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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676062/specific-spatial-localization-of-actin-and-dna-in-a-water-water-microdroplet-self-emergence-of-a-cell-like-structure
#1
Naoki Nakatani, Hiroki Sakuta, Masahito Hayashi, Shunsuke Tanaka, Kingo Takiguchi, Kanta Tsumoto, Kenichi Yoshikawa
We examined the effect of binary hydrophilic polymers on a pair of representative biomacromolecules in a living cell. The results showed that these biomacromolecules exhibited specific localization in cell-sized droplets that were spontaneously formed through water/water micro phase-segregation under crowding conditions with coexisting polymers. In our experiments, we used a simple binary polymer system with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran (DEX). Under conditions of micro phase-segregation, DNA was entrapped within cell-sized droplets rich in DEX...
April 19, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675826/camkii%C3%AE-is-localized-in-dendritic-spines-as-both-drebrin-dependent-and-drebrin-independent-pools
#2
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yoshio Sasagawa, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Haruhiko Bito, Tomoaki Shirao
Drebrin is a major F-actin binding protein in dendritic spines that is critically involved in the regulation of dendritic-spine morphogenesis, pathology, and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel drebrin-binding protein involved in spine morphogenesis and synaptic plasticity. We confirmed the beta subunit of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIβ) as a drebrin-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system, and investigated the drebrin-CaMKIIβ relationship in dendritic spines using rat hippocampal neurons...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674972/gualou-xiebai-decoction-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-prevents-cardiac-reperfusion-injury-of-hyperlipidemia-rat-via-energy-modulation
#3
Lu-Lu Yan, Wei-Yang Zhang, Xiao-Hong Wei, Li Yan, Chun-Shui Pan, Yang Yu, Jing-Yu Fan, Yu-Ying Liu, Hua Zhou, Jing-Yan Han, Xin-Sheng Yao
Background: Gualou Xiebai Decoction (GLXB) is a classic prescription of Chinese medicine used for the treatment of cardiac problems. The present study was designed to explore the effect and mechanism of GLXB on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced disorders in myocardial structure and function, focusing on the regulation of energy metabolism and the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Methods: After hyperlipidemic rat model was established by oral administration of high fat diet, the rats were treated with GLXB for 6 weeks and subjected to 30 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) followed by 90 min reperfusion to elicit I/R challenge...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669740/activated-ezrin-controls-misp-levels-to-ensure-correct-numa-polarization-and-spindle-orientation
#4
Yvonne T Kschonsak, Ingrid Hoffmann
Correct spindle orientation is achieved through signaling pathways that provide a molecular link between the cell cortex and spindle microtubules in an F-actin dependent manner. A conserved cortical protein complex, composed of LGN, NuMA, dynein-dynactin, plays a key role in establishing proper spindle orientation. It has also been shown that the actin-binding protein MISP and the ERM family, that are activated by LOK/SLK in mitosis, regulate spindle orientation. Here, we report that MISP functions between the ERM family member Ezrin and NuMA to allow optimal spindle positioning...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667261/apple-s-rnase-interacts-with-an-actin-binding-protein-mdmvg-to-reduce-pollen-tube-growth-by-inhibiting-its-actin-severing-activity-at-the-early-stage-of-self-pollination-induction
#5
Qing Yang, Dong Meng, Zhaoyu Gu, Wei Li, Qiuju Chen, Yang Li, Hui Yuan, Jie Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Tianzhong Li
In S-RNase-mediated self-incompatibility (SI), S-RNase secreted from the style destroys the actin cytoskeleton of the self-pollen tubes, eventually halting its growth, but the mechanism remains unclear. In vitro biochemical assays revealed that S-RNase does not bind or sever filamentous actin (F-actin). In apple (Malus×domestica), we identified an actin-binding protein containing myosin, villin and GRAM, MdMVG, that physically interacts with S-RNase and directly binds and severs F-actin. Immunofluorescence assays and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) indicated that S-RNase inhibits the F-actin-severing activity of MdMVG in vitro...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663616/ehrho1-regulates-phagocytosis-by-modulating-actin-dynamics-through-ehformin1-and-ehprofilin1-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#6
Ravi Bharadwaj, Shalini Sharma, Janhawi, Ranjana Arya, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Invasive infection in amoebiasis mostly affects intestinal epithelial cell lining, but can also involve other organs, such as liver, lungs or brain. Phagocytosis is an essential mode of nutrition in amoeba and has often been associated with virulence behaviour of E. histolytica. E. histolytica possesses a highly dynamic and actin-rich cytoskeleton that is thought to be involved in many processes, such as motility, pseudopod formation and pathogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660331/biophysical-characterization-of-actin-bundles-generated-by-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-tarp-effector
#7
Susmita Ghosh, Jinho Park, Mitchell Thomas, Edgar Cruz, Omar Cardona, Hyeran Kang, Travis Jewett
