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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329908/re-evaluating-the-roles-of-myosin-18a%C3%AE-and-f-actin-in-determining-golgi-morphology
#1
Kyle Bruun, Jordan R Beach, Sarah M Heissler, Kirsten Remmert, James R Sellers, John A Hammer
The peri-centrosomal localization and morphology of the Golgi apparatus depends largely on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the microtubule motor protein dynein. Recent studies proposed that myosin 18Aα (M18Aα) also contributes to Golgi morphology by binding the Golgi protein GOLPH3 and walking along adjacent actin filaments to stretch the Golgi into its classic ribbon structure. Biochemical analyses have shown, however, that M18A is not an actin-activated ATPase and lacks motor activity. Our goal, therefore, was to define the precise molecular mechanism by which M18Aα determines Golgi morphology...
March 22, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329735/anti-inflammatory-mechanism-of-ulinastatin-inhibiting-the-hyperpermeability-of-vascular-endothelial-cells-induced-by-tnf-%C3%AE-via-the-rhoa-rock-signal-pathway
#2
Fu Wei, Siyi Liu, Li Luo, Nina Gu, Yan Zeng, Xiaoying Chen, Shan Xu, Dan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Ulinastatin reduces the high permeability of vascular endothelial cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This study investigated the molecular mechanism behind this effect, with the aim of understanding the action of ulinastatin in sepsis therapy and exploring novel therapeutic strategies for sepsis patients. METHODS: A TNF-α treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) was employed as an inflammation model. Horseradish peroxidase permeability assays and an epithelial voltmeter method were used to measure the permeability of EA...
March 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329679/mammalian-diaphanous-1-mediates-a-pathway-for-e-cadherin-to-stabilize-epithelial-barriers-through-junctional-contractility
#3
Bipul R Acharya, Selwin K Wu, Zi Zhao Lieu, Robert G Parton, Stephan W Grill, Alexander D Bershadsky, Guillermo A Gomez, Alpha S Yap
Formins are a diverse class of actin regulators that influence filament dynamics and organization. Several formins have been identified at epithelial adherens junctions, but their functional impact remains incompletely understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that formins might affect epithelial interactions through junctional contractility. We focused on mDia1, which was recruited to the zonula adherens (ZA) of established Caco-2 monolayers in response to E-cadherin and RhoA. mDia1 was necessary for contractility at the ZA, measured by assays that include a FRET-based sensor that reports molecular-level tension across αE-catenin...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328539/polarization-sensitive-localization-based-super-resolution-microscopy-with-a-birefringent-wedge
#4
József Sinkó, Tamás Gajdos, Elvira Czvik, Gábor Szabó, Miklós Erdélyi
A practical method has been presented for polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy using a birefringent dual wedge. The measurement of the polarization degree at the single molecule level can reveal the chemical and physical properties of the local environment of the fluorescent dye molecule and can hence provide information about the sub-diffraction sized structure of biological samples. Polarization sensitive STORM imaging of the F-Actins proved correlation between the orientation of fluorescent dipoles and the axis of the fibril...
March 22, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328017/dental-pulp-stem-cells-promote-regeneration-of-damaged-neuron-cells-on-the-cellular-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Feixiang Wang, Yali Jia, Jiajing Liu, Jinglei Zhai, Ning Cao, Wen Yue, Huixia He, Xuetao Pei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease and many types of stem cells have been used in AD therapy with some favorable effects. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutical effects of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on AD cellular model which established by okadaic acid (OA)-induced damage to human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, in vitro for 24h. After confirmed the AD cellular model, the cells were co-culture with hDPSCs by transwell co-culture system till 24 h for treatment...
March 22, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323988/basement-membrane-laminin-%C3%AE-2-regulates-btb-dynamics-via-its-effects-on-f-actin-and-microtubule-mt-cytoskeletons-via-mtorc1-signaling
#6
Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
A local axis connects the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, the basal ES at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), and the basement membrane across the seminiferous epithelium functionally in rat testes. As such, cellular events that take place across the epithelium such as spermiation and BTB remodeling that occur at the apical ES and the basal ES, respectively, at stage VIII of the cycle are coordinated. Herein, laminin α2, a structural component of the basement membrane, was found to regulate BTB dynamics...
