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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938568/senp3-grants-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#1
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935755/leptin-induces-sca-1-progenitor-cell-migration-enhancing-neointimal-lesions-in-vessel-injury-mouse-models
#2
Yao Xie, Claire M F Potter, Alexandra Le Bras, Witold N Nowak, Wenduo Gu, Shirin Issa Bhaloo, Zhongyi Zhang, Yanhua Hu, Li Zhang, Qingbo Xu
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is an adipokine initially thought to be a metabolic factor. Recent publications have shown its roles in inflammation and vascular disease, to which Sca-1(+) vascular progenitor cells within the vessel wall may contribute. We sought to elucidate the effects of leptin on Sca-1(+) progenitor cells migration and neointimal formation and to understand the underlying mechanisms. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Sca-1(+) progenitor cells from the vessel wall of Lepr(+/+) and Lepr(-/)(-) mice were cultured and purified...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935183/identification-of-novel-pde%C3%AE-interacting-proteins
#3
Philipp Küchler, Gunther Zimmermann, Michael Winzker, Petra Janning, Herbert Waldmann, Slava Ziegler
Prenylation is a post-translational modification that increases the affinity of proteins for membranes and mediates protein-protein interactions. The retinal rod rhodopsin-sensitive cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta (PDEδ) is a prenyl binding protein that is essential for the shuttling of small GTPases between different membrane compartments and, thus, for their proper functioning. Although the prenylome comprises up to 2% of the mammalian proteome, only few prenylated proteins are known to interact with PDEδ...
August 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934273/novel-derivative-of-paeonol-paeononlsilatie-sodium-alleviates-behavioral-damage-and-hippocampal-dendritic-injury-in-alzheimer-s-disease-concurrent-with-cofilin1-phosphorylated-cofilin1-and-rac1-cdc42-alterations-in-rats
#4
Fei Han, Ting-Ting Zhuang, Jing-Jing Chen, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Ya-Fei Cai, Ya-Ping Lu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a typical hippocampal amnesia and the most common senile dementia. Many studies suggest that cognitive impairments are more closely correlated with synaptic loss than the burden of amyloid deposits in AD progression. To date, there is no effective treatment for this disease. Paeonol has been widely employed in traditional Chinese medicine. This compound improves learning behavior in an animal model; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, Paeononlsilatie sodium (Pa), a derivative of Paeonol, attenuated D-galactose (D-gal) and AlCl3-induced behavioral damages in rats based on evaluations of the open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPMT), and Morris water maze test (MWMT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927665/fgd5-sustains-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-vegfa-signaling-through-inhibition-of-proteasome-mediated-vegf-receptor-2-degradation
#5
Johan Heldin, Paul O'Callaghan, Rodrigo Hernández Vera, Peder Fredlund Fuchs, Pär Gerwins, Johan Kreuger
The complete repertoire of endothelial functions elicited by FGD5, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activating the Rho GTPase Cdc42, has yet to be elucidated. Here we explore FGD5's importance during vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) signaling via VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in human endothelial cells. In microvascular endothelial cells, FGD5 is located at the inner surface of the cell membrane as well as at the outer surface of EEA1-positive endosomes carrying VEGFR2. The latter finding prompted us to explore if FGD5 regulates VEGFR2 dynamics...
September 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923975/control-of-actin-polymerization-via-the-coincidence-of-phosphoinositides-and-high-membrane-curvature
#6
Frederic Daste, Astrid Walrant, Mikkel R Holst, Jonathan R Gadsby, Julia Mason, Ji-Eun Lee, Daniel Brook, Marcel Mettlen, Elin Larsson, Steven F Lee, Richard Lundmark, Jennifer L Gallop
The conditional use of actin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells suggests that the cell controls whether and how actin is used. Using a combination of biochemical reconstitution and mammalian cell culture, we elucidate a mechanism by which the coincidence of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3)P in a curved vesicle triggers actin polymerization. At clathrin-coated pits, PI(3)P is produced by the INPP4A hydrolysis of PI(3,4)P2, and this is necessary for actin-driven endocytosis. Both Cdc42⋅guanosine triphosphate and SNX9 activate N-WASP-WIP- and Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923913/variations-in-microrna-25-expression-influence-the-severity-of-diabetic-kidney-disease
#7
Yunshuang Liu, Hongzhi Li, Jieting Liu, Pengfei Han, Xuefeng Li, He Bai, Chunlei Zhang, Xuelian Sun, Yanjie Teng, Yufei Zhang, Xiaohuan Yuan, Yanhui Chu, Binghai Zhao
Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by persistent albuminuria, progressive decline in GFR, and secondary hypertension. MicroRNAs are dysregulated in diabetic nephropathy, but identification of the specific microRNAs involved remains incomplete. Here, we show that the peripheral blood from patients with diabetes and the kidneys of animals with type 1 or 2 diabetes have low levels of microRNA-25 (miR-25) compared with those of their nondiabetic counterparts. Furthermore, treatment with high glucose decreased the expression of miR-25 in cultured kidney cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921811/a-role-for-the-non-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-ack1-in-tnf-alpha-mediated-apoptosis-and-proliferation-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#8
Xinmei Zhao, Chaolan Lv, Shenbo Chen, Fachao Zhi
The roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its mediators in cellular processes related to intestinal diseases remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to determine the biological role of activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1) in TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis and proliferation in Caco-2 cells. ACK1 expression was knocked down using ACK1-specific siRNAs, and ACK1 activity was disrupted using a small molecule ACK1 inhibitor. The Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and the BrdU incorporation assays were used to measure apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively...
