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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430576/ezrin-activation-by-lok-phosphorylation-involves-a-pip2-dependent-wedge-mechanism
#1
Thaher Pelaseyed, Cécile Sauvanet, Raghuvir Viswanatha, Joshua J Filter, Michael L Goldberg, Anthony Bretscher
How cells specify morphologically distinct plasma membrane domains is poorly understood. Prior work has shown that restriction of microvilli to the apical aspect of epithelial cells requires the localized activation of the membrane-F-actin linking protein ezrin. Using an in vitro system, we now define a multi-step process whereby the kinase LOK specifically phosphorylates ezrin to activate it. Binding of PIP2 to ezrin induces a conformational change permitting the insertion of the LOK C-terminal domain to wedge apart the membrane and F-actin-binding domains of ezrin...
April 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428804/morphogenesis-of-honeybee-hypopharyngeal-gland-during-pupal-development
#2
Sascha Peter Klose, Daniel Rolke, Otto Baumann
BACKGROUND: The hypopharyngeal gland of worker bees contributes to the production of the royal jelly fed to queens and larvae. The gland consists of thousands of two-cell units that are composed of a secretory cell and a duct cell and that are arranged in sets of about 12 around a long collecting duct. RESULTS: By fluorescent staining, we have examined the morphogenesis of the hypopharyngeal gland during pupal life, from a saccule lined by a pseudostratified epithelium to the elaborate organ of adult worker bees...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424773/septins-focus-cellular-growth-for-host-infection-by-pathogenic-fungi
#3
REVIEW
Michelle Momany, Nicholas J Talbot
One of the key challenges faced by microbial pathogens is invasion of host tissue. Fungal pathogens adopt a number of distinct strategies to overcome host cell defenses, including the development of specialized infection structures, the secretion of proteins that manipulate host responses or cellular organization, and the ability to facilitate their own uptake by phagocytic mechanisms. Key to many of these adaptations is the considerable morphogenetic plasticity displayed by pathogenic species. Fungal pathogens can, for example, shift their growth habit between non-polarized spores, or yeast-like cells, and highly polarized hyphal filaments...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424461/a-lack-of-coordination-between-sister-chromatids-segregation-and-cytokinesis-in-the-oocytes-of-b6-y-tir-xy-sex-reversed-female-mice
#4
Jia-Qiao Zhu, Seang Lin Tan, Teruko Taketo
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424411/migration-pattern-actin-cytoskeleton-organization-and-response-to-pi3k-mtor-and-hsp90-inhibition-of-glioblastoma-cells-with-different-invasive-capacities
#5
Simon Memmel, Dmitri Sisario, Caren Zöller, Vanessa Fiedler, Astrid Katzer, Robin Heiden, Nicholas Becker, Lorenz Eing, Fábio L R Ferreira, Heiko Zimmermann, Markus Sauer, Michael Flentje, Vladimir L Sukhorukov, Cholpon S Djuzenova
High invasiveness and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) make it the most lethal brain tumor. Therefore, new treatment strategies for preventing migration and invasion of GBM cells are needed. Using two different migration assays, Western blotting, conventional and super-resolution (dSTORM) fluorescence microscopy we examine the effects of the dual PI3K/mTOR-inhibitor PI-103 alone and in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 and/or irradiation on the migration, expression of marker proteins, focal adhesions and F-actin cytoskeleton in two GBM cell lines (DK-MG and SNB19) markedly differing in their invasive capacity...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424231/mroh1-a-lysosomal-regulator-localised-by-wash-generated-actin
#6
Peter A Thomason, Jason S King, Robert H Insall
The steps leading to constitutive exocytosis are poorly understood. In Dictyostelium WASH complex mutants, exocytosis is blocked, so cells that take up fluorescent dextran from the medium retain it and remain fluorescent. Here we establish a FACS-based method to select cells that retain fluorescent dextran, allowing identification of mutants with disrupted exocytosis. Screening a pool of random mutants identified the WASH complex, as expected, and multiple mutants in the conserved HEAT-repeat containing protein Mroh1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424168/mir-9-5p-promotes-msc-migration-by-activating-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#7
Xianyang Li, Lihong He, Qing Yue, Junhou Lu, Naixin Kang, Xiaojing Xu, Huihui Wang, Huanxiang Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in HGF-treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423648/polyisoprenylated-cysteinyl-amide-inhibitors-disrupt-actin-cytoskeleton-organization-induce-cell-rounding-and-block-migration-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Elizabeth Ntantie, Jerrine Fletcher, Felix Amissah, Olufisayo O Salako, Augustine T Nkembo, Rosemary A Poku, Francis O Ikpatt, Nazarius S Lamango
The malignant potential of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is dependent on cellular processes that promote metastasis. F-actin organization is central to cell migration, invasion, adhesion and angiogenesis, processes involved in metastasis. F-actin remodeling is enhanced by the overexpression and/or hyper-activation of some members of the Rho family of small GTPases. Therefore, agents that mitigate hyperactive Rho proteins may be relevant for controlling metastasis. We previously reported the role of polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) as potential inhibitors of cancers with hyperactive small GTPases...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422872/effect-of-hsp27-and-cofilin-in-the-injury-of-hypoxia-reoxygenation-on-hepatocyte-membrane-f-actin-microfilaments
