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Brain tumor

Luciana Romão, Vanessa P do Canto, Paulo A Netz, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Ângelo C Pinto, Cristian Follmer
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and devastating type of primary brain tumor, being considered the deadliest of human cancers. In this context, extensive efforts have been undertaken to develop new drugs that exhibit both antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on GBM. 1,4-Naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) scaffold has been found in compounds able to inhibit important biological targets associated with cancer, which includes DNA topoisomerase, Hsp90 and monoamine oxidase. Among potential antineoplastic 1,4-NQs is the plant-derived lapachol (2-hydroxy-3-prenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) that was found to be active against the Walker-256 carcinoma and Yoshida sarcoma...
March 20, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Marzieh Salimi, Saeed Sarkar, Samaneh Fathi, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Reza Saber, Fatemeh Moradi, Hamid Delavari
Background: The possibility of using a specific nanoparticle in nanomedicine highly depends on its biodistribution profile and biocompatibility. Due to growing demand for iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and dendrimers in biomedical applications, this study was performed to assess the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (G4 @IONPs). Materials and methods: IONPs were synthesized via co-precipitation and coated with the fourth generation (G4 ) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Maxim Shevtsov, Boris Nikolaev, Yaroslav Marchenko, Ludmila Yakovleva, Nikita Skvortsov, Anton Mazur, Peter Tolstoy, Vyacheslav Ryzhov, Gabriele Multhoff
Background: Glioblastoma is the most devastating primary brain tumor of the central nervous system in adults. Magnetic nanocarriers may help not only for a targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor site but also provide contrast enhancing properties for diagnostics using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Synthesized hybrid chitosan-dextran superparamagnetic nanoparticles (CS-DX-SPIONs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and relaxometry studies...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ki-Chun Yoo, Yongjoon Suh, Yoojeong An, Hae-June Lee, Ye Ji Jeong, Nizam Uddin, Yan-Hong Cui, Tae-Hoon Roh, Jin-Kyoung Shim, Jong Hee Chang, Jong Bae Park, Min-Jung Kim, In-Gyu Kim, Seok-Gu Kang, Su-Jae Lee
Ionizing radiation is widely used for patient with glioblastoma (GBM). However, the effect of radiation on patient survival is marginal and upon recurrence tumors frequently shift toward mesenchymal subtype adopting invasiveness. Here, we show that ionizing radiation affects biomechanical tension in GBM microenvironment and provides proinvasive extracellular signaling cue, hyaluronic acid (HA)-rich condition. In response to radiation, HA production was increased in GBM cells by HA synthase-2 (HAS2) that was transcriptionally upregulated by NF-ĸB...
March 21, 2018: Oncogene
Takuichiro Hide, Yoshihiro Komohara, Yuko Miyasato, Hideo Nakamura, Keishi Makino, Motohiro Takeya, Jun-Ichi Kuratsu, Akitake Mukasa, Shigetoshi Yano
Glioblastoma (GBM) usually develops in adult brain white matter. Even after complete resection, GBM recurs around the tumor removal cavity, where GBM cells acquire chemo-radioresistance. Characterization of the tumor border microenvironment is critical for improving prognosis in patients with GBM. Here, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in samples from the tumor, tumor border, and periphery by miRNA microarray. The top three of miRNAs showing higher expression in the tumor border were related to oligodendrocyte differentiation, and pathologically oligodendrocyte lineage cells were increased in the border, where macrophages and microglia also colocalized...
March 1, 2018: EBioMedicine
Gabriela Basile Carballo, Jéssica Ribeiro Honorato, Giselle Pinto Farias de Lopes, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an essential role during vertebrate embryonic development and tumorigenesis. It is already known that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is important for the evolution of radio and chemo-resistance of several types of tumors. Most of the brain tumors are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, consequently, they have a poor prognosis. So, a better knowledge of the Shh pathway opens an opportunity for targeted therapies against brain tumors considering a multi-factorial molecular overview...
