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Stephan van Vliet, Bettina Mittendorfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Andres F Chaparro Sosa, Daniel F Kienle, Rebecca M Falatach, Jessica Flanagan, Joel L Kaar, Daniel K Schwartz
Biomimetic lipid bilayers represent intriguing materials for enzyme immobilization, which is critical for many biotechnological applications. Here, through the creation of mixed lipid bilayers, the retention of immobilized enzyme structure and catalytic activity are dramatically enhanced. The enhancement in the retention of enzyme structure, which correlated with an increase in enzyme activity, is observed using dynamic single-molecule (SM) fluorescence methods. The results of SM analysis specifically show that lipid bilayers composed of mixtures of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DOPG) stabilize the folded state of nitroreductase (NfsB) increasing the rate of re-folding relative to unfolding of enzyme molecules on the bilayer surface...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Suzanne Rainsford, Christine B Phillips, Nicholas J Glasgow, Roderick D MacLeod, Robert B Wiles
Residential aged care (RAC) is a significant provider of end-of-life care for people aged 65 years and older. Rural residents perceive themselves as different to their urban counterparts. Most studies describing place of death (PoD) in RAC are quantitative and reflect an urban voice. Using a mixed-methods design, this paper examines the PoD of 80 RAC residents (15 short-stay residents who died in RAC during respite or during an attempted step-down transition from hospital to home, and 65 permanent residents), within the rural Snowy Monaro region, Australia, who died between 1 February 2015 and 31 May 2016...
May 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Hemant P Yennawar, Heather G Bradley, Kristen C Perhonitch, Haley E Reppert, Lee J Silverberg
The crystal structures of isomeric rac -2-(4-nitro-phen-yl)-3-phenyl-2,3,5,6-tetra-hydro-4 H -1,3-thia-zin-4-one (C16 H14 N2 O3 S) ( 1 ) and (2 S )-2-(3-nitro-phen-yl)-3-phenyl-2,3,5,6-tetra-hydro-4 H -1,3-thia-zin-4-one (C16 H14 N2 O3 S) ( 2 ) are reported here. While 1 crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group, the crystal of 2 chosen for data collection has mol-ecules only with (2 S ) chirality. This is the result of spontaneous resolution during crystallization, as the synthesis produces a racemic mixture...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Ling-Ling Yin, Zhen-Zhi Ye, Li-Jun Tang, Liang Guo, Wei-Min Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of rhubarb on neonatal rats with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) induced by hyperoxia. METHODS: A total of 64 rats (postnatal day 4) were randomly divided into four groups: air control, rhubarb control, hyperoxia model, and hyperoxia+rhubarb (n=16 each). The rats in the hyperoxia model and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were exposed to hyperoxia (60% O2) to establish a BPD model. The rats in the rhubarb control and hyperoxia+rhubarb groups were given rhubarb extract suspension (600 mg/kg) by gavage daily...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Binh C Nguyen, Sung-A Kim, Seong-Min Won, Sang-Kyu Park, Yoshihiro Uto, Hiroshi Maruta
PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1) is the major oncogenic/ageing kinase, and its dysfunction extends the healthy lifespan of C. elegans by activating HSP16 gene. 15K is a highly cell-permeable 1,2,3-triazolyl ester of ketorolac that down-regulates both PAK1 and its down-stream COX-2 in R- and S-forms, respectively. 15K is 500-5,000 times more potent than ketorolac, an old pain-killer, inhibiting the growth of cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging 5-24 nM. Scores of natural and synthetic PAK1-blockers have been shown to extend the lifespan of small animals such as C...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Camilla B Mitchell, Justine R Stehn, Geraldine M O'Neill
The migration and invasion of cells through tissues in the body is facilitated by a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. The actin-associating protein, tropomyosin Tpm3.1 has emerged to play important roles in cell migration and invasion. To date, investigations have focused on single cell migration and invasion where Tpm3.1 expression is inversely associated with Rac GTPase-mediated cell invasion. While single cell and collective cell invasion have many features in common, collective invasion is additionally impacted by cell-cell adhesion, and the role of Tpm3...
