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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330286/effect-of-highly-branched-hyphal-morphology-on-the-enhanced-production-of-cellulase-in-trichoderma-reesei-des-15
#1
Ronglin He, Chen Li, Lijuan Ma, Dongyuan Zhang, Shulin Chen
The morphology of Trichoderma reesei is a vitally important factor for cellulase productivity. This study investigated the effect of hyphal morphology on cellulase production in the hyper-cellulolytic mutant, T. reesei DES-15. With a distinct morphology, T. reesei DES-15 was obtained through Diethyl sulfite (DES) mutagenesis. The hyphal morphology of DES-15 batch-cultured in a 5-L fermentor was significantly shorter and more branched than the parental strain RUT C30. The cellulase production of DES-15 during batch fermentation was 66 % greater than that of RUT C30 when cultured the same conditions...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327544/fmnl-formins-boost-lamellipodial-force-generation
#2
Frieda Kage, Moritz Winterhoff, Vanessa Dimchev, Jan Mueller, Tobias Thalheim, Anika Freise, Stefan Brühmann, Jana Kollasser, Jennifer Block, Georgi Dimchev, Matthias Geyer, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Cord Brakebusch, Theresia E B Stradal, Marie-France Carlier, Michael Sixt, Josef Käs, Jan Faix, Klemens Rottner
Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here to nucleate and elongate actin filaments with complementary activities in vitro. In migrating B16-F1 melanoma cells, both formins contribute to the velocity of lamellipodium protrusion. Loss of FMNL2/3 function in melanoma cells and fibroblasts reduces lamellipodial width, actin filament density and -bundling, without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326341/cdc42-is-crucial-for-facial-and-palatal-formation-during-craniofacial-development
#3
Mutsuko Oshima-Nakayama, Atsushi Yamada, Tamaki Kurosawa, Ryo Aizawa, Dai Suzuki, Yoshiro Saito, Hidetoshi Kassai, Yuki Sato, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tatsuo Shirota, Atsu Aiba, Koutaro Maki, Ryutaro Kamijo
Craniofacial deformities with multifactorial etiologies, such as cleft palate and facial dysmorphism, represent some of the most frequent congenital birth defects seen in humans. Their pathogeneses are often related to cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. During CNC cell migration, changes in cell shape and formation, as well as maintenance of subcellular structures, such as filopodia and lamellipodia, are dependent on the complex functions of Rho family small GTPases, which are regulators of actin cytoskeletal organization...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319837/kalirin-reduction-rescues-psychosis-associated-behavioral-deficits-in-appswe-psen1de9-transgenic-mice
#4
Josh M Krivinko, Susan L Erickson, Eric E Abrahamson, Zachary P Wills, Milos D Ikonomovic, Peter Penzes, Robert A Sweet
Psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD+P) represents a distinct clinical and neurobiological AD phenotype and is associated with more rapid cognitive decline, higher rates of abnormal behaviors, and increased caregiver burden compared with AD without psychosis. On a molecular level, AD+P is associated with greater reductions in the protein kalirin, a guanine exchange factor which has also been linked to the psychotic disease, schizophrenia. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular and behavioral consequences of kalirin reduction in APPswe/PSEN1dE9 mice...
February 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317368/mir-186-inhibited-migration-of-nsclc-via-targeting-cdc42-and-effecting-emt-process
#5
Ying Dong, Xintian Jin, Zhiqiang Sun, Yueming Zhao, Xianjing Song
In this study, qRT-PCR was employed to identify that miR-186 expression level in NSCLC tissues are highly associated with lymph node metastasis. In addition, through the application of western blotting, luciferase assay and qRT-PCR, it was found that miR-186 targeted 3'UTR of cdc42 mRNA and down-regulated cdc42 protein level in a post-transcriptional manner. Transwell assay indicated that cdc42 partially reversed the effect of miR-186 mimics. Besides, miR-186 was proved to regulate EMT by influencing biomarkers of this process and cell adhesion ability...