Chlamydia trachomatis entry into host cells is mediated by pathogen-directed remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The chlamydial type III secreted effector, translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp), has been implicated in the recruitment of actin to the site of internalization. Tarp harbors G-actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp-mediated actin nucleation as well as unique F-actin binding domains implicated in the formation of actin bundles. Little is known about the mechanical properties of actin bundles generated by Tarp or the mechanism by which Tarp mediates actin bundle formation...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656400/pkd-regulates-actin-polymerization-neutrophil-deformability-and-transendothelial-migration-in-response-to-fmlp-and-trauma
#8
Christoph Wille, Tim Eiseler, Sven-Thorben Langenberger, Julia Richter, Kensaku Mizuno, Peter Radermacher, Uwe Knippschild, Markus Huber-Lang, Thomas Seufferlein, Stephan Paschke
Neutrophils are important mediators of the innate immune defense and of the host response to a physical trauma. Because aberrant infiltration of injured sites by neutrophils was shown to cause adverse effects after trauma, we investigated how neutrophil infiltration could be modulated at the cellular level. Our data indicate that protein kinase D (PKD) is a vital regulator of neutrophil transmigration. PKD phosphorylates the Cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot-2L (SSH-2L). SSH-2L in turn dynamically regulates Cofilin activity and actin polymerization in response to a chemotactic stimulus for neutrophils, for example, fMLP...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651473/microfluidic-lung-airway-on-a-chip-with-arrayable-suspended-gels-for-studying-epithelial-and-smooth-muscle-cell-interactions
#9
Mouhita Humayun, Chung-Wai Chow, Edmond W K Young
Chronic lung diseases (CLDs) are regulated by complex interactions between many different cell types residing in lung airway tissues. Specifically, interactions between airway epithelial cells (ECs) and airway smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been shown in part to play major roles in the pathogenesis of CLDs, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. To advance our understanding of lung pathophysiology and accelerate drug development processes, new innovative in vitro tissue models are needed that can reconstitute the complex in vivo microenvironment of human lung tissues...
April 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650975/author-correction-remodeling-of-the-actin-spectrin-membrane-associated-periodic-skeleton-growth-cone-collapse-and-f-actin-decrease-during-axonal-degeneration
#10
Nicolas Unsain, Martin D Bordenave, Gaby F Martinez, Sami Jalil, Catalina von Bilderling, Federico M Barabas, Luciano A Masullo, Aaron D Johnstone, Philip A Barker, Mariano Bisbal, Fernando D Stefani, Alfredo O Cáceres
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649492/a-cytoskeletal-activator-and-inhibitor-are-downstream-targets-of-the-frizzled-starry-night-planar-cell-polarity-pathway-in-the-drosophila-epidermis
#11
REVIEW
Paul N Adler
The frizzled pathway regulates the planar polarity of epithelial cells. In insects this is manifested by the polarity of cuticular structures such as hairs (trichomes) and sensory bristles. A variety of evidence has established that this is achieved by regulating the subcellular location for activating the cytoskeleton in the epithelial cells. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. In the best-studied tissue, the Drosophila pupal wing two important cytoskeletal regulators have been identified...
April 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642674/expression-of-prohibitin-f-actin-capping-protein-subunit-beta-and-tektin-2-gene-in-murrah-buffalo-sperm-and-its-relationship-with-sperm-motility
#12
Deshun Shi, Xiangping Li, Zhaocheng Xiong, Haihang Zhang, Ben Huang, Qingyou Liu, Yingqun Wang
Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between PHB, CAPZB, and TEKT2 and sperm motility in Murrah buffalo. Methods: We collected the high-motility and low-motility semen samples, testis, ovary, muscle, kidney, liver, brain and pituitary from Murrah buffalo, and analysed the expression of PHB, CAPZB and TEKT2 in mRNA (message RNA) and protein level. Results: QRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR) result showed that the expression of PHB was higher and CAPZB, TEKT2 were specifically expressed in testis as compared to the other 6 tissues, and that in testis, the expression of TEKT2 was higher than that of CAPZB and PHB...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620184/zearalenone-regulates-endometrial-stromal-cell-apoptosis-and-migration-via-the-promotion-of-mitochondrial-fission-by-activation-of-the-jnk-drp1-pathway
#13
Huixiang Wang, Xiaoli Zhao, Chengxiang Ni, Yuyang Dai, Yan Guo
Increased endometrial stromal cell (ESC) survival and migration is responsible for the development and progression of endometriosis. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying ESC survival and migration, and limited therapeutic strategies that are able to reverse these abnormalities are available. The present study investigated the effects of zearalenone (ZEA) on ESC survival and migration, particularly focusing on mitochondrial fission and the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK)/dynamin‑related protein 1 (Drp1) pathway...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619899/salvia-przewalskii-extract-of-total-phenolic-acids-inhibit-tlr4-signaling-activation-in-podocyte-injury-induced-by-puromycin-aminonucleoside-in-vitro
#14
Hongqi Ren, Xueqing Hu, Yun Liu, Deshu Dai, Xiang Liu, Zenghui Wang, Yang Yang, Xiangyang Li, Ying Liu, Renxian Tang