September 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916555/first-person-seth-zimmerman
#9
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Seth Zimmerman is the first author on 'Cells lay their own tracks - optogenetic Cdc42 activation stimulates fibronectin deposition supporting directed migration', published in Journal of Cell Science. Seth completed the work in this article as a PhD student under the supervision of Jim Bear and Brian Kuhlman at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911825/paving-the-rho-in-cancer-metastasis-rho-gtpases-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Sepp Jansen, Reinoud Gosens, Thomas Wieland, Martina Schmidt
Malignant carcinomas are often characterized by metastasis, the movement of carcinoma cells from a primary site to colonize distant organs. For metastasis to occur, carcinoma cells first must adopt a pro-migratory phenotype and move through the surrounding stroma towards a blood or lymphatic vessel. Currently, there are very limited possibilities to target these processes therapeutically. The family of Rho GTPases is an ubiquitously expressed division of GTP-binding proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular signaling...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903999/cdc42-regulates-junctional-actin-but-not-cell-polarization-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-epidermis
#11
Yuliya Zilberman, Joshua Abrams, Dorian C Anderson, Jeremy Nance
During morphogenesis, adherens junctions (AJs) remodel to allow changes in cell shape and position while preserving adhesion. Here, we examine the function of Rho guanosine triphosphatase CDC-42 in AJ formation and regulation during Caenorhabditis elegans embryo elongation, a process driven by asymmetric epidermal cell shape changes. cdc-42 mutant embryos arrest during elongation with epidermal ruptures. Unexpectedly, we find using time-lapse fluorescence imaging that cdc-42 is not required for epidermal cell polarization or junction assembly, but rather is needed for proper junctional actin regulation during elongation...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891248/integrin-fak-cdc42-pp1a-signaling-gnaws-at-yap-taz-activity-to-control-incisor-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Julia Hicks-Berthet, Xaralabos Varelas
How epithelial tissues are able to self-renew to maintain homeostasis and regenerate in response to injury remains a persistent question. The transcriptional effectors YAP and TAZ are increasingly being recognized as central mediators of epithelial stem cell biology, and a wealth of recent studies have been directed at understanding the control and activity of these factors. Recent work by Hu et al. has added to this knowledge, as they identify an Integrin-FAK-CDC42-PP1A signaling cascade that directs nuclear YAP/TAZ activity in stem cell populations of the mouse incisor, and define convergence on mTORC1 signaling as an important mediator of the proliferation of these cells...
September 11, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880478/role-of-g-proteins-in-islet-function-in-health-and-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Anjaneyulu Kowluru
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) involves interplay between metabolic and cationic events. Seminal contributions from multiple laboratories affirm essential roles for small G-proteins (Rac1, Cdc42, Arf6, Rab27A) in GSIS. Activation of these signalling proteins promotes cytoskeletal remodeling, transport and docking of insulin granules on the plasma membrane for exocytotic secretion of insulin. Evidence in rodent and human islets suggests key roles for lipidation (farnesylation and geranylgeranylation) of these G-proteins for their targeting to appropriate cellular compartments for optimal regulation of effectors leading to GSIS...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878391/identification-of-a-p53-target-cd137l-that-mediates-growth-suppression-and-immune-response-of-osteosarcoma-cells
#14
Yusuke Tsuda, Chizu Tanikawa, Takafumi Miyamoto, Makoto Hirata, Varalee Yodsurang, Yao-Zhong Zhang, Seiya Imoto, Rui Yamaguchi, Satoru Miyano, Hiroshi Takayanagi, Hirotaka Kawano, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Sakae Tanaka, Koichi Matsuda
p53 encodes a transcription factor that transactivates downstream target genes involved in tumour suppression. Although osteosarcoma frequently has p53 mutations, the role of p53 in osteosarcomagenesis is not fully understood. To explore p53-target genes comprehensively in calvarial bone and find out novel druggable p53 target genes for osteosarcoma, we performed RNA sequencing using the calvarial bone and 23 other tissues from p53 (+/+) and p53 (-/-) mice after radiation exposure. Of 23,813 genes, 69 genes were induced more than two-fold in irradiated p53 (+/+) calvarial bone, and 127 genes were repressed...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874467/an-evolutionarily-conserved-pathway-essential-for-orsay-virus-infection-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Hongbing Jiang, Kevin Chen, Luis E Sandoval, Christian Leung, David Wang