March 20, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Mathias Kranz, Ralf Bergmann, Torsten Kniess, Birgit Belter, Christin Neuber, Zhengxin Cai, Gang Deng, Steffen Fischer, Jiangbing Zhou, Yiyun Huang, Peter Brust, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Jens Pietzsch
Sigma-1 receptors (Sig1R) are highly expressed in various human cancer cells and hence imaging of this target with positron emission tomography (PET) can contribute to a better understanding of tumor pathophysiology and support the development of antineoplastic drugs. Two Sig1R-specific radiolabeled enantiomers ( S )-(-)- and ( R )-(+)-[18 F]fluspidine were investigated in several tumor cell lines including melanoma, squamous cell/epidermoid carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and glioblastoma. Dynamic PET scans were performed in mice to investigate the suitability of both radiotracers for tumor imaging...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Benjamin L Viglianti, Daniel J Wale, Ka Kit Wong, Timothy D Johnson, Christy Ky, Kirk A Frey, Milton D Gross
Purpose To examine the effect metabolic burden (tumor and/or cardiac myocyte uptake) has on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in organs and tissues of interest. Materials and Methods Positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) scans at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs hospital from January to July 2015 were reviewed. A total of 107 scans (50 patients; mean age, 64.3 years ± 13.2 [standard deviation]) had metabolic tissue burden assessed by using total lesion glycolysis (TLG) obtained from autosegmentation of the tumor and/or cardiac tissue...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Shih-Fan Lai, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Tony Hsiang-Kuang Liang, Che-Yu Hsu, Huang-Chun Lien, Yen-Sen Lu, Chiun-Sheng Huang, Sung-Hsin Kuo
INTRODUCTION: Whole brain (WB) re-irradiation for breast cancer patients with progressive brain metastasis after first-course WB radiotherapy (WBRT) is controversial. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between the molecular sub-classifications and breast-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA, which includes the Karnofsky performance status, molecular subtypes, and age as its indices) and the outcomes of breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation. METHODS: Twenty-three breast cancer patients who received WB re-irradiation for relapsed and progressive intracranial lesions after first-course WBRT between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Naif E Al Omairi, Omyma K Radwan, Yahea A Alzahrani, Rami B Kassab
Due to the high ability of cadmium to cross the blood-brain barrier, cadmium (Cd) causes severe neurological damages. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract (MLE) against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group 1 served as vehicle control group, groups 2, 3 and 4 received MLE (100, 200, 300 mg /kg b.wt, respectively). Group 5 was treated with CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.wt). Groups 6, 7 and 8 were co-treated with MLE and CdCl2 using the same doses...
March 20, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Marian Christoph Neidert, Daniel Johannes Kowalewski, Manuela Silginer, Konstantina Kapolou, Linus Backert, Lena Katharina Freudenmann, Janet Kerstin Peper, Ana Marcu, Sophie Shih-Yüng Wang, Juliane Sarah Walz, Fabian Wolpert, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Reinhard Henschler, Katrin Lamszus, Manfred Westphal, Patrick Roth, Luca Regli, Stefan Stevanović, Michael Weller, Günter Eisele
Glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor. In a hierarchical tumor model, glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) play a major role in tumor initiation and maintenance as well as in therapy resistance and recurrence. Thus, targeting this cellular subset may be key to effective immunotherapy. Here, we present a mass spectrometry-based analysis of HLA-presented peptidomes of GSC and glioblastoma patient specimens. Based on the analysis of patient samples (n = 9) and GSC (n = 3), we performed comparative HLA peptidome profiling against a dataset of normal human tissues...
March 20, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Shelly A Cruz, Zhaohong Qin, Alexandre F R Stewart, Hsiao-Huei Chen
Ischemic brain injury triggers neuronal cell death by apoptosis via caspase activation and by necroptosis through activation of the receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPK) associated with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/death receptor. Recent evidence shows RIPK inhibitors are neuroprotective and alleviate ischemic brain injury in a number of animal models, however, most have not yet undergone clinical trials and safety in humans remains in question. Dabrafenib, originally identified as a B-raf inhibitor that is currently used to treat melanoma, was later revealed to be a potent RIPK3 inhibitor at micromolar concentrations...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Valentina Tardivo, Francesca Vincitorio, Matteo Monticelli, Luca Bertero, Francesco Zenga, Alessandro Ducati, Paola Cassoni, Diego Garbossa
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases in pancreatic cancer are a rare condition and are usually seen in case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Only few cases of brain metastasis in patients affected by Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) are actually reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a patient diagnosed with double cystic brain lesions that the histological examination reveal to be consistent, with pancreatic metastasis. Our patient had an history shown of stable pancreatic IPMN which has never made the oncologist suspicious about neoplastic progression or degeneration into pancreatic carcinoma...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Atsushi Natsume, Junki Mizusawa, Hiroshi Katayama, Haruhiko Fukuda, Minako Sumi, Ryo Nishikawa, Yoshitaka Narita, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Takashi Maruyama, Tamio Ito, Takaaki Beppu, Hideo Nakamura, Takamasa Kayama, Shinya Sato, Motoo Nagane, Kazuhiko Mishima, Yoko Nakasu, Kaoru Kurisu, Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Takanori Onishi, Yasuo Iwadate, Mizuhiko Terasaki, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Akira Matsumura, Eiichi Ishikawa, Hikaru Sasaki, Akitake Mukasa, Takayuki Matsuo, Hirofumi Hirano, Toshihiro Kumabe, Nobusada Shinoura, Naoya Hashimoto, Tomokazu Aoki, Akio Asai, Tatsuya Abe, Atsuo Yoshino, Yoshiki Arakawa, Kenichiro Asano, Koji Yoshimoto, Soichiro Shibui
PURPOSE: This study explored the superiority of temozolomide (TMZ) + interferonβ (IFNβ) to standard TMZ as treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) via randomized phase II screening design. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligibility criteria included histologically proven GBM, with 50% of the tumor located in supratentorial areas, without involvement of the optic, olfactory nerves, and pituitary gland and without multiple lesions and dissemination. Patients in the TMZ + radiotherapy (RT) arm received RT (2...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Marcel A Kamp, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Jan F Cornelius, Philipp J Slotty, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Sebastian A Ahmadi, Marion Rapp, Michael Sabel
The oncological impact of cytoreductive surgery for malignant glioma has been analyzed in a few prospective, randomized studies; however, the impact of different cytoreductive surgical techniques of cerebral tumors remains controversial. Despite retrospective analyses revealing an oncological impact of complete surgical resection in cerebral metastases and low-grade glioma, the oncological impact of further extension of resection to a supramarginal resection remains disputable lacking high-grade evidence: supramarginal resections have yet to be analyzed in malignant glioma...
