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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544986/morphometric-characteristics-of-neutrophils-stimulated-by-adhesion-and-hypochlorite
#1
Tatsiana Kuznetsova, Tatsiana Kulahava, Ivan Zholnerevich, Nadezda Amaegberi, Galina Semenkova, Oleg Shadyro, Juergen Arnhold
The aim of this work was to compare cell form, size and volume as well as the locomotor activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) stimulated by adhesion to glass and exposed to hypochlorous acid at non-toxic dose. After 20min of adhesion to a glass surface, volume, cell surface area and projection area of PMNLs were equaled to 143.1±21.4μm(3), 288.8±28.8μm(2) and 248.3±32.3μm(2), respectively. Projection area of PMNLs exposed to NaOCl was noticeably enlarged as compared with control samples. The cell volume of 20min adherent cells exposed to NaOCl was enlarged in comparison with both control cells and 5min adhered exposed to NaOCl cells...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541346/acf7-regulates-inflammatory-colitis-and-intestinal-wound-response-by-orchestrating-tight-junction-dynamics
#2
Yanlei Ma, Jiping Yue, Yao Zhang, Chenzhang Shi, Matt Odenwald, Wenguang G Liang, Qing Wei, Ajay Goel, Xuewen Gou, Jamie Zhang, Shao-Yu Chen, Wei-Jen Tang, Jerrold R Turner, Feng Yang, Hong Liang, Huanlong Qin, Xiaoyang Wu
In the intestinal epithelium, the aberrant regulation of cell/cell junctions leads to intestinal barrier defects, which may promote the onset and enhance the severity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear how the coordinated behaviour of cytoskeletal network may contribute to cell junctional dynamics. In this report, we identified ACF7, a crosslinker of microtubules and F-actin, as an essential player in this process. Loss of ACF7 leads to aberrant microtubule organization, tight junction stabilization and impaired wound closure in vitro...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538170/yap-regulates-actin-dynamics-through-arhgap29-and-promotes-metastasis
#3
Yiting Qiao, Jianxiang Chen, Ying Bena Lim, Megan Louise Finch-Edmondson, Veerabrahma Pratap Seshachalam, Lei Qin, Tingting Jiang, Boon Chuan Low, Himanshu Singh, Chwee Teck Lim, Marius Sudol
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is regulated by mechanical cues via the interaction of the Hippo pathway with cytoskeleton. Previous studies showed that YAP plays a role in regulating the actomyosin network by suppressing Rho GTPase in medaka fish. Here, we identify Rho GTPase activating protein 29 (ARHGAP29) as a transcriptional target of YAP in a human gastric cancer cell line. YAP promotes the expression of ARHGAP29 to suppress the RhoA-LIMK-cofilin pathway, destabilizing F-actin. The overexpression of YAP causes cytoskeletal rearrangement by altering the dynamics of F-actin/G-actin turnover, thus promoting migration...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536953/rhoa-and-rhoc-are-involved-in-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-induced-cell-migration-by-regulating-f-actin-redistribution-and-assembly
#4
Jixian Luo, Dingyun Li, Dan Wei, Xiaoguang Wang, Lan Wang, Xianlu Zeng
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling is important to the maintenance and progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by inducing chemotaxis migration. To identify the mechanism of SDF-1 signaling in the migration of T-ALL, Jurkat acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells were used. Results showed that SDF-1 induces Jurkat cell migration by F-actin redistribution and assembly, which is dependent on Rho activity. SDF-1 induced RhoA and RhoC activation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was inhibited by Rho inhibitor...
