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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449469/cd90-positive-cells-exhibit-aggressive-radioresistance-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Yuandong Wang, Chi Zhang, Hongcheng Zhu, Junwei Tang, Shu Zhang, Jinhua Luo, Xinchen Sun
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are widely abundant and considered to be an important factor in therapy resistance. They are also promising potential targets for conquering tumors. We explored the effects of radiation on stem cell-like tumor cells via the candidate marker CD90 to provide new ideas for the comprehensive treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: We constructed CD90 overexpression ESCC cells by lentiviral transfection and observed differences of toxicity, proliferation, clone number, apoptosis, migration, invasion, and in vivo tumor formation after irradiation...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449421/-the-role-of-micrornas-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Sang Wook Kim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in the world. Many oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the development of CRC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding, endogenous RNAs in animals and plants. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are associated with the mediation process of tumorigenesis, including inflammation, cell cycle, stress response, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in cancer. These miRNAs have been linked to the development of CRC and recently studied as new potential biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment for CRC...
April 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449222/tspan33-is-expressed-in-transitional-and-memory-b-cells-but-is-not-responsible-for-high-adam10-expression
#3
César Augusto Pérez-Martínez, José Luis Maravillas-Montero, Iván Meza-Herrera, Felipe Vences-Catalán, Albert Zlotnik, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo
Tetraspanins are a family of transmembrane proteins that form membrane microdomains. They play important roles in migration, adhesion, and other cellular processes. TspanC8, a subfamily of tetraspanins, were found to associate and promote ADAM10 trafficking and cell surface localization. One of its members, Tspan33, is expressed in activated B cells. Using RT-PCR and flow cytometry, we analyzed the pattern of expression of Tspan33 in B cells from healthy donors. We found Tspan33 expression in early and late stages of B cell development...
April 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449181/metabolite-profile-and-antiproliferative-effects-in-hacat-cells-of-a-salix-reticulata-extract
#4
Elisabetta Corradi, Nadine Schmidt, Nathalie Räber, Maria De Mieri, Matthias Hamburger, Veronika Butterweck, Olivier Potterat
Phenolic constituents of Salix reticulata (Salicaceae) and antiproliferative activity of an extract and individual compounds were investigated in immortalized human non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT). A MeOH extract from aerial parts afforded several flavonoids, including luteolin and apigenin glycosides (2-5 and 9) and catechin (1), two procyanidin fractions, and the phenolic glucosides picein (6), triandrin (7), and salicortin (8). In an adenosine triphosphate assay, the MeOH extract reduced cell viability by approximately 60 % at a concentration of 100 µg/mL...
April 27, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449095/role-of-cc-cytokines-in-spatial-arrangement-of-the-inner-cell-mass-of-the-bovine-embryo
#5
Verónica M Negrón-Pérez, Dorianmarie Vargas-Franco, Peter J Hansen
The process of spatial rearrangement of cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) that are destined to become hypoblast is not well understood. The observation that the chemokine CCL24 and several other genes involved in chemokine signaling are expressed more in the ICM than the trophectoderm of the bovine embryo resulted in the hypothesis that CCL24 participates in spatial organization of the ICM. Temporally, expression of CCL24 in the bovine embryo occurs coincident with blastocyst formation: transcript abundance was low until the late morula stage, peaked in the blastocyst at Day 7 of development and declined by Day 9...
April 25, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448993/the-long-non-coding-rna-xist-controls-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-proliferation-and-invasion-by-modulating-mir-186-5p
#6
Haoyou Wang, Qiming Shen, Xin Zhang, Chunlu Yang, Su Cui, Yanbin Sun, Liming Wang, Xiaoxi Fan, Shun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key players in the development and progression of human cancers. The lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) has been shown to be upregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its role and molecular mechanisms in NSCLC cell progression remain unclear. METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of XIST and miR-186. Cell proliferation was detected using MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell assay...
April 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448983/intrauterine-growth-restriction-alters-the-postnatal-development-of-the-rat-cerebellum
#7
Annie R A McDougall, Vanny Wiradjaja, Aminath Azhan, Anqi Li, Nadia Hale, Mary E Wlodek, Stuart B Hooper, Megan J Wallace, Mary Tolcos
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of antenatal brain injury. We aimed to characterize cerebellar deficits following IUGR and to investigate the potential underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. At embryonic day 18, pregnant rats underwent either sham surgery (controls; n = 23) or bilateral uterine vessel ligation to restrict blood flow to fetuses (IUGR; n = 20). Offspring were collected at postnatal day 2 (P2), P7, and P35. Body weights were reduced at P2, P7, and P35 in IUGR offspring (p < 0...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448943/mitochondria-in-endothelial-cells-sensors-and-integrators-of-environmental-cues
#8
REVIEW
Sergio Caja, Jose Antonio Enríquez
The involvement of angiogenesis in disease and its potential as a therapeutic target have been firmly established over recent decades. Endothelial cells (ECs) are central elements in vessel homeostasis and regulate the passage of material and cells into and out of the bloodstream. EC proliferation and migration are modified by alterations to mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics resulting from several signals and environmental cues, such as oxygen, hemodynamics, and nutrients. As intermediary signals, mitochondrial ROS are released as important downstream modulators of the expression of angiogenesis-related genes...