May 12, 2018: Cytoskeleton
Jiaxuan He, Ya Gao, Gang Wu, Xiaoming Lei, Yong Zhang, Weikang Pan, Hui Yu
Brain ischemia leads to energy depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death. The present study was designed to identify key genes and pathways associated with brain ischemia. The gene expression profile GSE52001, including 3 normal brain samples and 3 cerebral ischemia samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the limma package. Then functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed by the MATHT tool...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shengling Fu, Xiang Chen, Huey-Jen Lin, Jiayuh Lin
Interactions between interleukin (IL)-8 and its receptors, C‑X-C chemokine receptor 1, (CXCR1) and CXCR2 serve crucial roles in increasing cancer progression. Inhibition of this signaling pathway has yielded promising results in a number of human cancers, including breast, melanoma and colon. However, the effects of CXCR1/2 antagonist treatment on pancreatic cancer remain unclear. The present study aimed to demonstrate that treatment with the clinical grade CXCR1/2 antagonist, reparixin, or the newly discovered CXCR1/2 antagonist, SCH527123, may result in a reduction of the malignant features associated with this lethal cancer...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Emma Tonkin, Dani Kennedy, Rebecca Golley, Rebecca Byrne, Athira Rohit, Therese Kearns, Sarah Hanieh, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Julie Brimblecombe
The Menzies Remote Short-item Dietary Assessment Tool (MRSDAT) can be used to derive a dietary index score, which measures the degree of compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. This study aimed to determine the relative validity of a dietary index score for children aged 6⁻24 months, living in a Remote Aboriginal Community (RAC), derived using MRSDAT. This validation study compared dietary index scores derived using MRSDAT with those derived from the average of three 24-h recalls. Participants were aged 6⁻36 months at the first dietary assessment and were living in a RAC...
May 10, 2018: Nutrients
Rebecca Wellmann, Brittany A Borden, Keith Danahey, Rita Nanda, Blase N Polite, Walter M Stadler, Mark J Ratain, Peter H O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Germline and tumor pharmacogenomics impact drug responses, but germline markers less commonly guide oncology prescribing. The authors hypothesized that a critical number of clinically actionable germline pharmacogenomic associations exist, representing clinical implementation opportunities. METHODS: In total, 125 oncology drugs were analyzed for positive germline pharmacogenomic associations in journals with impact factors ≥5. Studies were assessed for design and genotyping quality, clinically relevant outcomes, statistical rigor, and evidence of drug-gene effects...
May 9, 2018: Cancer
Valentina Zamboni, Maria Armentano, Gaia Berto, Elisa Ciraolo, Alessandra Ghigo, Donatella Garzotto, Alessandro Umbach, Ferdinando DiCunto, Elena Parmigiani, Marina Boido, Alessandro Vercelli, Nadia El-Assawy, Alessandro Mauro, Lorenzo Priano, Luisa Ponzoni, Luca Murru, Maria Passafaro, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo
The small-GTPase Rac1 is a key molecular regulator linking extracellular signals to actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Loss-of-function mutations in RAC1 and other genes of the Rac signaling pathway have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The Rac1 activity is negatively controlled by GAP proteins, however the effect of Rac1 hyperactivity on neuronal networking in vivo has been poorly studied. ArhGAP15 is a Rac-specific negative regulator, expressed in the main subtypes of pyramidal cortical neurons...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew Willetts, Pamela Masters, Carol Steadman
For the first time, the differential rates of synthesis of all the key monooxygenases involved in the catabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007 of bicyclic ( rac )-camphor to ∆2,5 -3,4,4-trimethylpimelyl-CoA, the first aliphatic pathway intermediate, have been determined to help establish the relevant induction profile of each of the oxygen-dependent enzymes. The efficacy of both relevant substrates and pathway metabolites as inducers has been established. Further, inhibitors with characterised functionality have been used to indicate that the pertinent regulatory controls operate at the level of transcription of the corresponding genes...
