keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cdc42

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161594/clathrin-assembly-defines-the-onset-and-geometry-of-cortical-patterning
#1
Yang Yang, Ding Xiong, Anne Pipathsouk, Orion D Weiner, Min Wu
Assembly of the endocytic machinery is a constitutively active process that is important for the organization of the plasma membrane, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Existing research has focused on the stochastic nature of endocytosis. Here, we report the emergence of the collective dynamics of endocytic proteins as periodic traveling waves on the cell surface. Coordinated clathrin assembly provides the earliest spatial cue for cortical waves and sets the direction of propagation. Surprisingly, the onset of clathrin waves, but not individual endocytic events, requires feedback from downstream factors, including FBP17, Cdc42, and N-WASP...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161593/mitotic-cortical-waves-predict-future-division-sites-by-encoding-positional-and-size-information
#2
Shengping Xiao, Cheesan Tong, Yang Yang, Min Wu
Dynamic spatial patterns such as traveling waves could theoretically encode spatial information, but little is known about whether or how they are employed by biological systems, especially higher eukaryotes. Here, we show that concentric target or spiral waves of active Cdc42 and the F-BAR protein FBP17 are invoked in adherent cells at the onset of mitosis. These waves predict the future sites of cell divisions and represent the earliest known spatial cues for furrow assembly. Unlike interphase waves, the frequencies and wavelengths of the mitotic waves display size-dependent scaling properties...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158322/optogenetic-activation-of-ephb2-receptor-in-dendrites-induced-actin-polymerization-by-activating-arg-kinase
#3
Clifford Locke, Kazuya Machida, Yi Wu, Ji Yu
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptors regulate a wide array of developmental processes by responding to cell-cell contacts. EphB2 is well-expressed in brain and known to be important for dendritic spine development, as well as for the maintenance of the synapses, although the mechanisms of these functions have not been fully understood. Here we studied EphB2's functions in hippocampal neurons with an optogenetic approach, which allows us to specify spatial regions of signal activation and monitor in real-time the consequences of signal activation...
November 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155102/targeting-of-rac1-prevents-bronchoconstriction-and-airway-hyperresponsiveness
#4
Gwennan André-Grégoire, Florian Dilasser, Julie Chesné, Faouzi Braza, Antoine Magnan, Gervaise Loirand, Vincent Sauzeau
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms responsible for airway smooth muscle cells (aSMC) contraction and proliferation in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) associated with asthma are still largely unknown. The small GTPases of the Rho family (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42) play a central role in SMC functions including migration, proliferation and contraction. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify the role of Rac1 in aSMC contraction and to investigate its involvement in AHR associated with allergic asthma...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152096/the-non-canonical-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-uba6-suppresses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-mammary-epithelial-cells
#5
Xianpeng Liu, Limin Sun, Demirkan B Gursel, Chonghui Cheng, Sui Huang, Alfred W Rademaker, Seema A Khan, Jun Yin, Hiroaki Kiyokawa
