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Glenn A Jacobson, Sharanne Raidal, Kate Robson, Christian K Narkowicz, David S Nichols, E Haydn Walters
BACKGROUND: Salmeterol (a long acting beta2-agonist) is a chiral molecule. (RR)-salmeterol is responsible for pharmacological effect, but basic knowledge of enantioselective pulmonary pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol remains unknown. There are safety concerns with (S)-enantiomers of beta2-agonists, with suggestions that these enantiomers may increase bronchial hyperresponsivneness in asthma patients. METHODOLOGY: Horses (n = 12) received racemic (rac-) salmeterol 250 μg via inhalation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Olivia Farrer, Alison Yaxley, Karen Walton, Michelle Miller
AIM: The prevalence of diabetes in older adults in residential aged care (RAC) is twice that of community dwelling older adults. Older adults with diabetes have been highlighted as being at high risk of frailty and malnutrition, particularly when managed on a therapeutic diet. However, assumptions may be based on clinical presentation of our oldest old which may be at conflict with the clinical presentation of younger older adults. The aim of this retrospective audit was to identify the characteristics of aged care residents with diabetes, their comorbidities and malnutrition risk...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Chengzheng Han, Guozheng Xing, Mengying Zhang, Min Zhong, Zhen Han, Chiyi He, Xiaoping Liu
Wogonoside, the main effective constituent of traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria , belongs to the glucuronide family, with various functions, including detoxification, anti-inflammation and nourishing gallbladder, lowering blood pressure, diuresis and anti-allergic reactions. However, the effects of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells in vitro and its anticancer mechanisms. The results demonstrated that wogonoside significantly inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis and mitochondrial-mediated autophagy of colon cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Maísa Pessoa Pinheiro, Nathalia Saraiva Rios, Thiago de S Fonseca, Francisco de Aquino Bezerra, Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón, Roberto Fernandez-Lafuente, Marcos Carlos de Mattos, José C S Dos Santos, Luciana R B Gonçalves
Novozyme 435, which is a commercial immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB), has been proven to be inadequate for the kinetic resolution of rac-indanyl acetate. As it has been previously described that different immobilization protocols may greatly alter lipase features, in this work CALB was covalently immobilized on epoxy Immobead-350 (IB-350) and on glyoxyl-agarose to ascertain if better kinetic resolution would result. Afterwards, all CALB biocatalysts were utilized in the hydrolytic resolution of rac-indanyl acetate and rac-(chloromethyl)-2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl acetate...
March 14, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Qixiang Zhao, Zhiwei Liu, Bing Huang, Yanliang Yuan, Xiucheng Liu, Hu Zhang, Fan Qiu, Yiqian Zhang, Yufeng Li, Haoran Miao, Hongyan Dong, Zhongming Zhang
The prevention and management of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is an essential part of coronary heart disease surgery and is becoming a major clinical problem in the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Previous studies by our group have demonstrated that pigment epithelium‑derived factor (PEDF) improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction and reduces hypoxia‑induced cell injury. However, the protective function and mechanisms underlying the effect of PEDF in MI/R injury remain to be fully understood...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
T C M Brock, J D M Belgers, M-C Boerwinkel, L Jollie, M H S Kraak, M J Papo, J A Vonk, I Roessink
This paper deals with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for the lipophilic insecticide lufenuron and benthic arthropods based on sediment-spiked laboratory toxicity tests. This compound that inhibits chitin synthesis and moulting of arthropods persists in sediment. Using field-collected sediment, toxicity tests were conducted with three macro-crustaceans and six insects. The Hazardous Concentration to 5% of the tested species, the HC5 (and 95% confidence limit), derived from an SSD constructed with 10d-LC50's was 2...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Aldrich Ricalde, Matthew Allison, Dena Rifkin, Richard Shaw
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Renal artery calcium (RAC) has been linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including age, male gender, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anthropometric measures of obesity are associated with presence of RAC. METHODS: We studied 1287 community-dwelling adults enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Logistic regression models adjusted for CVD risk factors were used to examine body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as primary predictors of RAC...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Sofia Golenkina, Vishal Chaturvedi, Robert Saint, Michael J Murray
Netrin receptors of the DCC/NEO/UNC-40/Frazzled family have well established roles in cell migration and axon guidance but can also regulate epithelial features such as adhesion, polarity and adherens junction (AJ) stability. Previously, we have shown that overexpression of Drosophila Frazzled (Fra) in the peripodial epithelium (PE) inhibits wing disc eversion and also generates cellular protrusions typical of motile cells. Here, we tested whether the molecular pathways by which Fra inhibits eversion are distinct from those driving motility...
2018: PloS One
Shijuan Zhan, Chunfeng Wang, Fangqing Yin
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a primary sub-type of lung cancer with a high incidence rate and poor prognosis. The primary therapeutic treatment for NSCLC is chemotherapy, which is considered to be ineffective and excessively toxic. Novel therapeutic methods, particularly molecular targeted therapy, have attracted considerable attention. MicroRNAs (miRs) are reported to be potential biomarkers and targeted agents with roles in various types of tumors. Herein, the present study presented the observation of aberrant low expression of miR‑29c and associated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in NSCLC tumor tissues...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sarah Aitken, James Lee, Mark Smithers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Virginia Tajadura-Ortega, Ritu Garg, Richard Allen, Claudia Owczarek, Michael D Bright, Samuel Kean, Aisyah Mohd-Noor, Anita Grigoriadis, Timothy C Elston, Klaus M Hahn, Anne J Ridley
BACKGROUND: Cell migration is essential for development and tissue repair, but it also contributes to disease. Rho GTPases regulate cell migration, but a comprehensive analysis of how each Rho signalling component affects migration has not been carried out. RESULTS: Through an RNA interference screen, and using a prostate cancer cell line, we find that approximately 25% of Rho network components alter migration. Some genes enhance migration while others decrease basal and/or hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration...