May 7, 2018: Microorganisms
Huabo Duan, T Reed Miller, Gang Liu, Xianlai Zeng, Keli Yu, Qifei Huang, Jian Zuo, Yufei Qin, Jinhui Li
The global community has responded to the dual threats of ozone depletion and climate change from refrigerant emissions (e.g., chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons, HFCs) in refrigerators and air conditioners (RACs) by agreeing to phase out the production of the most damaging chemicals and replacing them with substitutes. Since these refrigerants are 'banked' in products during their service life, they will continue to impact our environment for decades to come if they are released due to mismanagement at the end of life...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Olivia N Genther-Schroeder, Mark E Branine, Stephanie L Hansen
Angus-cross steers (n = 288; 427 ± 0.4 kg) were utilized in a finishing study to evaluate the influence of increasing dietary Zn concentration on growth performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). In a randomized complete block design, steers were blocked by weight (6 steers/pen) and fed a dry-rolled corn-based diet for 79 d containing no supplemental Zn (CON; n = 8), 60 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 and no supplemental Zn-amino acid complex (ZnAA; ZnAA0; n = 8) or ZnAA0 diet supplemented with 60 (ZnAA60; n = 8), 90 (ZnAA90; n = 7), 120 (ZnAA120; n = 8), or 150 (ZnAA150; n = 8) mg Zn/kg DM from ZnAA...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
R N Carmichael, O N Genther-Schroeder, C P Blank, E L Deters, S J Hartman, E K Niedermayer, S L Hansen
The study objective was to determine if N retention was improved with supplemental Zn above NRC concentrations with or without ractopamine hydrochloride inclusion. Angus crossbred steers (n = 32, 485 ± 26 kg BW) with Genemax gain scores of 4 or 5 were utilized in a 2×2 factorial arrangement (8 steers/treatment). Steers were blocked by BW to a finishing diet with one of two mineral supplementation strategies (ZNTRT), no supplemental Zn (analyzed 32 mg Zn/kg DM; CON) or supranutritional Zn (CON + 60 ppm ZnSO4 + 60 ppm Zn-amino acid complex; analyzed 145 mg Zn/kg DM; SUPZN), fed 56 days in pens equipped with Growsafe bunks and assigned to beta agonist (BA) supplementation strategies of 0 (NON) or 300 mg·-1steer·-1d ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) fed the last 30 d before harvest...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ta-Kuo Juan, Kuo-Ching Liu, Chao-Lin Kuo, Mei-Due Yang, Yung-Lin Chu, Jiun-Long Yang, Ping-Ping Wu, Yi-Ping Huang, Kuang-Chi Lai, Jing-Gung Chung
Tetrandrine (TET) exhibits biological activities, including anticancer activity. In Chinese medicine, TET has been used to treat hypertensive and arrhythmic conditions and has been demonstrated to induce cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines. However, to the best of the author's knowledge, no previous studies have revealed that TET affects cell metastasis in SW620 human colon cancer cells. The present study demonstrated that TET decreased the cell number and inhibited cell adhesion and mobility of SW620 cells...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Yan-Peng Liu, Ling Li, Liang Xu, E-Nuo Dai, Wei-Da Chen
Cantharidin (CTD), a component of Mylabris (blister beetle), is a traditional Chinese medicine that exerts an anticancer effect in multiple types of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CTD exhibited anti-metastatic and inhibitory cell proliferation effects against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells, and the possible underlying mechanism by which this occurs. The results of the present study demonstrated that CTD arrested proliferation, suppressed invasion and migration and induced apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro ...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiaohong Wang, Dan Li, Yong Zhang, Shuang Wu, Fang Tang
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic nonspecific inflammatory disease that occurs in the colon and rectum. Costus root is a type of traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits antibacterial properties and serves an inhibitory role in the regeneration of gut bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Costus root-mediated improvements in ulcerative colitis remain unclear. A complex formula of Costus root granules was created and investigated in the present study for its therapeutic effects in a rat model of ulcerative colitis...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jiang-Shan Li, Lei Wang, Jin-Li Cui, Chi Sun Poon, Jingzi Beiyuan, Daniel C W Tsang, Xiang-Dong Li
The low-alkalinity stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatment of the soil containing high concentrations of geogenic As by physical encapsulation is considered as a proper management before land development; however, the choice of an effective binder and the leaching potential of As remain uncertain. In this study, the influence of S/S binders (cement blended with fuel ash (FA), furnace bottom ash (FBA), or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)) on the speciation and leaching characteristics of geogenic As was studied...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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