#9
Yafei Zhang, Jiazhong Wang, Hong Ji, Hongwei Lu, Le Lu, Jinlong Wang, Yiming Li
Hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) injury hepatocyte models were established to simulate the ischemia/reperfusion injury of transplanted organ. Through the study of the molecular mechanism of H/R on the F-actin damage of the liver cytomembrane, the mechanism of F-actin damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion was studied from the level of cell and molecule.The hypoxic environment of cells in vitro was simulated by chemical hypoxia agent CoCl2. Liver cells were detected by MTT, H/R group was subdivided into 3 subgroups: H/R 2, 4, and 6 h...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422340/leptolyngbyolides-cytotoxic-macrolides-from-the-marine-cyanobacterium-leptolyngbya-sp-isolation-biological-activity-and-catalytic-asymmetric-total-synthesis
#10
Jin Cui, Maho Morita, Osamu Ohno, Tomoyuki Kimura, Toshiaki Teruya, Takumi Watanabe, Kiyotake Suenaga, Masakatsu Shibasaki
Four new macrolactones, leptolyngbyolides A-D, were isolated from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. collected in Okinawa, Japan. The planar structure of leptolyngbyolides were determined by extensive NMR studies, although complete assignment of the absolute configuration awaited the catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of leptolyngbyolide C. The synthesis took advantage of the catalytic asymmetric thioamide-aldol reaction using copper (I) complexed with a chiral bidentate phosphine ligand to regulate two key stereochemistries of the molecule at the outset...
April 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418499/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-related-response-of-human-conjunctival-fibroblasts-after-filtration-surgery-for-glaucoma
#11
Yuka Aoyama-Araki, Megumi Honjo, Takatoshi Uchida, Reiko Yamagishi, Kuniyuki Kano, Junken Aoki, Makoto Aihara
Purpose: To investigate levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in aqueous fluid samples taken before and after filtration surgery and S1P-induced human conjunctival fibroblast (HCF) responses. Methods: Levels of S1P and its related sphingophospholipids in aqueous fluid obtained immediately before and after filtration surgery were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. HCFs were used for all in vitro experiments. The expression of five S1P receptor subtypes in HCFs was examined by quantitative real-time PCR...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418179/copy-number-variation-increased-gene-expression-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-neurofascin-in-lung-cancer
#12
Johanna Samulin Erdem, Yke Jildouw Arnoldussen, Vidar Skaug, Aage Haugen, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Metastasis and cell adhesion are key aspects of cancer progression. Neurofascin (NFASC) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules and, while studies on NFASC are inadequate, other members have been indicated pivotal roles in cancer progression and metastasis. This study aimed at increasing the knowledge on the involvement of adhesion molecules in lung cancer progression by studying the regulation and role of NFASC in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, copy number variations in the NFASC gene were analyzed in tumor and non-tumorous lung tissues of 204 NSCLC patients...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415422/synthesis-and-characterization-of-redox-sensitive-heparin-%C3%AE-sitosterol-micelles-their-application-as-carriers-for-the-pharmaceutical-agent-doxorubicin-and-investigation-of-their-antimetastatic-activities-in-vitro
#13
Tilahun Ayane Debele, Shewaye Lakew Mekuria, Hsieh-Chih Tsai
Although there are several clinical attempts to treat tumors at the primary site, only few therapies can inhibit the spread of metastatic cancers. In this study, we synthesized redox-sensitive heparin-β-sitosterol micelles that show antimetastatic activity. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared analyses confirmed the formation of bioreducible heparin-β-sitosterol (bHSC) conjugates, whereas dynamic light scattering was used to measure the particle size and zeta potential. Both 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry assays confirmed the low toxicity of the synthesized micelles...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411398/bud-detachment-in-hydra-requires-activation-of-fgfr-and-a-rho-rock-myosin-ii-signaling-pathway-to-ensure-formation-of-a-basal-constriction
#14
Oliver Holz, David Apel, Patrick Steinmetz, Ellen Lange, Simon Hopfenmüller, Kerstin Ohler, Stefanie Sudhop, Monika Hassel
BACKGROUND: Hydra propagates asexually by exporting tissue into a bud, which detaches four days later as a fully differentiated young polyp. Prerequisite for detachment is activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling. The mechanism which enables constriction and tissue separation within the monolayered ecto- and endodermal epithelia is unknown. RESULTS: Histological sections and staining of F-actin by phalloidin revealed conspicuous cell shape changes at the bud detachment site indicating a localized generation of mechanical forces and the potential enhancement of secretory functions in ectodermal cells...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410370/a-systematic-screen-for-morphological-abnormalities-during-fission-yeast-sexual-reproduction-identifies-a-mechanism-of-actin-aster-formation-for-cell-fusion