March 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315838/germline-proliferation-is-regulated-by-somatic-endocytic-genes-via-jnk-and-bmp-signaling-in-drosophila
#6
Yaning Tang, Qing Geng, Di Chen, Shaowei Zhao, Xian Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Signals derived from the microenvironment contribute greatly to tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism requires thorough investigation. Here, we use Drosophila testis as a model system to address this question, taking the advantage of the ease to distinguish germline and somatic cells and to track the cell numbers. In an EMS mutagenesis screen, we identified Rab5, a key factor in endocytosis, for its non-autonomous role in germline proliferation. The disruption of Rab5 in somatic cyst cells, which escort the development of germline lineage, induced the over-proliferation of under-differentiated but genetically wild-type germ cells...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304276/scaffold-mediated-gating-of-cdc42-signaling-flux
#7
Péter Rapali, Romain Mitteau, Craig Ronald Braun, Aurèlie Massoni-Laporte, Caner Ünlü, Laure Bataille, Floriane Saint Arramon, Steven P Gygi, Derek McCusker
Scaffold proteins modulate signaling pathway activity spatially and temporally. In budding yeast, the scaffold Bem1 contributes to polarity axis establishment by regulating the GTPase Cdc42. While different models have been proposed for Bem1 function, there is little direct evidence for an underlying mechanism. Here, we find that Bem1 directly augments the Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) activity of Cdc24. Bem1 also increases GEF phosphorylation by the p21-activated kinase (PAK), Cla4. Phosphorylation abrogates the scaffold-dependent stimulation of GEF activity, rendering Cdc24 insensitive to additional Bem1...
March 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298491/cyk-4-regulates-rac-but-not-rho-during-cytokinesis
#8
Yelena Zhuravlev, Sophia M Hirsch, Shawn N Jordan, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Julie C Canman
Cytokinesis is driven by constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring that is controlled by Rho family small GTPases. Rho, activated by the Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) ECT-2, is upstream of both myosin-II activation and diaphanous formin-mediated filamentous actin (f-actin) assembly, which drive ring constriction. The role for Rac and its regulators is more controversial but, based on the finding that Rac inactivation can rescue cytokinesis failure when the GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) CYK-4 is disrupted, Rac activity was proposed to be inhibitory to contractile ring constriction and thus specifically inactivated by CYK-4 at the division plane...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296078/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-b-uses-a-distinct-entry-pathway-mediated-by-cdc42-into-intestinal-cells-versus-neuronal-cells
#9
Chloé Connan, Marie Voillequin, Carolina Varela Chavez, Christelle Mazuet, Christian Leveque, Sandrine Vitry, Alain Vandewalle, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are responsible for severe flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. BoNT/B most often induces mild forms of botulism with predominant dysautonomic symptoms. In food borne botulism and botulism by intestinal colonization such as infant botulism, which are the most frequent naturally acquired forms of botulism, the digestive tract is the main entry route of BoNTs into the organism. We previously showed that BoNT/B translocates through mouse intestinal barrier by an endocytosis-dependent mechanism and subsequently targets neuronal cells, mainly cholinergic neurons, in the intestinal mucosa and musculosa...