March 6, 2018: BMC Biology
Yayun Chen, Fan Meng, Bingyu Wang, Liangmei He, Yangbin Liu, Zhiping Liu
An atypical guanine exchange factor, Dock2 is specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells and regulates activation and migration of immune cells through activating Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac). Dock2 was shown to be critical in the development of various inflammatory diseases, including allergic diseases, HIV infection, and graft rejection in organ transplantation. DOCK2 mutation in infants was recently identified to be associated with T and B cell combined immunodeficiency. Furthermore, Dock2 is involved in host protection during enteric bacterial infection and is also associated with the proliferation of cancer cells...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Xinxing Zhang, Kevin M Barraza, J L Beauchamp
The role of cholesterol in bilayer and monolayer lipid membranes has been of great interest. On the biophysical front, cholesterol significantly increases the order of the lipid packing, lowers the membrane permeability, and maintains membrane fluidity by forming liquid-ordered-phase lipid rafts. However, direct observation of any influence on membrane chemistry related to these cholesterol-induced physical properties has been absent. Here we report that the addition of 30 mol % cholesterol to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (POPG) monolayers at the air-water interface greatly reduces the oxidation and ester linkage cleavage chemistries initiated by potent chemicals such as OH radicals and HCl vapor, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Miho Ushijima, Takehito Uruno, Akihiko Nishikimi, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Yasuhisa Kamikaseda, Kazufumi Kunimura, Daiji Sakata, Takaharu Okada, Yoshinori Fukui
A hallmark of humoral immune responses is the production of antibodies. This process involves a complex cascade of molecular and cellular interactions, including recognition of specific antigen by the B cell receptor (BCR), which triggers activation of B cells and differentiation into plasma cells (PCs). Although activation of the small GTPase Rac has been implicated in BCR-mediated antigen recognition, its precise role in humoral immunity and the upstream regulator remain elusive. DOCK2 is a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mauro Valentino Paloschi, Charles Nunes Boeno, Jéssica Amaral Lopes, André Eduardo Dos Santos da Rosa, Weverson Luciano Pires, Adriana Silva Pontes, Sulamita da Silva Setúbal, Andreimar Martins Soares, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
The action of Cr-LAAO, an l-amino acid oxidase isolated from Calloselasma rhodosthoma snake venom, on NADPH oxidase activation in isolated human neutrophil function was investigated. This enzyme has an intrinsic activity of hydrogen peroxide production. Cr-LAAO, in its native form, induces the ROS production in neutrophil and migration of cytosolic NADPH oxidase components p40phox , p47phox and p67phox to the membrane, and Rac, a GTPase protein member, with the involvement of intracellular signaling mediated by phospho PKC-α...
February 27, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Changjuan Chen, Jinxing Jiang, Xiaoyang Mao, Yong Cong, Yaqin Cui, Xiaobo Pan, Jincai Wu
Three potassium crown ether complexes supported with bulky amidinate ligands were synthesized for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-lactide. The side polymerization reaction initiated directly by ligand anion was suppressed well in the presence of alcohol as our design, and the synthesis of linear polylactide with a molecular weight as high as 117.7 kg/mol was successful together with an isoselectivity value of Pm = 0.88 at -70 °C. In this system, lactide can be deprotonated by amidinate anion to give lactide enolate, which can initiate the ROP of lactide as a side reaction in the absence of alcohol; however, this side reaction can also be suppressed well in the presence of alcohol by a decrease in temperature...
March 1, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Andrea Fanelli, Rohan Jaishankar, Aristotelis Filippidis, James Holsapple, Thomas Heldt
OBJECTIVES:  Our objective was to develop, deploy, and test a data-acquisition system for the reliable and robust archiving of high-resolution physiological waveform data from a variety of bedside monitoring devices, including the GE Solar 8000i patient monitor, and for the logging of ancillary clinical and demographic information. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  The data-acquisition system consists of a computer-based archiving unit and a GE Tram Rac 4A that connects to the GE Solar 8000i monitor...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Shankha Subhra Chatterjee, Mayukh Biswas, Liberalis Debraj Boila, Debasis Banerjee, Amitava Sengupta
SWI/SNF is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex that regulates epigenetic architecture and cellular identity. Although SWI/SNF genes are altered in ~ 25% of human malignancies, evidences showing their involvement in tumor cell-autonomous chromatin regulation and transcriptional plasticity are limiting. This study demonstrates that human primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells exhibit near complete loss of SMARCB1 (BAF47 or SNF5/INI1) and SMARCD2 (BAF60B) associated with nucleation of SWI/SNFΔ...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Lisa Rahnfeld, Jana Thamm, Frank Steiniger, Peter van Hoogevest, Paola Luciani
Compared to conventional parenteral formulations injectable depot formulations, owing to a sustained drug release, offer several advantages, such as a reduced dosing frequency - and consequent improved compliance - or a predictable release profile. Additionally, fluctuations in the drug blood level may be smoothened and consequently side effects reduced. Because of their capability to encapsulate water soluble drugs and their very low toxicity profile liposomes comprising phospholipids, most certainly represent a vehicle of choice for subcutaneous (s...
February 16, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Andreas Stylianou, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment consists of the extracellular matrix (ECM), stromal cells, such as fibroblasts-FBs and cancer associated fibroblasts-CAFs, and a myriad of soluble factors. In many tumor types, including pancreatic tumors, the interplay between stromal cells and the other tumor microenvironment components leads to desmoplasia, a cancer-specific type of fibrosis that hinders treatment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and CAFs are thought to play a crucial role in this tumor desmoplastic reaction, although the involved mechanisms are unknown...
February 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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