#15
Omaya Dudin, Laura Merlini, Felipe O Bendezú, Raphaël Groux, Vincent Vincenzetti, Sophie G Martin
In non-motile fungi, sexual reproduction relies on strong morphogenetic changes in response to pheromone signaling. We report here on a systematic screen for morphological abnormalities of the mating process in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We derived a homothallic (self-fertile) collection of viable deletions, which, upon visual screening, revealed a plethora of phenotypes affecting all stages of the mating process, including cell polarization, cell fusion and sporulation. Cell fusion relies on the formation of the fusion focus, an aster-like F-actin structure that is marked by strong local accumulation of the myosin V Myo52, which concentrates secretion at the fusion site...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406165/myostatin-mediates-abdominal-aortic-atherosclerosis-progression-by-inducing-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-dysfunction-and-monocyte-recruitment
#16
D Verzola, S Milanesi, M Bertolotto, S Garibaldi, B Villaggio, C Brunelli, M Balbi, P Ameri, F Montecucco, D Palombo, G Ghigliotti, G Garibotto, J H Lindeman, C Barisione
Myostatin (Mstn) is a skeletal muscle growth inhibitor involved in metabolic disorders and heart fibrosis. In this study we sought to verify whether Mstn is also operative in atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta. In human specimens, Mstn expression was almost absent in normal vessels, became detectable in the media of non-progressive lesions and increased with the severity of the damage. In progressive atherosclerotic lesions, Mstn was present in the media, neointima, plaque shoulder and in infiltrating macrophages...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406019/honey-extracted-polyphenolics-reduce-experimental-hypoxia-in-human-keratinocytes-culture
#17
Amrita Chaudhary, Swarnendu Bag, Provas Banerjee, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Hypoxic assault affects fundamental cellular processes and generates oxidative stress on healthy cells/molecules. Honey extracted polyphenolics (HEP) as a natural antioxidant reduced hypoxic cytotoxicity in this study. Different honey samples were physicochemically characterized to identify preferred (jamun) honey [pH 3.55 ± 0.04, conductivity (μs/cm) = 6.66 ± 0.14, water content % (w/w) = 14.70 ± 0.35, total solid content % (w/w) = 85.30 ± 0.35, phenol content (mg GAE/100 g) = 403.55 ± 0.35, flavonoid content (mg QE/100 g) = 276...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401963/mapping-cell-behavior-across-a-wide-range-of-vertical-silicon-nanocolumn-densities
#18
Nina Buch-Månson, Dong-Hee Kang, Dongyoon Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Myung-Han Yoon, Karen L Martinez
Over the past decade, vertical nanostructures have provided novel approaches for biomedical applications such as intracellular delivery/detection, specific cell capture, membrane potential measurement, and cellular activity regulation. Although the feasibility of the vertical nanostructures as a new biological tool has been thoroughly demonstrated, a better understanding of cell behavior on vertical nanostructures, in particular the effects of geometry, is essential for advanced applications. To investigate the cell behavior according to the variation of the spacing between vertical nanostructures, we have interfaced fibroblasts (NIH3T3) with density-controlled vertical silicon nanocolumn arrays (vSNAs)...
April 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401884/anisotropic-forces-from-spatially-constrained-focal-adhesions-mediate-contact-guidance-directed-cell-migration
#19
Arja Ray, Oscar Lee, Zaw Win, Rachel M Edwards, Patrick W Alford, Deok-Ho Kim, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed migration by contact guidance is a poorly understood yet vital phenomenon, particularly for carcinoma cell invasion on aligned collagen fibres. We demonstrate that for single cells, aligned architectures providing contact guidance cues induce constrained focal adhesion maturation and associated F-actin alignment, consequently orchestrating anisotropic traction stresses that drive cell orientation and directional migration. Consistent with this understanding, relaxing spatial constraints to adhesion maturation either through reduction in substrate alignment density or reduction in adhesion size diminishes the contact guidance response...
April 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400443/plastin-increases-cortical-connectivity-to-facilitate-robust-polarization-and-timely-cytokinesis
#20
Wei Yung Ding, Hui Ting Ong, Yusuke Hara, Jantana Wongsantichon, Yusuke Toyama, Robert C Robinson, François Nédélec, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
The cell cortex is essential to maintain animal cell shape, and contractile forces generated within it by nonmuscle myosin II (NMY-2) drive cellular morphogenetic processes such as cytokinesis. The role of actin cross-linking proteins in cortical dynamics is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved actin bundling/cross-linking protein plastin is instrumental for the generation of potent cortical actomyosin contractility in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. PLST-1 was enriched in contractile structures and was required for effective coalescence of NMY-2 filaments into large contractile foci and for long-range coordinated contractility in the cortex...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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