respite-and-transitional-aged-care-admission-for-older-people-following-an-injury-related-hospitalisation
#11
Rebecca Mitchell, Lara Harvey, Brian Draper, Henry Brodaty, Jacqueline Close
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with admission to residential aged care (RAC), respite RAC and transitional care (TC) for older individuals following an injury hospitalisation. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was conducted of individuals aged ≥65 years who had an injury hospitalisation and who were admitted to RAC during 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Multinominal logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with admissions to aged care services compared to returning to the community...
June 4, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597775/dobutamine-stress-mri-in-pulmonary-hypertension-relationships-between-stress-pulmonary-artery-relative-area-change-rv-performance-and-10-year-survival
#12
Kevin G Blyth, Alessandro Bellofiore, Geeshath Jayasekera, John E Foster, Tracey Steedman, Naomi C Chesler, Andrew J Peacock
In pulmonary hypertension (PH), right ventricular (RV) performance determines survival. Pulmonary artery (PA) stiffening is an important biomechanical event in PH and also predicts survival based on the PA relative area change (RAC) measured at rest using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this exploratory study, we sought to generate novel hypotheses regarding the influence of stress RAC on PH prognosis and the interaction between PA stiffening, RV performance and survival. Fifteen PH patients underwent dobutamine stress-MRI (ds-MRI) and right heart catheterization...
April 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597209/molecular-dynamics-simulation-reveals-unique-interplays-between-a-tarantula-toxin-and-lipid-membranes
#13
Lei Wu, Si-Si Xie, Er Meng, Wen-Ying Li, Long Liu, Dong-Yi Zhang
Tarantula toxins compose an important class of spider toxins that target ion channels, and some are known to interact with lipid membranes. In this study, we focus on a tarantula toxin, Jingzhaotoxin-III (JZTx-III) that specifically targets the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na[Formula: see text]1.5 and is suspected to be able to interact with lipid membranes. Here, we use an all-atom model and long-term molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between JZTx-III and lipid membranes of different compositions...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594168/large-scale-risks-from-agricultural-pesticides-in-small-streams
#14
Eduard Szöcs, Marvin Brinke, Bilgin Karaoglan, Ralf B Schäfer
Small streams are important refuges for biodiversity. In agricultural areas, they may be at risk from pesticide pollution. However, most related studies have been limited to a few streams on the regional level, hampering extrapolation to larger scales. We quantified risks as exceedances of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) and used German monitoring data to quantify the drivers thereof and to assess current risks in small streams on a large scale. The data set was comprised of 1 766 104 measurements of 478 pesticides (including metabolites) related to 24 743 samples from 2301 sampling sites...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591580/myo6-regulates-spatial-organization-of-signaling-endosomes-driving-akt-activation-and-actin-dynamics
#15
Thomas A Masters, David A Tumbarello, Margarita V Chibalina, Folma Buss
APPL1- and RAB5-positive signaling endosomes play a crucial role in the activation of AKT in response to extracellular stimuli. Myosin VI (MYO6) and two of its cargo adaptor proteins, GIPC and TOM1/TOM1L2, localize to these peripheral endosomes and mediate endosome association with cortical actin filaments. Loss of MYO6 leads to the displacement of these endosomes from the cell cortex and accumulation in the perinuclear space. Depletion of this myosin not only affects endosome positioning, but also induces actin and lipid remodeling consistent with endosome maturation, including accumulation of F-actin and the endosomal lipid PI(3)P...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589272/heavy-metals-distribution-and-risk-assessment-in-soil-from-an-informal-e-waste-recycling-site-in-lagos-state-nigeria
#16
Khadijah A Isimekhai, Hemda Garelick, John Watt, Diane Purchase
Informal E-waste recycling can pose a risk to human health and the environment which this study endeavours to evaluate. The distribution of a number of heavy metals in soil from an informal recycling site in the largest market for used and new electronics and electrical equipment in West Africa was investigated. The potential bioavailability of heavy metals, extent of contamination, potential risk due to the recycling activities and impact of external factors such as rainfall were also assessed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals tested were higher in the area where burning of the waste occurred than at the control site, suggesting an impact of the recycling activities on the soil...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589096/identification-of-s-nitrosylated-sno-proteins-in-entamoeba-histolytica-adapted-to-nitrosative-stress-insights-into-the-role-of-sno-actin-and-in-vitro-virulence
#17
Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Preeti Shahi, Shruti Nagaraja, Shai Vanunu, Shiran Manor, Amit Avrahami, Serge Ankri
We have recently reported that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites can adapt to toxic levels of the nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Even if the consequences of this adaptation on the modulation of gene expression in NO-adapted trophozoites (NAT) have been previously explored, insight on S-nitrosylated (SNO) proteins in NAT is missing. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap by performing a screening of SNO proteins in NAT. Employing SNO resin-assisted capture (RAC), we identified 242 putative SNO proteins with key functions in calcium binding, enzyme modulation, redox homeostasis, and actin cytoskeleton...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578539/fibroblast-contributes-for-osteoblastic-phenotype-in-a-mapk-erk-and-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-independent-manner
#18
Celio J da Costa Fernandes, Augusto Santana do Nascimento, Rodrigo A da Silva, Willian F Zambuzzi
We hypothesized that a crosstalk between osteoblast and fibroblast (FB) exists, which contributes to bone as a dynamic tissue. Cell-free supernatants were harvested from fibroblast cultures and later subject pre-osteoblasts to investigate there capacity to modulate cell viability and differentiation mechanisms, reporting the possible involvement of Shh signaling as a paracrine mechanism. By exploring immunoblotting technology, we have shown that FB-released factors interfere with osteoblast metabolism by up-regulating the phosphorylation of FAK and Rac-1 proteins at the early stage and later contribute to osteoblast differentiation by up-modulating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and in vitro mineralization...
June 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576970/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-lipus-promotes-cell-motility-through-vinculin-controlled-rac1-gtpase-activity
#19
Paul Atherton, Franziska Lausecker, Andrew Harrison, Christoph Ballestrem
Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) is a therapy used clinically to promote healing. Using live cell imaging we show that LIPUS stimulation, acting through integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions, rapidly induces Rac activation associated with dramatic actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Our study demonstrates that the mechanosensitive focal adhesion (FA) protein vinculin and both Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Rab5 have key roles in regulating these effects. Inhibiting the link of vinculin to the actin-cytoskeleton abolished LIPUS sensing...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576549/computational-and-experimental-model-of-transdermal-iontophorethic-drug-delivery-system
#20
Nenad Filipovic, Igor Saveljic, Vladislav Rac, Beatriz Olalde Graells, Goran Bijelic
The concept of iontophoresis is often applied to increase the transdermal transport of drugs and other bioactive agents into the skin or other tissues. It is a non-invasive drug delivery method which involves electromigration and electroosmosis in addition to diffusion and is shown to be a viable alternative to conventional administration routs such as oral, hypodermic and intravenous injection. In this study we investigated, experimentally and numerically, in vitro drug delivery of dexamethasone sodium phosphate to porcine skin...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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