May 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536263/axodendritic-sorting-and-pathological-missorting-of-tau-is-isoform-specific-and-determined-by-axon-initial-segment-architecture
#5
Hans Zempel, Frank Dennissen, Yatender Kumar, Julia Luedtke, Jacek Biernat, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow
Subcellular mislocalization of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Six Tau isoforms, differentiated by the presence or absence of a second repeat or of N-terminal inserts, exist in the human CNS but their physiological and pathological differences have long remained remain elusive. Here, we investigated the properties and distributions of human and rodent Tau isoforms in primary forebrain rodent neurons. We found that the Tau-Diffusion-Barrier (TDB), located within the Axon-Initial-Segment (AIS), controls retrograde (axon-to-soma) and anterograde (soma-to-axon) traffic of Tau...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533957/pld2-regulates-microtubule-stability-and-spindle-migration-in-mouse-oocytes-during-meiotic-division
#6
Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaoyun Liu, Dandan Chen, Xiuying Jiang, Wei Ma
Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell cycle progression, transcriptional control and vesicle trafficking. There is no evidence about PLD2 function in oocytes during meiosis. Herein, we analyzed PLD2 expression and its relationship with spindle formation and positioning in mouse oocyte meiosis. High protein level of PLD2 was revealed in oocytes by Western blot, which remained consistently stable from prophase I with intact germinal vesicle (GV) up to metaphase II (MII) stage...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531647/multifunctional-plla-ceramic-fiber-membranes-for-bone-regeneration-applications
#7
Daniel Santos, Dina M Silva, Pedro S Gomes, Maria H Fernandes, José D Santos, Vitor Sencadas
A novel method to process electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) membranes incorporating glass reinforced hydroxyapatite granules (gHA) interspacially between the polymeric fibers is reported, thus increasing the surface area for cellular interactions. gHA granules (≤150μm) electrospun together with the polymer solution, lead to an average fiber diameter of 550±150nm for pristine PLLA and 440±170nm for the composite samples. An increase of the overall porosity was observed, from 79±3% for the PLLA up to 88±5% for the hybrid samples, keeping material's wettability and mechanical properties...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530245/shifting-the-optimal-stiffness-for-cell-migration
#8
Benjamin L Bangasser, Ghaidan A Shamsan, Clarence E Chan, Kwaku N Opoku, Erkan Tüzel, Benjamin W Schlichtmann, Jesse A Kasim, Benjamin J Fuller, Brannon R McCullough, Steven S Rosenfeld, David J Odde
Cell migration, which is central to many biological processes including wound healing and cancer progression, is sensitive to environmental stiffness, and many cell types exhibit a stiffness optimum, at which migration is maximal. Here we present a cell migration simulator that predicts a stiffness optimum that can be shifted by altering the number of active molecular motors and clutches. This prediction is verified experimentally by comparing cell traction and F-actin retrograde flow for two cell types with differing amounts of active motors and clutches: embryonic chick forebrain neurons (ECFNs; optimum ∼1 kPa) and U251 glioma cells (optimum ∼100 kPa)...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527708/cortical-cytoskeleton-dynamics-regulates-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-isoform-2-pmca2-activity
#9
Marianela G Dalghi, Mariela Ferreira-Gomes, Nicolás Montalbetti, Alexandre Simonin, Emanuel E Strehler, Matthias A Hediger, Juan Pablo Rossi
We have previously shown that purified actin can directly bind to human plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 4b (hPMCA4b) and exert a dual modulation on its Ca(2+)-ATPase activity: F-actin inhibits PMCA while short actin oligomers may contribute to PMCA activation. These studies had to be performed with purified proteins given the nature of the biophysical and biochemical approaches used. To assess whether a functional interaction between the PMCAs and the cortical cytoskeleton is of physiological relevance, we characterized this phenomenon in the context of a living cell by monitoring in real-time the changes in the cytosolic calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]CYT)...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527703/sperm-oocyte-contact-induces-outside-in-signaling-via-pyk2-activation
#10
Huizhen Wang, Jinping Luo, Carol Carlton, Lynda K McGinnis, William H Kinsey
