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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450740/perfluorocarbon-induces-alveolar-epithelial-cell-response-through-structural-and-mechanical-remodeling
#1
Sofia André Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Christelle Angely, Luc Lotteau, Renaud Tissier, Marcel Filoche, Bruno Louis, Gabriel Pelle, Daniel Isabey
During total liquid ventilation, lung cells are exposed to perfluorocarbon (PFC) whose chemophysical properties highly differ from standard aqueous cell feeding medium (DMEM). We herein perform a systematic study of structural and mechanical properties of A549 alveolar epithelial cells in order to characterize their response to PFC exposure, using DMEM as control condition. Changes in F-actin structure, focal adhesion density and glycocalyx distribution are evaluated by confocal fluorescent microscopy. Changes in cell mechanics and adhesion are measured by multiscale magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC)...
February 15, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448246/effect-of-mst1-on-endometriosis-apoptosis-and-migration-role-of-drp1-related-mitochondrial-fission-and-parkin-required-mitophagy
#2
Qingdong Zhao, Mingxia Ye, Wen Yang, Min Wang, Mingxia Li, Chenglei Gu, Luyang Zhao, Zhe Zhang, Weidong Han, Wensheng Fan, Yuanguang Meng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mitochondrial homeostasis is implicated in the development and progression of endometriosis through poorly defined mechanisms. Mst1 is the major growth suppressor related to cancer migration, apoptosis and proliferation. However, whether Mst1 is involved in endometriosis apoptosis and migration via regulating the mitochondrial function remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Expression of Mst1 in endometriosis was examined via western blots. Cellular apoptosis was detected via MTT and TUNEL assay...
February 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445221/remodeling-of-the-actin-spectrin-membrane-associated-periodic-skeleton-growth-cone-collapse-and-f-actin-decrease-during-axonal-degeneration
#3
Nicolas Unsain, Martin D Bordenave, Gaby F Martinez, Jalil Sami, Catalina von Bilderling, Federico M Barabas, Luciano A Masullo, Aaron D Johnstone, Philip A Barker, Bisbal Mariano, Fernando D Stefani, Alfredo O Cáceres
Axonal degeneration occurs in the developing nervous system for the appropriate establishment of mature circuits, and is also a hallmark of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Despite recent interest in the field, little is known about the changes (and possible role) of the cytoskeleton during axonal degeneration. We studied the actin cytoskeleton in an in vitro model of developmental pruning induced by trophic factor withdrawal (TFW). We found that F-actin decrease and growth cone collapse (GCC) occur early after TFW; however, treatments that prevent axonal fragmentation failed to prevent GCC, suggesting independent pathways...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444403/plant-villin-headpiece-domain-demonstrates-a-novel-surface-charge-pattern-and-high-affinity-for-f-actin
#4
Heather L Miears, David R Gruber, Nicholas M Horvath, John M Antos, Jeff Young, Johann P Sigurjonsson, Maya L Klem, Erin A Rosenkranz, Mark Okon, Christopher James McKnight, Liliya Vugmeyster, Serge L Smirnov
Plants utilize multiple isoforms of villin, an F-actin regulating protein with an N-terminal gelsolin-like core and a distinct C-terminal headpiece domain. Unlike their vertebrate homologs, plant villins have a much longer linker polypeptide connecting the core and headpiece. Moreover, the linker-headpiece connection region in plant villins lack sequence homology to the vertebrate villin sequences. It is unknown to what extent the plant villin headpiece structure and function resemble those of the well-studied vertebrate counterparts...