Many fundamental biological discoveries have been made in Caenorhabditis elegans The discovery of Orsay virus has enabled studies of host-virus interactions in this model organism. To identify host factors critical for Orsay virus infection, we designed a forward genetic screen that utilizes a virally induced green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Following chemical mutagenesis, two Viro (virus induced reporter off) mutants that failed to express GFP were mapped to sid-3, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, and B0280...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871124/cell-division-cycle-42-plays-a-cell-type-specific-role-in-lung-tumorigenesis
#16
Chao Zheng, Yuetong Wang, Liu Yang, Shuhua Zhou, Yijun Gao, Fuming Li, Yan Feng, Zuoyun Wang, Lixing Zhan, Qin Yan, Xueliang Zhu, Kwok-Kin Wong, Zhengjun Chen, Hongbin Ji
Cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) plays important roles in polarity establishment and maintenance as well as cell cycle progression and cell division. Although disruption of cell polarity is a prerequisite in epithelial tumor initiation, the roles of CDC42 in tumorigenesis are still poorly understood. Here we find that Cdc42 deficiency inhibits the Kras (G12D) -induced lung alveoli tumor formation, while conversely promotes bronchiole tumor formation in mice. Bronchial Cdc42 loss destroys contact inhibition potentially through cell polarity disruption, and results in increased tumor formation...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865024/homer-spikar-and-other-drebrin-binding-proteins-in-the-brain
#17
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Tomoaki Shirao
Drebrin is a major F-actin-binding protein in the brain. In the past two decades, many drebrin-binding proteins in addition to F-actin have been identified in several research fields including neuroscience, oncology, and immunology. Among the drebrin-binding proteins, there are various kinds of proteins including scaffold proteins, nuclear proteins, phosphatases, microtubule-binding proteins, G-actin-binding proteins, gap junction proteins, chemokine receptors, and cell-adhesion-related proteins. The interaction between drebrin and its binding partners seems to play important roles in higher brain functions, because drebrin is involved in the pathogenesis of some neurological diseases with cognitive defects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860633/a-cdc42-centered-signaling-unit-is-a-dominant-positive-regulator-of-endothelial-integrity
#18
J Amado-Azevedo, N R Reinhard, J van Bezu, R X de Menezes, V W van Beusechem, G P van Nieuw Amerongen, V W M van Hinsbergh, P L Hordijk
Endothelial barrier function is carefully controlled to protect tissues from edema and damage inflicted by extravasated leukocytes. RhoGTPases, in conjunction with myriad regulatory proteins, exert both positive and negative effects on the endothelial barrier integrity. Precise knowledge about the relevant mechanisms is currently fragmented and we therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of endothelial barrier regulation by RhoGTPases and their regulators. Combining RNAi with electrical impedance measurements we quantified the relevance of 270 Rho-associated genes for endothelial barrier function...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860601/cdc42-expression-is-altered-by-dioxin-exposure-and-mediated-by-multilevel-regulations-via-ahr-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#19
Tuan Xu, Heidi Q Xie, Yunping Li, Yingjie Xia, Yangsheng Chen, Li Xu, Lingyun Wang, Bin Zhao
Emerging evidence has shown that dioxin causes dysregulation of microRNAs (miRs) in a variety of tissues or cells. However, little is known about dioxin effects on neuronal miRs expression. In the present study, 277 differentially expressed miRs were identified by miRs microarray analysis in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, at 10(-10) M) treated SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Among them, 53 miRs exhibited changes of more than 0.4-fold. Consistent with the microarray data, we verified the induction effect of TCDD on hsa-miR-608 expression, which is a primate-specific miR associated with brain functions...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859988/cytoskeletal-remodeling-via-rho-gtpases-during-oxidative-and-thermal-stress-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Rahul Patel, Sindhu Sriramoji, Marena Marucci, Ibrahim Aziz, Sejal Shah, Federico Sesti
Biological systems are highly sensitive to changes in their environment. Indeed, the molecular basis of the environmental stress response suggests that the specialized stress responses share more commonalities than previously believed. Here, we used the nematode C. elegans to gain insight into the role of Rho signaling during two common environmental challenges, oxidative and thermal stress. In response to heat shock (HS), wild type (N2) worms demonstrated reduced viability which was rescued by genetic suppression of CDC42 and RHO-1...
August 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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