Fertilization is a multi-step process that begins with plasma membrane interactions that enable sperm - oocyte binding followed by fusion of the sperm and oocyte plasma membranes. Once membrane fusion has occurred, sperm incorporation involves actin remodeling events within the oocyte cortex that allow the sperm head to penetrate the cortical actin layer and gain access to the ooplasm. Despite the significance for reproduction, the control mechanisms involved in gamete binding, fusion, and sperm incorporation are poorly understood...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526320/mercury-exposure-induces-cytoskeleton-disruption-and-loss-of-renal-function-through-epigenetic-modulation-of-mmp9-expression
#11
Hafizurrahman Khan, Radha Dutt Singh, Ratnakar Tiwari, Siddhartha Gangopadhyay, Somendu Kumar Roy, Dhirendra Singh, Vikas Srivastava
Mercury is one of the major heavy metal pollutants occurring in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Due to ban on most inorganic mercury containing products, human exposure to mercury generally occurs as methylmercury (MeHg) by consumption of contaminated fish and other sea food. Animal and epidemiological studies indicate that MeHg affects neural and renal function. Our study is focused on nephrotoxic potential of MeHg. In this study, we have shown for the first time how MeHg could epigenetically modulate matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) to promote nephrotoxicity using an animal model of sub chronic MeHg exposure...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526063/targeting-the-cxcr4-pathway-using-a-novel-anti-cxcr4-igg1-antibody-pf-06747143-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#12
Manoj K Kashyap, Carlos I Amaya-Chanaga, Deepak Kumar, Brett Simmons, Nanni Huser, Yin Gu, Max Hallin, Kevin Lindquist, Rolla Yafawi, Michael Y Choi, Ale-Ali Amine, Laura Z Rassenti, Cathy Zhang, Shu-Hui Liu, Tod Smeal, Valeria R Fantin, Thomas J Kipps, Flavia Pernasetti, Januario E Castro
BACKGROUND: The CXCR4-CXCL12 axis plays an important role in the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-microenvironment interaction. Overexpression of CXCR4 has been reported in different hematological malignancies including CLL. Binding of the pro-survival chemokine CXCL12 with its cognate receptor CXCR4 induces cell migration. CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis promotes cell survival and proliferation and may contribute to the tropism of leukemia cells towards lymphoid tissues and bone marrow...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522964/the-differential-organization-of-f-actin-alters-the-distribution-of-organelles-in-cultured-when-compared-to-native-chromaffin-cells
#13
Yolanda Gimenez-Molina, José Villanueva, Carmen Nanclares, Inmaculada Lopez-Font, Salvador Viniegra, Maria Del Mar Francés, Luis Gandia, Amparo Gil, Luis M Gutiérrez
Cultured bovine chromaffin cells have been used extensively as a neuroendocrine model to study regulated secretion. In order to extend such experimental findings to the physiological situation, it is necessary to study mayor cellular structures affecting secretion in cultured cells with their counterparts present in the adrenomedullary tissue. F-actin concentrates in a peripheral ring in cultured cells, as witnessed by phalloidin-rodhamine labeling, while extends throughout the cytoplasm in native cells. This result is also confirmed when studying the localization of α-fodrin, a F-actin-associated protein...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522963/the-f-actin-binding-protein-cortactin-regulates-the-dynamics-of-the-exocytotic-fusion-pore-through-its-sh3-domain
#14
Arlek M González-Jamett, María J Guerra, María J Olivares, Valentina Haro-Acuña, Ximena Baéz-Matus, Jacqueline Vásquez-Navarrete, Fanny Momboisse, Narcisa Martinez-Quiles, Ana M Cárdenas
Upon cell stimulation, the network of cortical actin filaments is rearranged to facilitate the neurosecretory process. This actin rearrangement includes both disruption of the preexisting actin network and de novo actin polymerization. However, the mechanism by which a Ca(2+) signal elicits the formation of new actin filaments remains uncertain. Cortactin, an actin-binding protein that promotes actin polymerization in synergy with the nucleation promoting factor N-WASP, could play a key role in this mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521425/jak3-is-involved-in-ccr7-dependent-migration-and-invasion-in-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#15
Zhongti Zhang, Fayu Liu, Zhenning Li, Dan Wang, Ruiwu Li, Changfu Sun
Patients with cervical lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) exhibit a poor prognosis and low 5-year survival rate. It has been proven that chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) promotes cellular migration and invasion in metastatic SCCHN. In the present study, the metastatic SCCHN PCI-37B cell line was utilized to explore the role of Janus activated kinase-3 (Jak3) in the CCR7-mediated signaling pathway in metastatic SCCHN cells. It was observed that phospho-Jak3 was expressed in SCCHN tissues...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516904/lhx1-5-control-dendritogenesis-and-spine-morphogenesis-of-purkinje-cells-via-regulation-of-espin