February 14, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440144/spon2-promotes-m1-like-macrophage-recruitment-and-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-metastasis-by-distinct-integrin-rho-gtpase-hippo-pathways
#5
Yan-Li Zhang, Qing Li, Xiao-Mei Yang, Fang Fang, Jun Li, Ya-Hui Wang, Qin Yang, Lei Zhu, Hui-Zhen Nie, Xue-Li Zhang, Ming-Xuan Feng, Shu-Heng Jiang, Guang-Ang Tian, Li-Peng Hu, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Qiang Xia, Zhi-Gang Zhang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) represent key regulators of the complex interplay between cancer and the immune microenvironment. Matricellular protein SPON2 is essential for recruiting lymphocytes and initiating immune responses. Recent studies have shown that SPON2 has complicated roles in cell migration and tumor progression. Here we report that, in the tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), SPON2 not only promotes infiltration of M1-like macrophages but also inhibits tumor metastasis...
February 13, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439200/capping-protein-regulates-actin-dynamics-during-cytokinetic-midbody-maturation
#6
Stephen J Terry, Federico Donà, Paul Osenberg, Jeremy G Carlton, Ulrike S Eggert
During cytokinesis, a cleavage furrow generated by actomyosin ring contraction is restructured into the midbody, a platform for the assembly of the abscission machinery that controls the final separation of daughter cells. The polymerization state of F-actin is important during assembly, ingression, disassembly, and closure of the contractile ring and for the cytoskeletal remodeling that accompanies midbody formation and progression to abscission. Actin filaments must be cleared from the abscission sites before the final cut can take place...
February 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436693/yap-regulates-gastric-cancer-survival-and-migration-via-sirt1-mfn2-mitophagy
#7
Hongzhu Yan, Chengmin Qiu, Weiwei Sun, Minmin Gu, Feng Xiao, Jue Zou, Li Zhang
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and Hippo-Yap is the novel signaling pathway which plays an important role in gastric cancer tumor development and progression. However, little insight is available to date regarding the specific role of Yes-associated protein (Yap) in gastric cancer. In the present study, we identified the mechanism through which Yap sustains gastric cancer viability and migration. Yap was greatly upregulated in gastric cancer cells and its expression promoted cellular migration and survival...
February 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434191/actin-nucleator-spire-1-is-a-regulator-of-ectoplasmic-specialization-in-the-testis
#8
Qing Wen, Nan Li, Xiang Xiao, Wing-Yee Lui, Darren S Chu, Chris K C Wong, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
Germ cell differentiation during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis is accompanied by extensive remodeling at the Sertoli cell-cell and Sertoli cell-spermatid interface to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes and developing spermatids across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, respectively. The unique cell junction in the testis is the actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) designated basal ES at the Sertoli cell-cell interface, and the apical ES at the Sertoli-spermatid interface...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432774/pstpip1-controls-immune-synapse-stability-in-human-t-cells
#9
W J M Janssen, V Grobarova, J Leleux, C H Jongeneel, M van Gijn, J M van Montfrans, M Boes
BACKGROUND: PSTPIP1 is a cytosolic adaptor protein involved with T-cell activation, differentiation, and migration. Upon cognate T-cell contact, PSTPIP1 is recruited to surface-expressed CD2, where it regulates f-actin remodeling. An immune synapse (IS) is thereby rapidly formed, consisting of TCR clusters surrounded by a ring of adhesion molecules including CD2. OBJECTIVE: From genetic screening of primary immunodeficiency patients, we identified two mutations in PSTPIP1, R228C and T274M which we further characterized in primary patient T-cells...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431241/requirement-of-the-f-actin-binding-activity-of-l-afadin-for-enhancing-the-formation-of-adherens-and-tight-junctions
#10
Shotaro Sakakibara, Tomohiko Maruo, Muneaki Miyata, Kiyohito Mizutani, Yoshimi Takai
The apical junctional complex consists of adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) in polarized epithelial cells, which are attached to each other to form a sheet. Actin filaments (F-actin) are associated with AJs and TJs and required for the formation and maintenance of this complex. l-Afadin is an F-actin-binding protein, which is localized at AJs through binding to the cell adhesion molecule nectin, and regulates the formation of AJs and TJs. However, the role of the F-actin-binding activity of l-afadin for the formation of the apical junctional complex remains unknown...