March 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289332/pi3k%C3%AE-isoform-dependent-activation-of-rhoa-regulates-wnt5a-induced-osteosarcoma-cell-migration
#10
Ailiang Zhang, Ting Yan, Kun Wang, Zhihui Huang, Jinbo Liu
BACKGROUND: We have reported that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway mediated Wnt5a-induced osteosarcoma cell migration. However, the signaling pathways regulating Wnt5a/PI3K/Akt-mediated cell migration remains poorly defined in osteosarcoma cells. METHODS: We evaluated the activations of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 in osteosarcoma MG-63 and U2OS cells with small G-protein activation assay. Boyden chamber assays were used to confirm the migration of cells transfected indicated constructs or siRNA specific against RhoA...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289096/multiple-roles-of-filopodial-dynamics-in-particle-capture-and-phagocytosis-and-phenotypes-of-cdc42-and-myo10-deletion
#11
Markus Horsthemke, Anne C Bachg, Katharina Groll, Sven Moyzio, Barbara Müther, Sandra A Hemkemeyer, Roland Wedlich-Söldner, Michael Sixt, Sebastian Tacke, Martin Bähler, Peter J Hanley
Macrophage filopodia, finger-like membrane protrusions, were first implicated in phagocytosis more than 100 years ago, but little is still known about the involvement of these actin-dependent structures in particle clearance. Using spinning disk confocal microscopy to image filopodial dynamics in mouse resident Lifeact-EGFP macrophages, we show that filopodia, or filopodia-like structures, support pathogen clearance by multiple means. Filopodia supported the phagocytic uptake of bacterial (Escherichia coli) particles by (i) capturing along the filopodial shaft and surfing towards the cell body, the most common mode of capture; (ii) capturing via the tip followed by retraction; (iii) combinations of surfing and retraction; or (iv) sweeping actions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288786/p21-activated-kinase-4-regulates-hif-1%C3%AE-translation-in-cancer-cells
#12
Hyunju Kim, Dustin J Woo, So Yeon Kim, Eun Gyeong Yang
The p21-activated kinases (Paks) interact with Rac/Cdc42 GTPases to regulate the actin cytoskeleton as well as various signaling pathways. Although activation of Paks in many human cancers is known to mediate cancer progression, the role of Pak proteins in hypoxia is poorly understood. In this study, we found that both Pak1 and Pak4 are highly expressed in HeLa cervical cancer cells, but only Pak4 knockdown attenuates expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in hypoxia. We further discovered that Pak4 regulates HIF-1α translation via the Akt-mTOR-4E-BP1 pathway under hypoxic conditions...
March 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287465/serine-threonine-kinase-3-phosphoinositide-dependent-protein-kinase-1-pdk1-as-a-key-regulator-of-cell-migration-and-cancer-dissemination
#13
REVIEW
Laura Di Blasio, Paolo A Gagliardi, Alberto Puliafito, Luca Primo
Dissecting the cellular signaling that governs the motility of eukaryotic cells is one of the fundamental tasks of modern cell biology, not only because of the large number of physiological processes in which cell migration is crucial, but even more so because of the pathological ones, in particular tumor invasion and metastasis. Cell migration requires the coordination of at least four major processes: polarization of intracellular signaling, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and membrane extension, focal adhesion and integrin signaling and contractile forces generation and rear retraction...
March 11, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287327/mechanism-of-cell-intrinsic-adaptation-to-adams-oliver-syndrome-gene-dock6-disruption-highlights-ubiquitin-like-modifier-isg15-as-a-regulator-of-rho-gtpases
#14
Berati Cerikan, Elmar Schiebel
DOCK6 is a RAC1/CDC42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, however, little is known about its function and sub-cellular localization. DOCK6 regulates the balance between RAC1 and RHOA activity during cell adhesion and is important for CDC42-dependent mitotic chromosome alignment. Surprisingly, a cell intrinsic adaptation mechanism compensates for errors in these DOCK6 functions that arise as a consequence of prolonged DOCK6 depletion or complete removal in DOCK6 knockout cells. Down-regulation of the ubiquitin-like modifier ISG15 accounts for this adaptation...
February 23, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282856/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-stimulates-proliferation-wound-closure-and-inhibits-apoptosis-of-huh-7-cells-via-cdc42
#15
Yongru Xu, Yingzi Qi, Jing Luo, Jing Yang, Qi Xie, Chen Deng, Na Su, Wei Wei, Deshun Shi, Feng Xu, Xiangping Li, Ping Xu
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been considered as the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been reported to be oncogenic. The underlying mechanisms of HBV-related HCC are not fully understood, and the role played by the HBx protein in HBV induced carcinogenesis remains controversial. CDC42, a member of the Rho GTPase family, has been reported to be overexpressed in several different cancers, including HBV-related HCC. However, the specific role of CDC42 in HCC development remains unclear...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281966/rna-interference-of-iq-motif-containing-gtpase-activating-protein-3-iqgap3-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-in-breast-carcinoma-cells
#16
Gaowu Hu, Ye Xu, Wenquan Chen, Jiandong Wang, Chunying Zhao, Ming Wang
Breast cancer is a highly prevalent disease affecting women. The association of IQ motif containing GTPase-activating protein 3 (IQGAP3) and breast cancer is poorly defined. Here we reported that IQGAP3 is a key regulator of cell proliferation and metastasis during breast cancer progression. The expression of IQGAP3 was significantly increased in breast tissues compared to nontumor tissues at both protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, IQGAP3 had a high expression level in ZR-75-30 and BT474 compared to other breast cancer cell lines...