March 20, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Chun-Yuan Chen, Shan-Shan Rao, Lu Ren, Xiong-Ke Hu, Yi-Juan Tan, Yin Hu, Juan Luo, Yi-Wei Liu, Hao Yin, Jie Huang, Jia Cao, Zhen-Xing Wang, Zheng-Zhao Liu, Hao-Ming Liu, Si-Yuan Tang, Ran Xu, Hui Xie
Chronic non-healing wounds represent one of the most common complications of diabetes and need advanced treatment strategies. Exosomes are key mediators of cell paracrine action and can be directly utilized as therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. Here, we explored the effects of exosomes from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-Exos) on diabetic wound healing and the underlying mechanism. Methods: USCs were characterized by flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation potential analyses...
2018: Theranostics
Jing Yuan, Xinshuang Yu, Aihua Wang, Yan Li, Fengjun Liu, Yao Wang, Shanmei Sun, Xiuyang Bing, Yiming Liu, Juan Du
For several years, the cause of autosomal recessive mental retardation has been attributed to the deletion or mutation of a gene named tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3). Previous research has identified that TUSC3 is a potential tumor suppressor gene in oral epidermoid carcinoma, lung cancer and esophageal cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previously published data has existed on the expression of TUSC3 in gliomas. The present study focused on the expression of TUSC3 in brain gliomas. Additionally, the present study sought to identify he association between TUSC3 expression and the typical clinical and pathological disease manifestations of gliomas...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
While the refinement of existing and the development of new chemotherapeutic regimens has significantly improved cancer treatment outcomes and patient survival, chemotherapy still causes many persistent side effects. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity is of particular concern, as cancer patients experience significant deficits in memory, learning, cognition, and decision-making. These chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes are termed chemo brain, and manifest in more than half of cancer survivors. Moreover, recent studies have emerged suggesting that neurocognitive deficits manifest prior to cancer diagnosis and treatment, and thus may be associated with tumor presence, a phenomenon recently termed "tumor brain...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Tao Wang, Zhong-Yi Qin, Liang-Zhi Wen, Yan Guo, Qin Liu, Zeng-Jie Lei, Wei Pan, Kai-Jun Liu, Xing-Wei Wang, Shu-Jie Lai, Wen-Jing Sun, Yan-Ling Wei, Lei Liu, Ling Guo, Yu-Qin Chen, Jun Wang, Hua-Liang Xiao, Xiu-Wu Bian, Dong-Feng Chen, Bin Wang
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway is a key regulator of stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and organ size. While alterations in Hippo signaling are causally linked to uncontrolled cell growth and a broad range of malignancies, genetic mutations in the Hippo pathway are uncommon and it is unclear how the tumor suppressor function of the Hippo pathway is disrupted in human cancers. Here, we report a novel epigenetic mechanism of Hippo inactivation in the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Sarah E Sartain, Nancy A Turner, Joel L Moake
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and bone marrow transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) are associated with excessive activation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) and with severe renal - and rarely, cerebral - microvascular damage. Here, we compared AP activation and regulation in human glomerular and brain microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs and BMVECs, respectively) unstimulated or stimulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Compared with GMVECs and under both experimental conditions, BMVECs had increased gene expression of the AP-related genes C3 , CFB , and C5 , and decreased expression of CFD This was associated with increased expression in BMVECs (relative to GMVECs) of the genes for surface and soluble regulatory molecules ( CD46 , THBD , CD55 , CFI , and CFH ) suppressing formation of the AP C3 and C5 convertases...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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