January 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323401/zinc-and-copper-effects-on-stability-of-tubulin-and-actin-networks-in-dendrites-and-spines-of-hippocampal-neurons
#7
Laura Perrin, Stephane Roudeau, Asuncion Carmona, Florelle Domart, Jennifer D Petersen, Sylvain Bohic, Yang Yang, Peter Cloetens, Richard Ortega
Zinc and copper ions can modulate the activity of glutamate-receptors. However, labile zinc and copper ions likely represent only the tip of the iceberg and other neuronal functions are suspected for these metals in their bound state. We performed synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging with 30 nm resolution to image total biometals in dendrites and spines from hippocampal neurons. We found that zinc is distributed all along the dendrites while copper is mainly pinpointed within the spines. In spines, zinc content is higher within the spine head while copper is higher within the spine neck...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322225/probing-cytoskeletal-modulation-of-passive-and-active-intracellular-dynamics-using-nanobody-functionalized-quantum-dots
#8
Eugene A Katrukha, Marina Mikhaylova, Hugo X van Brakel, Paul M van Bergen En Henegouwen, Anna Akhmanova, Casper C Hoogenraad, Lukas C Kapitein
The cytoplasm is a highly complex and heterogeneous medium that is structured by the cytoskeleton. How local transport depends on the heterogeneous organization and dynamics of F-actin and microtubules is poorly understood. Here we use a novel delivery and functionalization strategy to utilize quantum dots (QDs) as probes for active and passive intracellular transport. Rapid imaging of non-functionalized QDs reveals two populations with a 100-fold difference in diffusion constant, with the faster fraction increasing upon actin depolymerization...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322189/toxoplasma-gondii-f-actin-forms-an-extensive-filamentous-network-required-for-material-exchange-and-parasite-maturation
#9
Javier Periz, Jamie Whitelaw, Clare Harding, Simon Gras, Mario Igor Del Rosario Minina, Fernanda Latorre-Barragan, Leandro Lemgruber, Madita Alice Reimer, Robert Insall, Aoife Heaslip, Markus Meissner
Apicomplexan actin is important during the parasite's life cycle. Its polymerization kinetics are unusual, permitting only short, unstable F-actin filaments. It has not been possible to study actin in vivo and so its physiological roles have remained obscure, leading to models distinct from conventional actin behaviour. Here a modified version of the commercially available Actin-Chromobody® was tested as a novel tool for visualising F-actin dynamics in Toxoplasma gondii. Cb labels filamentous actin structures within the parasite cytosol and labels an extensive F-actin network that connects parasites within the parasitophorous vacuole and allows vesicles to be exchanged between parasites...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321160/mir-1181-inhibits-invasion-and-proliferation-via-stat3-in-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Jie Wang, Xing-Jun Guo, You-Ming Ding, Jian-Xin Jiang
AIM: To examine the role of microRNA 1181 (miR-1181) in invasion and proliferation in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We analyzed the expression of miR-1181 in several pancreatic cancer cell lines and generated stable MIA-PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell lines with up-regulated miR-1181 expression using an adenovirus delivery system. We then investigated miR-1181's effect on invasion and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells by transwell assay, wound healing assay, cell counting kit-8 assay and colony-forming assay, and explored any underlying mechanisms by western bolt...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320821/pavement-cell-chloroplast-behaviour-and-interactions-with-other-organelles-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Kiah A Barton, Michael R Wozny, Neeta Mathur, Erica-Ashley Jaipargas, Jaideep Mathur
Chloroplasts are a characteristic feature of green plants. Mesophyll cells possess the majority of chloroplasts and it is widely believed that with the exception of guard cells, the epidermal layer in most higher plants does not contain chloroplasts. However, recent observations on Arabidopsis have shown a population of chloroplasts in pavement cells that are smaller than mesophyll chloroplasts and have a high stroma to grana ratio. Here using stable transgenic lines expressing fluorescent proteins targeted to the plastid stroma, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, F-actin and microtubules we characterize the spatiotemporal relationships between the pavement cell chloroplasts (PCC) and their subcellular environment...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320610/carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-401-suppresses-polymorphonuclear-leukocyte-migratory-potential-by-modulating-f-actin-dynamics
#12
Ken Inoue, Eric K Patterson, Alfredo Capretta, Abdel R Lawendy, Douglas D Fraser, Gediminas Cepinskas
Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) suppress inflammation by reducing polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to the affected organs. We investigated modulation of PMN-endothelial cell adhesive interactions by water-soluble CORM-401 using an experimental model of endotoxemia in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells grown on laminar-flow perfusion channels were stimulated with 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide for 6 hours and perfused with 100 μmol/L CORM-401 (or inactive compound iCORM-401)-pretreated PMN for 5 minutes in the presence of 1...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320404/tryptophan-rich-domains-of-plasmodium-falciparum-surfin4-2-and-plasmodium-vivax-pvstp2-interact-with-membrane-skeleton-of-red-blood-cell
#13
Xiaotong Zhu, Yang He, Yifan Liang, Osamu Kaneko, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum dramatically alters the morphology and properties of the infected red blood cells (iRBCs). A large group of exported proteins participate in these parasite-host interactions occurring at the iRBC membrane skeleton. SURFIN4.2 is one of iRBC surface protein that belongs to surface-associated interspersed protein (SURFIN) family. Although the intracellular tryptophan-rich domain (WRD) was proposed to be important for the translocation of SURFINs from Maurer's clefts to iRBC surface, the molecular basis of this observation has yet to be defined...