April 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448919/mechanochemical-mechanism-of-integrin-clustering-modulated-by-nanoscale-ligand-spacing-and-rigidity-of-extracellular-substrates
#9
Jing Yu, Jianyong Huang, John A Jansen, Chunyang Xiong, X Frank Walboomers
Experimental findings indicate that cell function and behavior such as cell growth, division, migration and differentiation, are subtly regulated via integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Cell adhesion is influenced by nanoscale ligand spacing and rigidity of extracellular substrates, as cell adhesion drops greatly when the ligand spacing is larger than ~60nm, and cell adhesion is stronger on stiff than soft substrates. However, how nanoscale ligand spacing and substrate stiffness jointly affect integrin clustering and hence nascent cell adhesion remains to be elucidated...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448870/knockdown-of-msp58-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-human-renal-cell-carcinoma-cells
#10
Xiaoqiang Zhai, Yan Wu, Dong Zhang, Tie Chong, Jun Zhao
The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) has been reported to play an important role in the tumorigenesis and progression of cancers. However, little is known about the role of MSP58 in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we investigated the expression and biological roles of MSP58 in RCC. The results indicated that the expressions of MSP58 at both mRNA and protein levels were greatly up-regulated in human RCC tissues and cell lines. Down-regulation of MSP58 significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration/invasion of RCC cells, as well as attenuated tumor growth in a 786-O xenograft model in vivo...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448789/development-of-pre-implantation-porcine-blastocysts-cultured-within-alginate-hydrogel-systems-either-supplemented-with-secreted-phosphoprotein-1-or-conjugated-with-arg-gly-asp-peptide
#11
Taylor D Laughlin, Jeremy R Miles, Elane C Wright-Johnson, Lea A Rempel, Clay A Lents, Angela K Pannier
Although deficiencies in porcine blastocyst elongation play a significant role in early embryonic mortality and establishment of within-litter developmental variation, the exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased within the uterine milieu during early porcine pregnancy and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that binds to cell surface integrins on the uterine endometrium and trophectoderm, promoting cell adhesion and migration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the development of preimplantation porcine blastocysts encapsulated and cultured within alginate hydrogels either supplemented with SPP1 or conjugated with RGD...
April 28, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448563/corticosteroids-effects-on-lps-induced-rat-inflammatory-keratocyte-cell-model
#12
Huize Yan, Yingwei Wang, Shuhao Shen, Zheng Wu, Pengxia Wan
PURPOSE: Corticosteroids are efficient anti-inflammation treatments. However, there are still arguments on whether it should be used in keratitis. This study was to observe the effect of corticosteroids on keratocytes both in normal condition and inflammation status in vitro. METHODS: Rat keratocytes were cultured and used for examination. 10 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish the inflammatory keratocyte cell model, and prednisolone acetate (PA), dexamethasone (Dex) and fluorometholone (Flu) were used as corticosteroids treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448495/dysregulation-of-inf2-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-in-spop-mutated-prostate-cancer
#13
Xiaofeng Jin, Jie Wang, Kun Gao, Pingzhao Zhang, Longfang Yao, Yan Tang, Lisha Tang, Jian Ma, Jiantao Xiao, Enceng Zhang, Jie Zhu, Bin Zhang, Shi-Min Zhao, Yao Li, Shancheng Ren, Haojie Huang, Long Yu, Chenji Wang
Next-generation sequencing of the exome and genome of prostate cancers has identified numerous genetic alternations. SPOP (Speckle-type POZ Protein) was one of the most frequently mutated genes in primary prostate cancer, suggesting SPOP is a potential driver of prostate cancer development and progression. However, how SPOP mutations contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis remains poorly understood. SPOP acts as an adaptor protein of the CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that generally recruits substrates for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation...
