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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078746/a-gly65val-substitution-in-an-actin-ghact_li1-disrupts-cell-polarity-and-f-actin-organization-resulting-in-dwarf-lintless-cotton-plants
#1
Gregory N Thyssen, David D Fang, Rickie B Turley, Christopher B Florane, Ping Li, Christopher P Mattison, Marina Naoumkina
Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly-elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon-lintless Li1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865)...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078480/muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated-tight-junction-opening-is-involved-in-epiphora-in-late-phase-of-submandibular-gland-transplantation
#2
Ning-Yan Yang, Chong Ding, Jing Li, Yan Zhang, Ruo-Lan Xiang, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu, Xin Cong
Submandibular gland (SMG) autotransplantation is an effective therapy for treating severe dry eye syndrome. However, epiphora occurs in more than 40% of patients 6 months after operation. We previously found that muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) plays a crucial role in regulating SMG secretion partially through the modulation on tight junction (TJ)-based paracellular pathway. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of mAChR and TJ in a rabbit long-term model of SMG transplantation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069875/15%C3%A2-methoxypuupehenol-induces-antitumor-effects-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-against-human-glioblastoma-and-breast-cancer-models
#3
Tyvette Hilliard, Gabriella Miklossy, Christopher Chock, Peibin Yue, Philip Williams, James Turkson
Studies with 15∝-methoxypuupehenol (15∝-MP), obtained from the extracts of Hyrtios sp., identified putative targets that are associated with its antitumor effects against human glioblastoma (GBM) and breast cancer. In the human GBM (U251MG) or breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells, treatment with 15∝-MP repressed pY705Stat3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3), pErk1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), pS147CyclinB1, pY507Alk (Anaplastic lymphoma kinase), and pY478ezrin levels, and induced pS10merlin, without inhibiting pJAK2 (Janus kinase) or pAkt induction...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068967/enterolactone-alters-fak-src-signaling-and-suppresses-migration-and-invasion-of-lung-cancer-cell-lines
#4
Shireen Chikara, Kaitlin Lindsey, Pawel Borowicz, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Katie M Reindl
BACKGROUND: Systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents and the challenges associated with targeting metastatic tumors are limiting factors for current lung cancer therapeutic approaches. To address these issues, plant-derived bioactive components have been investigated for their anti-cancer properties because many of these agents are non-toxic to healthy tissues. Enterolactone (EL) is a flaxseed-derived mammalian lignan that has demonstrated anti-migratory properties for various cancers, but EL has not been investigated in the context of lung cancer, and its anticancer mechanisms are ill-defined...
January 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068602/synthesis-of-2-3-6-7-tetramethoxyphenanthren-9-amine-an-efficient-precursor-to-access-new-4-aza-2-3-dihydropyridophenanthrenes-as-apoptosis-inducing-agents
#5
Niggula Praveen Kumar, Pankaj Sharma, T Srinivasa Reddy, Shalini Nekkanti, Nagula Shankaraiah, Guntuku Lalita, S Sujanakumari, Suresh K Bhargava, V G M Naidu, Ahmed Kamal
A new route for the synthesis of novel 2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy phenanthrene amine precursor has been successfully accomplished. Subsequently, this amine precursor has been directly utilized for the synthesis of a new series of 4-aza-2,3-dihydropyridophenanthrene derivatives via a three component reaction with tetronic acid and substituted aldehydes. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against human lung (A549), prostate (PC-3 and DU145), breast (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1), gastric (HGC-27), colon (Caco-2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062282/coupling-of-vinculin-to-f-actin-demands-syndecan-4-proteoglycan
#6
R P Cavalheiro, M A Lima, T R Jarrouge-Bouças, G M Viana, C C Lopes, V J Coulson-Thomas, J L Dreyfuss, E A Yates, I L S Tersariol, H B Nader
Syndecans are heparan sulfate proteoglycans characterized as transmembrane receptors that act cooperatively with the cell surface and extracellular matrix proteins. Syn4 knockdown was performed in order to address its role in endothelial cells (EC) behavior. Normal EC and shRNA-Syn4-EC cells were studied comparatively using complementary confocal, super-resolution and non-linear microscopic techniques. Confocal and super-resolution microscopy revealed that Syn4 knockdown alters the level and arrangement of essential proteins for focal adhesion, evidenced by the decoupling of vinculin from F-actin filaments...