Ubiquitination plays critical roles in the regulation of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors during carcinogenesis. The two ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1) in human genome, UBA1 and UBA6, initiate ubiquitination by ATP-dependent activation of ubiquitin. Recent evidence suggests that UBA1 and UBA6 play partially overlapped yet distinct roles in controlling the proteome. Here we demonstrate that ubiquitination pathways initiated specifically by UBA6 set a suppressive barrier against critical steps of mammary carcinogenesis such as loss of polarity, anoikis resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145128/microgravity-simulation-activates-cdc42-via-rap1gds1-to-promote-vascular-branch-morphogenesis-during-vasculogenesis
#6
Shouli Wang, Zhao Yin, Bei Zhao, Yanmei Qi, Jie Liu, Saum A Rahimi, Leonard Y Lee, Shaohua Li
Gravity plays an important role in normal tissue maintenance. The ability of stem cells to repair tissue loss in space through regeneration and differentiation remains largely unknown. To investigate the impact of microgravity on blood vessel formation from pluripotent stem cells, we employed the embryoid body (EB) model for vasculogenesis and simulated microgravity by clinorotation. We first differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells into cystic EBs containing two germ layers and then analyzed vessel formation under clinorotation...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133936/the-rho-gtpase-signalling-pathway-in-urothelial-carcinoma
#7
REVIEW
Solomon L Woldu, Ryan C Hutchinson, Laura-Maria Krabbe, Oner Sanli, Vitaly Margulis
Urothelial carcinoma remains a clinical challenge: non-muscle-invasive disease has a high rate of recurrence and risk of progression, and outcomes for patients with advanced disease are poor, owing to a lack of effective systemic therapies. The Rho GTPase family of enzymes was first identified >30 years ago and contains >20 members, which are divided into eight subfamilies: Cdc42, Rac, Rho, RhoUV, RhoBTB, RhoDF, RhoH, and Rnd. Rho GTPases are molecular on-off switches, which are increasingly being understood to have a critical role in a number of cellular processes, including cell migration, cell polarity, cell adhesion, cell cycle progression, and regulation of the cytoskeleton...
November 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133526/involvement-of-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-subunits-of-gi-protein-coupled-with-s1p-receptor-on-multivesicular-endosomes-in-f-actin-formation-and-cargo-sorting-into-exosomes
#8
Taketoshi Kajimoto, Nesma Nabil Ibrahim Mohamed, Shaymaa Mohamed Mohamed Badawy, Shubi Ambwene Matovelo, Mitsuhiro Hirase, Shunsuke Nakamura, Daisuke Yoshida, Taro Okada, Takeshi Ijuin, Shun-Ichi Nakamura
Exosomes play a critical role in cell-to-cell communication by delivering cargo molecules to recipient cells. However, the mechanism underlying the generation of the exosomal multivesicular endosome (MVE) is one of the mysteries in the field of endosome research. Although sphingolipid metabolites such as ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are known to play important roles in MVE formation and maturation, the detailed molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that Rho family GTPases, including Cdc42 and Rac1, are constitutively activated on exosomal MVEs and are regulated by S1P signaling as measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based conformational changes...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130632/dock3-related-neurodevelopmental-syndrome-biallelic-intragenic-deletion-of-dock3-in-a-boy-with-developmental-delay-and-hypotonia
#9
Aiko Iwata-Otsubo, Alyssa L Ritter, Brooke Weckselbatt, Nicole R Ryan, David Burgess, Laura K Conlin, Kosuke Izumi
Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family are evolutionary conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rho GTPases, Rac, and Cdc42. DOCK3 functions as a GEF for Rac1, and plays an important role in promoting neurite and axonal growth by stimulating actin dynamics and microtubule assembly pathways in the central nervous system. Here we report a boy with developmental delay, hypotonia, and ataxia due to biallelic DOCK3 deletion. Chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis detected a 170 kb homozygous deletion including exons 6-12 of the DOCK3 gene at 3p21...