#16
Nga Chu Lui, Wing Yip Tam, Caiji Gao, Jian-Dong Huang, Chi Chiu Wang, Liwen Jiang, Wing Ho Yung, Kin Ming Kwan
In the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells (PCs) receive signals from different inputs through their extensively branched dendrites and serve as an integration centre. Defects in the dendritic development of PCs thus disrupt cerebellar circuitry and cause ataxia. Here we report that specific inactivation of both Lhx1 and Lhx5 in postnatal PCs results in ataxic mutant mice with abnormal dendritic development. The PCs in the mutants have reduced expression of Espin, an F-actin cytoskeleton regulator. We show that Espin expression is transcriptionally activated by Lhx1/5...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507141/pulses-of-ca-2-coordinate-actin-assembly-and-exocytosis-for-stepwise-cell-extension
#17
Norio Takeshita, Minoas Evangelinos, Lu Zhou, Tomoko Serizawa, Rosa A Somera-Fajardo, Ling Lu, Naoki Takaya, G Ulrich Nienhaus, Reinhard Fischer
Many eukaryotic cells grow by extending their cell periphery in pulses. The molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not yet fully understood. Here we present a comprehensive model of stepwise cell extension by using the unique tip growth system of filamentous fungi. Live-cell imaging analysis, including superresolution microscopy, revealed that the fungus Aspergillus nidulans extends the hyphal tip in an oscillatory manner. The amount of F-actin and secretory vesicles (SV) accumulating at the hyphal tip oscillated with a positive temporal correlation, whereas vesicle amounts were negatively correlated to the growth rate...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503689/effects-of-elemene-on-inhibiting-proliferation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-promoting-reendothelialization-at-the-stent-implantation-site
#18
Wenjie Sun, Yuhua Huang, Tieying Yin, Jingjing Wang, Ruolin Du, Juhui Qiu, Yuan Zhang, Yazhou Wang, Jinju Chen, Guixue Wang
Anticancer drugs are commonly used as inhibitors of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in clinical treatments. This study aims to investigate how elemene affects the proliferation of VSMCs, the restenosis, and the reendothelialization after implanting the elemene-coated stents. VSMCs derived from rat aorta were used to test the cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, apoptosis, cytoskeletal protein F-actin, intracellular Ca(2+), IncRNA chip and gene expression of PCNA, P53, and Cx43 when cultured with elemene...
May 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503382/poly-adp-ribosylation-is-present-in-murine-sciatic-nerve-fibers-and-is-altered-in-a-charcot-marie-tooth-1e-neurodegenerative-model
#19
Laura I Lafon Hughes, Carlos J Romeo Cardeillac, Karina B Cal Castillo, Salomé C Vilchez Larrea, José R Sotelo Sosa, Gustavo A Folle Ungo, Silvia H Fernández Villamil, Alejandra E Kun González
BACKGROUND: Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) as a postranslational protein modification and catabolized mainly by poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). In spite of the existence of cytoplasmic PARPs and PARG, research has been focused on nuclear PARPs and PAR, demonstrating roles in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and the participation in DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation. We have recently detected non-nuclear PAR structurally and functionally associated to the E-cadherin rich zonula adherens and the actin cytoskeleton of VERO epithelial cells...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502309/effects-of-vitrification-of-cumulus-enclosed-porcine-oocytes-at-the-germinal-vesicle-stage-on-cumulus-expansion-nuclear-progression-and-cytoplasmic-maturation
#20
Ruth Appeltant, Tamás Somfai, Elisa C S Santos, Thanh Quang Dang-Nguyen, Takashi Nagai, Kazuhiro Kikuchi
Although offspring have been produced from porcine oocytes vitrified at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, the rate of embryo development remains low. In the present study, nuclear morphology and progression, cumulus expansion, transzonal projections (TZPs), ATP and glutathione (GSH) levels were compared between vitrified cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and control COCs (no cryoprotectant treatment and no cooling), as well as a toxicity control (no cooling). Vitrification was performed with 17.5% (v/v) ethylene glycol and 17...
May 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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