January 3, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060557/control-of-nuclear-organization-by-f-actin-binding-proteins
#7
Karin Pfisterer, Asier Jayo, Maddy Parsons
The regulation of nuclear shape and deformability is a key factor in controlling diverse events from embryonic development to cancer cell metastasis, but the mechanisms governing this process are still unclear. Our recent study demonstrated an unexpected role for the F-actin bundling protein fascin in controlling nuclear plasticity through a direct interaction with Nesprin-2. Nesprin-2 is a component of the LINC complex that is known to couple the F-actin cytoskeleton to the nuclear envelope. We demonstrated that fascin, which is predominantly associated with peripheral F-actin rich filopodia, binds directly to Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope in a range of cell types...
January 6, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057438/oncogenic-kras-induced-increase-in-fluid-phase-endocytosis-is-dependent-on-n-wasp-and-is-required-for-the-formation-of-pancreatic-preneoplastic-lesions
#8
Clara Lubeseder-Martellato, Katharina Alexandrow, Ana Hidalgo-Sastre, Irina Heid, Sophie Luise Boos, Thomas Briel, Roland M Schmid, Jens T Siveke
Fluid-phase endocytosis is a homeostatic process with an unknown role in tumor initiation. The driver mutation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is constitutively active KRas(G12D), which induces neoplastic transformation of acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). We have previously shown that KRas(G12D)-induced ADM is dependent on RAC1 and EGF receptor (EGFR) by a not fully clarified mechanism. Using three-dimensional mouse and human acinar tissue cultures and genetically engineered mouse models, we provide evidence that (i) KRas(G12D) leads to EGFR-dependent sustained fluid-phase endocytosis (FPE) during acinar metaplasia; (ii) variations in plasma membrane tension increase FPE and lead to ADM in vitro independently of EGFR; and (iii) that RAC1 regulates ADM formation partially through actin-dependent regulation of FPE...
December 24, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044231/plant-actin-depolymerizing-factor-actin-microfilament-disassembly-and-more
#9
Noriko Inada
ACTIN DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR (ADF) is a conserved protein among eukaryotes. The main function of ADF is the severing and depolymerizing filamentous actin (F-actin), thus regulating F-actin organization and dynamics and contributing to growth and development of the organisms. Mammalian genomes contain only a few ADF genes, whereas angiosperm plants have acquired an expanding number of ADFs, resulting in the differentiation of physiological functions. Recent studies have revealed functions of ADFs in plant growth and development, and various abiotic and biotic stress responses...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038913/rlj-rgd3-induces-apoptosis-via-the-mitochondrial-dependent-pathway-and-inhibits-adhesion-migration-and-invasion-of-human-heya8-cells-via-fak-pathway
#10
Qi Jiang, Qingwei Li, Jianmei Han, Meng Gou, Yuanyuan Zheng, Bowen Li, Rong Xiao, Jihong Wang
Ovarian carcinoma is a tumor derived from ovary, which brings relatively higher mortality rate among the fatal gynecological cancers. Recently, lots of studies have concentrated on the anti-tumor effects of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif containing peptides due to their integrin binding properties. In order to meet the criterion of genetic engineering drugs, a recombinant RGD toxin protein (rLj-RGD3) without a His-tag was cloned from the buccal glands of Lampetra japonica in the present study. After endotoxin removal, the His-tag removed rLj-RGD3 was shown to inhibit the proliferation of HeyA8 cells...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035048/live-cell-single-molecule-labeling-and-analysis-of-myosin-motors-with-quantum-dots
#11
Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Yoshihito Nakahata, Hirokazu Yarimizu, Makoto Kanzaki
Quantum dots (QDs) are a powerful tool for quantitatively analyzing dynamic cellular processes by single-particle tracking. However, tracking of intracellular molecules with QDs is limited by their inability to penetrate the plasma membrane and bind to specific molecules of interest. Although several techniques for overcoming these problems have been proposed, they are either complicated or inconvenient. To address this issue, in this study, we developed a simple, convenient, and nontoxic method for labeling intracellular molecules in cells using HaloTag technology and electroporation...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035042/rock1-but-not-rock2-contributes-to-rhoa-signaling-and-nmiia-mediated-contractility-at-the-epithelial-zonula-adherens
#12
Rashmi Priya, Xuan Liang, Jessica L Teo, Kinga Duszyc, Alpha S Yap, Guillermo A Gomez
Rho kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) function downstream of the small GTPase RhoA to drive actomyosin cytoskeletal remodeling. It has often been believed that ROCK1 and ROCK2 may be functionally redundant, as they share a highly conserved kinase domain. However, in this study, we report differential functional effects for these ROCKs at the epithelial zonula adherens (ZA). Using specific siRNA, we found that ROCK1 depletion disrupted cadherin organization at the ZA, accompanied by loss of F-actin and NMIIA, whereas ROCK2 knockdown had no significant effect...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031329/hur-enhances-early-restitution-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-increasing-cdc42-translation
#13
Lan Liu, Ran Zhuang, Lan Xiao, Hee Kyoung Chung, Jason Luo, Douglas J Turner, Jaladanki N Rao, Myriam Gorospe, Jian-Ying Wang
The mammalian intestinal mucosa exhibits a spectrum of responses after acute injury and repairs itself rapidly to restore the epithelial integrity. The RNA-binding protein HuR regulates the stability and translation of target mRNAs and is involved in many aspects of gut epithelium homeostasis, but its exact role in the regulation of mucosal repair after injury remains unknown. Here we show that HuR is essential for early intestinal epithelial restitution by increasing the expression of cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) at the posttranscriptional level...