February 12, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429936/%C3%AE-actinin-anchors-psd-95-at-postsynaptic-sites
#11
Lucas Matt, Karam Kim, Anne E Hergarden, Tommaso Patriarchi, Zulfiqar A Malik, Deborah K Park, Dhrubajyoti Chowdhury, Olivia R Buonarati, Peter B Henderson, Çiğdem Gökçek Saraç, Yonghong Zhang, Durga Mohapatra, Mary C Horne, James B Ames, Johannes W Hell
Despite the central role PSD-95 plays in anchoring postsynaptic AMPARs, how PSD-95 itself is tethered to postsynaptic sites is not well understood. Here we show that the F-actin binding protein α-actinin binds to the very N terminus of PSD-95. Knockdown (KD) of α-actinin phenocopies KD of PSD-95. Mutating lysine at position 10 or lysine at position 11 of PSD-95 to glutamate, or glutamate at position 53 or glutamate and aspartate at positions 213 and 217 of α-actinin, respectively, to lysine impairs, in parallel, PSD-95 binding to α-actinin and postsynaptic localization of PSD-95 and AMPARs...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429511/hypoxia-perturbs-endothelium-by-re-organizing-cellular-actin-architecture-nitric-oxide-offers-limited-protection
#12
Akila Swaminathan, Dharanibalan Kasiviswanathan, Uma Maheswari Balaguru, Gopi Krishna Kolluru, Geetha SuryaKumar, Suvro Chatterjee
Exposure to hypoxia causes structural changes in the endothelial cell (EC) monolayer that alter its permeability. There was a report earlier of impairment of nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelium. The intervention of NO in the altered cellular arrangements of actin cytoskeleton in endothelium for rectification of paracellular gaps in endothelium under hypoxia was observed. The present study demonstrates hypoxia inducing paracellular gaps in hypoxia-exposed blood capillaries in chick embryo extravascular model...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428724/dual-inhibition-of-mtorc1-and-mtorc2-perturbs-cytoskeletal-organization-and-impairs-endothelial-cell-elongation
#13
Kiyomi Tsuji-Tamura, Minetaro Ogawa
Elongation of endothelial cells is an important process in vascular formation and is expected to be a therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 impaired endothelial cell elongation, although the mechanism has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the mTORC1-specific inhibitor everolimus and the mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitor KU0063794 on the cytoskeletal organization and morphology of endothelial cell lines...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417934/functionalized-thermosensitive-hydrogel-combined-with-tendon-stem-progenitor-cells-as-injectable-cell-delivery-carrier-for-tendon-tissue-engineering
#14
Heyong Yin, Zexing Yan, Richard Bauer, Jiang Peng, Matthias Schieker, Michael Nerlich, Denitsa Docheva
Thermosensitive hydrogels have been studied for potential application as promising alternative cell carriers in cell-based regenerative therapies. In this study, a thermosensitive butane diisocyanate (BDI)-collagen hydrogel (BC hydrogel) was designed as injectable cell delivery carrier of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) for tendon tissue engineering. We functionalized the BDI hydrogel with the addition of 20% (v/v) collagen I gel to obtain the thermosensitive BC hydrogel, which was then seeded with TSPCs derived from human Achilles tendons...