BACKGROUND: TLR4 signaling is known to be involved in podocyte injury. We have previously shown that Salvia przewalskii extract of total phenolic acids (SPE) and its active monomer salvianolic acid B (SalB) and rosmarinic acid (RA) protect podocytes from injury induced by PAN. In the present study, we test whether SPE inhibits TLR4 signaling. METHODS: The conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were treated with SPE, SalB, RA, SalB + RA or tacrolimus for 30 min, followed by PAN (100 μg/mL) for 24 h...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618641/ac102-participates-in-nuclear-actin-polymerization-by-modulating-bv-odv-c42-ubiquitination-during-autographa-californica-multiple-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection
#15
Yongli Zhang, Xue Hu, Jingfang Mu, Yangyang Hu, Yuan Zhou, He Zhao, Chunchen Wu, Rongjuan Pei, Jizheng Chen, Xinwen Chen, Yun Wang
As a virus-encoded actin nucleation promoting factor (NPF), P78/83 induces actin polymerization to assist in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) propagation. According to our previous study, although P78/83 actively undergoes ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation, AcMNPV encodes BV/ODV-C42 (C42), which allows P78/83 to function as a stable NPF by inhibiting its degradation during viral infection. However, whether there are other viral proteins involved in regulating P78/83-induced actin polymerization has yet to be determined...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617377/inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-3-kinase-a-overexpressed-in-mouse-forebrain-modulates-synaptic-transmission-and-mglur-ltd-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#16
Byungil Choi, Hyun Woo Lee, Seojung Mo, Jin Yong Kim, Hyun Wook Kim, Im Joo Rhyu, Eunhwa Hong, Yeon Kyung Lee, June-Seek Choi, Chong-Hyun Kim, Hyun Kim
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (IP3K-A) regulates the level of the inositol polyphosphates, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and inositol tetrakisphosphate to modulate cellular signaling and intracellular calcium homeostasis in the central nervous system. IP3K-A binds to F-actin in an activity-dependent manner and accumulates in dendritic spines, where it is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. IP3K-A knockout mice exhibit deficits in some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus synapses of the hippocampus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615672/morphometric-analysis-of-spread-platelets-identifies-integrin-%C3%AE-iib-%C3%AE-3-specific-contractile-phenotype
#17
Sebastian Lickert, Simona Sorrentino, Jan-Dirk Studt, Ohad Medalia, Viola Vogel, Ingmar Schoen
Haemostatic platelet function is intimately linked to cellular mechanics and cytoskeletal morphology. How cytoskeletal reorganizations give rise to a highly contractile phenotype that is necessary for clot contraction remains poorly understood. To elucidate this process in vitro, we developed a morphometric screen to quantify the spatial organization of actin fibres and vinculin adhesion sites in single spread platelets. Platelets from healthy donors predominantly adopted a bipolar morphology on fibrinogen and fibronectin, whereas distinguishable, more isotropic phenotypes on collagen type I or laminin...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611326/inhibitory-effect-of-thai-propolis-on-human-osteoclastogenesis
#18
Nattaporn Wimolsantirungsri, Anupong Makeudom, Phumisak Louwakul, Thanapat Sastraruji, Pattama Chailertvanitkul, Chayarop Supanchart, Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit
BACKGROUND/AIM: Avulsed teeth should be immediately replanted into the socket or otherwise kept in a physiologic storage medium to maintain periodontal ligament cell viability. A previous study has demonstrated that Thai propolis extract can maintain viability of human periodontal ligament cells. However, root resorption by osteoclasts often occurs when the avulsed teeth are replanted. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of Thai propolis extract on human osteoclastogenesis in vitro...
April 3, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610350/myosin-iia-interacts-with-the-spectrin-actin-membrane-skeleton-to-control-red-blood-cell-membrane-curvature-and-deformability
#19
Alyson S Smith, Roberta B Nowak, Sitong Zhou, Michael Giannetto, David S Gokhin, Julien Papoin, Ionita C Ghiran, Lionel Blanc, Jiandi Wan, Velia M Fowler
The biconcave disk shape and deformability of mammalian RBCs rely on the membrane skeleton, a viscoelastic network of short, membrane-associated actin filaments (F-actin) cross-linked by long, flexible spectrin tetramers. Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) motors exert force on diverse F-actin networks to control cell shapes, but a function for NMII contractility in the 2D spectrin-F-actin network of RBCs has not been tested. Here, we show that RBCs contain membrane skeleton-associated NMIIA puncta, identified as bipolar filaments by superresolution fluorescence microscopy...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609122/microwave-assisted-one-pot-synthesis-of-new-phenanthrene-fused-tetrahydrodibenzo-acridinones-as-potential-cytotoxic-and-apoptosis-inducing-agents
#20
Niggula Praveen Kumar, Pankaj Sharma, T Srinivasa Reddy, Nagula Shankaraiah, Suresh K Bhargava, Ahmed Kamal
An expeditious microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of new cytotoxic phenanthrene fused-tetrahydrodibenzo-acridinones has been successfully accomplished. This protocol offers wide substrate scope, catalyst-free synthesis, atom-economy, simple recrystallization, high yields, and ethanol was used as green solvent. These new compounds were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against cervical (HeLa), prostate (PC-3), fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), ovarian (SKOV-3) cancer cells, and were safer to normal (Hek-293T) kidney cell line...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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