December 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030425/features-of-hepatitis-in-hepatitis-associated-aplastic-anemia-clinical-and-histopathologic-study
#14
Kalyani R Patel, Alison Bertuch, Ghadir S Sasa, Ryan W Himes, Hao Wu
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. METHODS: Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029098/mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-on-magnetic-nanowire-substrates
#15
Jose E Perez, Timothy Ravasi, Jürgen Kosel
Stem cells have been shown to respond to extracellular mechanical stimuli by regulating their fate through the activation of specific signaling pathways. In this work, an array of iron nanowires (NWs) aligned perpendicularly to the surface was fabricated by pulsed electrodepositon in porous alumina templates followed by a partial removal of the alumina to reveal 2-3 μm of the NWs. This resulted in alumina substrates with densely arranged NWs of 33 nm in diameter separated by 100 nm. The substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive x-ray analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer...
February 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028232/two-independent-s-phase-checkpoints-regulate-appressorium-mediated-plant-infection-by-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#16
Míriam Osés-Ruiz, Wasin Sakulkoo, George R Littlejohn, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Nicholas J Talbot
To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026000/low-magnitude-high-frequency-vibration-promotes-the-adhesion-and-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-on-a-hydroxyapatite-coated-surface-the-direct-role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-activation
#17
Bailing Chen, Tao Lin, Xiaoxi Yang, Yiqiang Li, Denghui Xie, Wenhui Zheng, Haowen Cui, Weimin Deng, Xin Tan
The positive effect of low-magnitude, high‑frequency (LMHF) vibration on implant osseointegration has been demonstrated; however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of LMHF vibration on the adhesion and the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated surfaces in an in vitro model as well as to elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for the effects of LMHF vibration on osteogenesis...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024085/modeling-the-functional-role-of-valve-interstitial-cell-stress-fibers
#18
Yusuke Sakamoto, Rachel M Buchanan, Johannah S Adams, Farshid Guilak, Michael S Sacks
The function of the heart valve interstitial cells (VICs) are intimately connected to heart valve tissue remodeling and repair, as well as initiation of pathological processes. Given the complex three-dimensional VIC structure and associated biomechanical behaviors, we developed a VIC computational continuum mechanics model to determine changes in stress fibers contraction and strain rate sensitivity. Novel experimental data was acquired including stress fiber orientation, expression levels of F-actin and α-SMA, as well as microindentation studies...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012988/the-host-immune-enhancing-agent-korean-red-ginseng-oil-successfully-attenuates-brucella-abortus-infection-in-a-murine-model
#19
Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, Huynh Tan Hop, Lauren Togonon Arayan, Tran Xuan Ngoc Huy, Soo Jong Park, Kwang Dong Kim, WonGi Min, Hu Jang Lee, Man Hee Rhee, Yi-Seong Kwak, Suk Kim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines and is used for the treatment of various human diseases. In this study, we elucidated the protective mechanism of the essential oil from Korean red ginseng (RGO) against Brucella infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of RGO on Brucella abortus viability, NO production, uptake and intracellular growth in macrophages were investigated...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012154/mass-spectrometry-comparison-of-nerve-allograft-decellularization-processes
#20
Alonda C Pollins, Justine S Kim, Richard B Boyer, Wesley P Thayer
Peripheral nerve repair using nerve grafts has been investigated for several decades using traditional techniques such as histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Recent advances in mass spectrometry techniques have made it possible to study the proteomes of complex tissues, including extracellular matrix rich tissues similar to peripheral nerves. The present study comparatively assessed three previously described processing methods for generating acellular nerve grafts by mass spectrometry...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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