October 27, 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256936/proteomic-analysis-of-the-neurotrophic-effect-of-gelidium-amansii-in-primary-cultured-neurons
#17
Md Abdul Hannan, Md Mohibbullah, Yong-Ki Hong, Il Soo Moon
Gelidium amansii is an edible and economically important red alga consumed in South Eastern Asia. In previous studies, we reported that the ethanol extracts of G. amansii (GAE) has promising modulatory activity with respect to the morphological and functional maturation of hippocampal neurons in culture. In this study, we show that the chloroform (CHCl3) subfraction of GAE and the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction dose-dependently promoted neurite outgrowth, and their effects were comparable with that of GAE. We further assessed in cultured cortical neurons, proteins differentially expressed in the presence/absence of the GAE, CHCl3 subfraction, and the EtOAc fraction by 2D-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255536/central-role-of-pi3k-syk-interaction-in-fibrinogen-induced-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-formation-in-platelets
#18
Raghvendra Singh
The WAVE complex-1, a complex of WAVE, Abi1, NAP1, PIR121, HSPC300, RacGTP and Arp2/3 proteins, and WASP complex-1, a complex of WASP, Cdc42, PIP2, and Arp2/3 proteins, are involved in lamellipodia and filopodia formation, respectively. It is known that the two complexes have opposite dynamics. Furthermore, Rac has two guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Vav and Sos, whose role in activating Rac is not well understood. In this work, by the construction of signaling network, analysis, and mathematical modeling, I show that Sos generates a pulse of WAVE complex-1, decreasing the response time of WAVE complex-1 formation upon the stimulation of platelets by fibrinogen...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238662/coordination-by-cdc42-of-actin-contractility-and-adhesion-for-melanoblast-movement-in-mouse-skin
#19
Emma F Woodham, Nikki R Paul, Benjamin Tyrrell, Heather J Spence, Karthic Swaminathan, Michelle R Scribner, Evangelos Giampazolias, Ann Hedley, William Clark, Frieda Kage, Daniel J Marston, Klaus M Hahn, Stephen W G Tait, Lionel Larue, Cord H Brakebusch, Robert H Insall, Laura M Machesky
The individual molecular pathways downstream of Cdc42, Rac, and Rho GTPases are well documented, but we know surprisingly little about how these pathways are coordinated when cells move in a complex environment in vivo. In the developing embryo, melanoblasts originating from the neural crest must traverse the dermis to reach the epidermis of the skin and hair follicles. We previously established that Rac1 signals via Scar/WAVE and Arp2/3 to effect pseudopod extension and migration of melanoblasts in skin...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223918/rpph1-upregulates-cdc42-expression-and-promotes-hippocampal-neuron-dendritic-spine-formation-by-competing-with-mir-330-5p
#20
Yifei Cai, Ziling Sun, Huizhen Jia, Hongxue Luo, Xiaoyang Ye, Qi Wu, Yi Xiong, Wei Zhang, Jun Wan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies employing microRNA-seq and genome-wide sequencing have identified some non-coding RNAs that are influentially involved in AD pathogenesis. Non-coding RNAs can compete with other endogenous RNAs by microRNA response elements (MREs) and manipulate biological processes, such as tumorigenesis. However, only a few non-coding RNAs have been reported in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we constructed the first competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network leveraging whole transcriptome sequencing and a previously studied microRNA-seq of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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