April 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448494/integrin-%C3%AE-1-activation-induces-an-anti-melanoma-host-response
#14
Laila Ritsma, Ipsita Dey-Guha, Nilesh Talele, Xavier Sole, Salony, Joeeta Chowdhury, Kenneth N Ross, Sridhar Ramaswamy
TGF-β is a cytokine thought to function as a tumor promoter in advanced malignancies. In this setting, TGF-β increases cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, and orchestrates complex, pro-tumorigenic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we find that in melanoma, integrin β1-mediated TGF-β activation may also produce tumor suppression via an altered host response. In the A375 human melanoma cell nu/nu xenograft model, we demonstrate that cell surface integrin β1-activation increases TGF-β activity, resulting in stromal activation, neo-angiogenesis and, unexpectedly for this nude mouse model, increase in the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448440/is-polysialylated-ncam-not-only-a-regulator-during-brain-development-but-also-during-the-formation-of-other-organs
#15
REVIEW
Christina E Galuska, Thomas Lütteke, Sebastian P Galuska
In mammals several cell adhesion molecules are involved during the pre- and postnatal development of all organ systems. A very prominent member of this family is the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Interestingly, NCAM can be a target for a special form of posttranslational modification: polysialylation. Whereas nearly all extracellular proteins bear mono-sialic acid residues, only a very small group can be polysialylated. Polysialic acid is a highly negatively-charged sugar polymer and can comprise more than 90 sialic acid residues in postnatal mouse brains increasing dramatically the hydrodynamic radius of their carriers...
April 27, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448437/sulfiredoxin-may-promote-cervical-cancer-metastasis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#16
Kangyun Lan, Yuni Zhao, Yue Fan, Binbin Ma, Shanshan Yang, Qin Liu, Hua Linghu, Hui Wang
The abnormal elevation of sulfiredoxin (Srx/SRXN1)-an antioxidant enzyme whose main function is to protect against oxidative stress-has been shown to be closely correlated with the progression of several types of cancer, including human cervical cancer. However, the molecular mechanism by which Srx promotes tumor progression, especially cancer metastasis in cervical cancer, has not been elucidated. Here, we show that Srx expression gradually increases during the progression of human cervical cancer and its expression level is closely correlated with lymph node metastasis...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448023/induction-of-mesenchymal-epithelial-transitions-in-sarcoma-cells
#17
Kathryn E Ware, Shivee Gilja, Shenghan Xu, Samantha Shetler, Mohit K Jolly, Xueyang Wang, Suzanne Bartholf Dewitt, Alexander J Hish, Sarah Jordan, William Eward, Herbert Levine, Andrew J Armstrong, Jason A Somarelli
Phenotypic plasticity refers to a phenomenon in which cells transiently gain traits of another lineage. During carcinoma progression, phenotypic plasticity drives invasion, dissemination and metastasis. Indeed, while most of the studies of phenotypic plasticity have been in the context of epithelial-derived carcinomas, it turns out sarcomas, which are mesenchymal in origin, also exhibit phenotypic plasticity, with a subset of sarcomas undergoing a phenomenon that resembles a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448020/analysis-of-lymphocyte-extravasation-using-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-blood-brain-barrier
#18
Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Urvashi Bhatia, Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Nicholas Schwab, Heinz Wiendl, Catharina C Gross
Lymphocyte extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS) is critical for immune surveillance. Disease-related alterations of lymphocyte extravasation might result in pathophysiological changes in the CNS. Thus, investigation of lymphocyte migration into the CNS is important to understand inflammatory CNS diseases and to develop new therapy approaches. Here we present an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier to study lymphocyte extravasation. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) are confluently grown on a porous polyethylene terephthalate transwell insert to mimic the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448018/live-imaging-of-antifungal-activity-by-human-primary-neutrophils-and-monocytes-in-response-to-a-fumigatus
#19
Shan F Brunel, Jude M Bain, Jill King, Lena J Heung, Shinji Kasahara, Tobias M Hohl, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts with a high case-fatality rate. Research investigating immunological responses against A. fumigatus has been limited by the lack of consistent and reliable assays for measuring the antifungal activity of specific immune cells in vitro. A new method is described to assess the antifungal activity of primary monocytes and neutrophils from human donors against A. fumigatus using FLuorescent Aspergillus REporter (FLARE) conidia...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448014/an-efficient-and-flexible-cell-aggregation-method-for-3d-spheroid-production
#20
Sarah M Maritan, Eric Y Lian, Lois M Mulligan
Monolayer cell culture does not adequately model the in vivo behavior of tissues, which involves complex cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques are a recent innovation developed to address the shortcomings of adherent cell culture. While several techniques for generating tissue analogues in vitro have been developed, these methods are frequently complex, expensive to establish, require specialized equipment, and are generally limited by compatibility with only certain cell types...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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