November 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129556/mechanisms-of-rhoa-inactivation-and-cdc42-and-rac1-activation-during-zebrafish-optic-nerve-regeneration
#10
Toru Matsukawa, Kazune Morita, Shou Omizu, Satoru Kato, Yoshiki Koriyama
When axons of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) are injured, they fail to regenerate, while those of lower vertebrates undergo regeneration after injury. Wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt) proteins play important roles in the CNS, and are reported to be activated after mammalian spinal cord or brain injury. Moreover, for axon growth to proceed, it is thought that small G-proteins, such as CDC42 and Rac1, need to be activated, whereas RhoA must be inactivated. However, the cell and molecular mechanisms involved in optic nerve regeneration remain unclear...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121646/the-phosphomimetic-mutation-of-syndecan-4-binds-and-inhibits-tiam1-modulating-rac1-activity-in-pdz-interaction-dependent-manner
#11
Aniko Keller-Pinter, Bettina Ughy, Monika Domoki, Aladar Pettko-Szandtner, Tamas Letoha, Jozsef Tovari, Jozsef Timar, Laszlo Szilak
The small GTPases of the Rho family comprising RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 function as molecular switches controlling several essential biochemical pathways in eukaryotic cells. Their activity is cycling between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound conformation. The exchange of GDP to GTP is catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Here we report a novel regulatory mechanism of Rac1 activity, which is controlled by a phosphomimetic (Ser179Glu) mutant of syndecan-4 (SDC4). SDC4 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane, heparan sulfate proteoglycan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111771/staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin-induces-actin-filament-remodeling-in-human-airway-epithelial-model-cells
#12
Sabine Ziesemer, Ina Eiffler, Alfrun Schönberg, Christian Müller, Falko Hochgräfe, Achim G Beule, Jan-Peter Hildebrandt
Exposure of cultured human airway epithelial model cells (16HBE14o-, S9) to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla) induces changes in cell morphology and cell layer integrity which are due to the inability of the cells to maintain stable cell-cell or focal contacts and to properly organize their actin cytoskeleton. The aim of this study was to identify Hla-activated signaling pathways involved in regulating the phosphorylation level of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. We used recombinant wild-type Hla (rHla) as well as a variant of Hla (rHla-H35L) that is unable to form functional transmembrane pores to treat immortalized human airway epithelial cells (16HBE14o-, S9) as well as freshly isolated human nasal tissue...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101495/deletion-of-cdc42-in-embryonic-cardiomyocytes-results-in-right-ventricle-hypoplasia
#13
Yang Liu, Jian Wang, Jieli Li, Rui Wang, Binu Tharakan, Shenyuan L Zhang, Carl W Tong, Xu Peng
BACKGROUND: Cdc42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family and functions as a molecular switch in regulating cytoskeleton remodeling and cell polarity establishment. Inactivating Cdc42 in cardiomyocytes resulted in embryonic lethality with heart developmental defects, including ventricular septum defects and thin ventricle wall syndrome. FINDINGS: In this study, we have generated a Cdc42 cardiomyocyte knockout mouse line by crossing Cdc42/flox mice with myosin light chain 2a (MLC2a)-Cre mice...
November 3, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101098/regulation-of-cortical-stability-by-rhogef3-in-mitotic-sensory-organ-precursor-cells-in-drosophila
#14
Lydie Couturier, Khalil Mazouni, Fred Bernard, Charlotte Besson, Elodie Reynaud, François Schweisguth
In epithelia, mitotic cells round up and push against their neighbors to divide. Mitotic rounding results from increased assembly of F-actin and cortical recruitment of Myosin II, leading to increased cortical stability. Whether this process is developmentally regulated is not well known. Here, we examined the regulation of cortical stability in Sensory Organ precursor cells (SOPs) in the Drosophila pupal notum. SOPs differed in apical shape and actomyosin dynamics from their epidermal neighbors prior to division and appeared to have a more rigid cortex at mitosis...