February 8, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416050/akt-regulates-neurite-growth-by-phosphorylation-dependent-inhibition-of-radixin-proteasomal-degradation
#15
Eun-Ju Jin, Hyo Rim Ko, Inwoo Hwang, Byeong-Seong Kim, Jeong-Yun Choi, Kye Won Park, Sung-Woo Cho, Jee-Yin Ahn
Neurite growth is controlled by a complex molecular signaling network that regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics at the growth cone. The evolutionarily conserved ezrin, radixin, and moesin family of proteins tether F-actin to the cell membrane when phosphorylated at a conserved threonine residue and modulate neurite outgrowth. Here we show that Akt binds to and phosphorylates a threonine 573 residue on radixin. Akt-mediated phosphorylation protects radixin from ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation, thereby enhancing radixin protein stability, which permits proper neurite outgrowth and growth cone formation...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414666/dexamethasone-restores-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activated-kinase-1-expression-and-phagocytosis-activity-of-kupffer-cells-in-cholestatic-liver-injury
#16
Chih-Sung Hsieh, Jiin-Haur Chuang, Ming-Huei Chou, Ying-Hsien Kao
The role of transforming growth factor-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in modulating the function of Kupffer cells (KCs) within cholestatic livers remains unclear. This study examined the immunopharmacological action of dexamethasone (DEX) in modulating hepatic TAK1 expression and related signaling activity in a rat model of bile duct ligation-mimicked obstructive jaundice. The in vitro effects of DEX on porcine biliary extract (PBE)-modulated gene expression and phagocytosis of KCs were examined using a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383 cells)...
February 4, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413844/ripk3-regulates-cardiac-microvascular-reperfusion-injury-the-role-of-ip3r-dependent-calcium-overload-xo-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-f-action-filopodia-based-cellular-migration
#17
Hao Zhou, Jin Wang, Pingjun Zhu, Shunying Hu, Jun Ren
Ripk3-mediated cellular apoptosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the mechanisms by which Ripk3 influences microvascular homeostasis and endothelial apoptosis are not completely understood. In this study, loss of Ripk3 inhibited endothelial apoptosis, alleviated luminal swelling, maintained microvasculature patency, reduced the expression of adhesion molecules and limited the myocardial inflammatory response. In vitro, Ripk3 deficiency protected endothelial cells from apoptosis and migratory arrest induced by HR injury...
January 27, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410223/spatio-temporal-image-correlation-spectroscopy-and-super-resolution-microscopy-to-quantify-molecular-dynamics-in-t-cells
#18
REVIEW
George W Ashdown, Dylan M Owen
Many cellular processes are regulated by the spatio-temporal organisation of signalling complexes, cytoskeletal components and membranes. One such example is at the T cell immunological synapse where the retrograde flow of cortical filamentous (F)-actin from the synapse periphery drives signalling protein microclusters towards the synapse centre. The density of this mesh however, makes visualisation and analysis of individual actin fibres difficult due to the resolution limit of conventional microscopy. Recently, super-resolution methods such as structured illumination microscopy (SIM) have surpassed this resolution limit...
February 1, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408940/regulation-of-neuritogenesis-in-hippocampal-neurons-using-stiffness-of-extracellular-microenvironment
#19
Aya Tanaka, Yuki Fujii, Nahoko Kasai, Takaharu Okajima, Hiroshi Nakashima
The mechanosensitivity of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is an interesting issue as regards understanding neuronal development and designing compliant materials as neural interfaces between neurons and external devices for treating CNS injuries and disorders. Although neurite initiation from a cell body is known to be the first step towards forming a functional nervous network during development or regeneration, less is known about how the mechanical properties of the extracellular microenvironment affect neuritogenesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403024/mir-429-suppresses-tumor-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-crkl-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-inhibiting-raf-mek-erk-pathway-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#20
Chunmei Guo, Dongting Zhao, Qiuling Zhang, Shuqing Liu, Ming-Zhong Sun
Tumor metastasis is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) high mortality. CRKL (v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homologue (avian)-like) play important roles in tumor metastasis, however, the exact role and underlying mechanism of CRKL in HCC is still unknown. In our study, we demonstrated miR-429 negatively regulated CRKL expression via selectively binding to CRKL-3'-UTR at 3728-3735 bp site by post-transcriptionally mediating its functionality. Re-expression and silencing of miR-429 was remarkably effective in suppressing and promoting HepG2 cell migration and invasion in vitro...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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