March 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320282/extracellular-actin-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
N P Sudakov, I V Klimenkov, V A Byvaltsev, S B Nikiforov, Yu M Konstantinov
This review considers the functions of extracellular actin - cell surface bound, associated with extracellular matrix, or freely circulating. The role of this protein in different pathological processes is analyzed: its toxic effects and involvement in autoimmune diseases as an autoantigen. The extracellular actin clearance system and its role in protection against the negative effects of actin are characterized. Levels of free-circulating actin, anti-actin immunoglobulins, and components of the actin clearance system as prognostic biomarkers for different diseases are reviewed...
January 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318078/chromatin-tethering-to-the-nuclear-envelope-by-nuclear-actin-filaments-a-novel-role-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-the-xenopus-blastula
#15
Haruka Oda, Natsuki Shirai, Naoko Ura, Keita Ohsumi, Mari Iwabuchi
The Xenopus oocyte is known to accumulate filamentous or F-actin in the nucleus, but it is currently unknown whether F-actin also accumulates in embryo nuclei. Using fluorescence-labeled actin reporters, we examined the actin distribution in Xenopus embryonic cells and found that F-actin accumulates in nuclei during the blastula stage but not during the gastrula stage. To further investigate nuclear F-actin, we devised a Xenopus egg extract that reproduces the formation of nuclei in which F-actin accumulates...
March 20, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315771/evidence-for-two-populations-of-hair-bundles-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#16
Shelcie S Menard, Glen M Watson
Cytochalasin D (CD) was employed to disrupt F-actin within stereocilia of anemone hair bundles. CD treatment decreases the abundance of hair bundles (by 85%) while significantly impairing predation. The remaining hair bundles are 'CD-resistant.' Surprisingly, the morphology and F-actin content of resistant hair bundles are comparable to those of untreated controls. However, the resistant hair bundles fail to respond normally to the N-acetylated sugar, NANA, by elongating. Instead, they remain at resting length...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314190/bothrosome-formation-in-schizochytrium-aggregatum-labyrinthulomycetes-stramenopiles-during-zoospore-settlement
#17
Izumi Iwata, Kei Kimura, Yuji Tomaru, Taizo Motomura, Kanae Koike, Kazuhiko Koike, Daiske Honda
Labyrinthulomycetes are characterized by the presence of ectoplasmic nets originating from an organelle known as the bothrosome, whose evolutionary origin is unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the developmental process from a zoospore to a vegetative cell in Schizochytrium aggregatum. After disappearance of the flagellum during zoospore settlement, the bothrosome emerged at the anterior-ventral pole of the cells. A new Golgi body also appeared at this stage, and the bothrosome was positioned close to both the new and the old Golgi bodies...
December 14, 2016: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303963/structural-analysis-of-human-cofilin-2-filamentous-actin-assemblies-atomic-resolution-insights-from-magic-angle-spinning-nmr-spectroscopy
#18
Jenna Yehl, Elena Kudryashova, Emil Reisler, Dmitri Kudryashov, Tatyana Polenova
Cellular actin dynamics is an essential element of numerous cellular processes, such as cell motility, cell division and endocytosis. Actin's involvement in these processes is mediated by many actin-binding proteins, among which the cofilin family plays unique and essential role in accelerating actin treadmilling in filamentous actin (F-actin) in a nucleotide-state dependent manner. Cofilin preferentially interacts with older filaments by recognizing time-dependent changes in F-actin structure associated with the hydrolysis of ATP and release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the nucleotide cleft of actin...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298491/cyk-4-regulates-rac-but-not-rho-during-cytokinesis
#19
Yelena Zhuravlev, Sophia M Hirsch, Shawn N Jordan, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Julie C Canman
Cytokinesis is driven by constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring that is controlled by Rho family small GTPases. Rho, activated by the Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) ECT-2, is upstream of both myosin-II activation and diaphanous formin-mediated filamentous actin (f-actin) assembly, which drive ring constriction. The role for Rac and its regulators is more controversial but, based on the finding that Rac inactivation can rescue cytokinesis failure when the GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) CYK-4 is disrupted, Rac activity was proposed to be inhibitory to contractile ring constriction and thus specifically inactivated by CYK-4 at the division plane...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298447/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-%C3%AE-catenin-reveals-constitutive-binding-to-%C3%AE-catenin-and-f-actin
#20
Hyunook Kang, Injin Bang, Kyeong Sik Jin, Boyun Lee, Junho Lee, Xiangqiang Shao, Jonathon A Heier, Adam V Kwiatkowski, W James Nelson, Jeff Hardin, William I Weis, Hee-Jung Choi
Intercellular epithelial junctions formed by classical cadherins, β-catenin and the actin-binding protein α-catenin link the actin cytoskeletons of adjacent cells into a structural continuum. These assemblies transmit forces through the tissue and respond to intracellular and extracellular signals. However, the mechanisms of junctional assembly and regulation are poorly understood. Studies of cadherin-catenin assembly in a number of metazoans have revealed both similarities and unexpected differences in the biochemical properties of the cadherin/catenin complex that likely reflect the developmental and environmental requirements of different tissues and organisms...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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