November 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100341/septin-remodeling-is-essential-for-the-formation-of-cell-membrane-protrusions-microtentacles-in-detached-tumor-cells
#15
Kristine Østevold, Ana V Meléndez, Friederike Lehmann, Gudula Schmidt, Klaus Aktories, Carsten Schwan
Microtentacles are mostly microtubule-based cell protrusions that are formed by detached tumor cells. Here, we report that the formation of tumor cell microtentacles depends on the presence and dynamics of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the septin family, which are part of the cytoskeleton. In matrix-attached breast, lung, prostate and pancreas cancer cells, septins are associated with the cytosolic actin cytoskeleton. Detachment of cells causes redistribution of septins to the membrane, where microtentacle formation occurs...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100284/exosomes-containing-differential-expression-of-microrna-and-mrna-in-osteosarcoma-that-can-predict-response-to-chemotherapy
#16
Ji-Feng Xu, Ya-Ping Wang, Shui-Jun Zhang, Yu Chen, Hai-Feng Gu, Xiao-Fan Dou, Bing Xia, Qing Bi, Shun-Wu Fan
A major challenge in osteosarcoma (OS) is the selection of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for individual patients, while the administration of ineffective chemotherapy increases mortality and decreases quality of life in patients. This emphasizes the need to evaluate every patient's probability of responding to each chemotherapeutic agent. We developed a profiling strategy for serum exosomal microRNAs and mRNAs in OS patients with differential chemotherapeutic responses. Twelve miRNAs were up regulated and 18 miRNAs were under regulated significantly in OS patient with poor chemotherapeutic response when compared with those in good chemotherapeutic response (p<0...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097549/spindle-asymmetry-drives-non-mendelian-chromosome-segregation
#17
Takashi Akera, Lukáš Chmátal, Emily Trimm, Karren Yang, Chanat Aonbangkhen, David M Chenoweth, Carsten Janke, Richard M Schultz, Michael A Lampson
Genetic elements compete for transmission through meiosis, when haploid gametes are created from a diploid parent. Selfish elements can enhance their transmission through a process known as meiotic drive. In female meiosis, selfish elements drive by preferentially attaching to the egg side of the spindle. This implies some asymmetry between the two sides of the spindle, but the molecular mechanisms underlying spindle asymmetry are unknown. Here we found that CDC42 signaling from the cell cortex regulated microtubule tyrosination to induce spindle asymmetry and that non-Mendelian segregation depended on this asymmetry...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096333/distinct-ephb4-mediated-mechanisms-of-apoptotic-and-resistance-to-dasatinib-in-human-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-and-k562-cell-lines
#18
Wei-Hong Zhao, Bin-Tao Huang, Jian-Yu Zhang, Qing-Chun Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role and mechanism of EphB4 in dasatinib (DAS) resistance in advanced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we explored the EphB4-mediated apoptotic and matrix microenvironment pathway in human CML and K562 cell lines. METHOD: Heparinized bone marrow samples were obtained from enrolled five patients (identified as A to E and visits identified by number) at initial diagnosis (A1-E1) and in the DAS-resistance advanced phase (A2-E2). Meanwhile, highly DAS-resistant cells, named K562-R cells, were obtained from K562-W cells with increasing concentrations of DAS...
October 27, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093086/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-small-t-antigen-drives-cell-motility-via-rho-gtpase-induced-filopodia-formation
#19
Gabrielė Stakaitytė, Nnenna Nwogu, Samuel J Dobson, Laura M Knight, Christopher W Wasson, Francisco J Salguero, David J Blackbourn, G Eric Blair, Jamel Mankouri, Andrew Macdonald, Adrian Whitehouse
Cell motility and migration is a complex, multi-step, and multi-component process, intrinsic to progression and metastasis. Motility is dependent on the activity of integrin receptors and Rho-family GTPases resulting in the remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of various motile actin-based protrusions. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer with a high likelihood of recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with the majority of MCC cases, and MCPyV-induced tumourigenesis largely depends on the expression of the small tumour antigen (ST)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074565/fine-tuning-the-orientation-of-the-polarity-axis-by-rga1-a-cdc42-gtpase-activating-protein
#20
Kristi E Miller, Wing-Cheong Lo, Mid Eum Lee, Pil Jung Kang, Hay-Oak Park
In yeast and animal cells, signaling pathways involving small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulate cell polarization. In budding yeast, selection of a bud site directs polarity establishment and subsequently determines the plane of cell division. Rga1, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, prevents budding within the division site by inhibiting Cdc42 repolarization. A protein complex including Nba1 and Nis1 is involved in preventing rebudding at old division sites, yet how these proteins and Rga1 might function in negative polarity signaling has been elusive...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
keyword
keyword
14398
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"