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age related cognitive decline

Matthias Stangl, Johannes Achtzehn, Karin Huber, Caroline Dietrich, Claus Tempelmann, Thomas Wolbers
A progressive loss of navigational abilities in old age has been observed in numerous studies, but we have only limited understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying this decline [1]. A central component of the brain's navigation circuit are grid cells in entorhinal cortex [2], largely thought to support intrinsic self-motion-related computations, such as path integration (i.e., keeping track of one's position by integrating self-motion cues) [3-6]. Given that entorhinal cortex is particularly vulnerable to neurodegenerative processes during aging and Alzheimer's disease [7-14], deficits in grid cell function could be a key mechanism to explain age-related navigational decline...
March 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Haotian Lin, Li Zhang, Duoru Lin, Wan Chen, Yi Zhu, Chuan Chen, Kevin C Chan, Yizhi Liu, Weirong Chen
BACKGROUND: Visual function and brain function decline concurrently with aging. Notably, cataract patients often present with accelerated age-related decreases in brain function, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Optical structures of the anterior segment of the eyes, such as the lens and cornea, can be readily reconstructed to improve refraction and vision quality. However, the effects of visual restoration on human brain function and structure remain largely unexplored...
March 7, 2018: EBioMedicine
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, David Della-Morte, Ivan Augimeri, Marco Alessandrini
OBJECTIVE: Considering the altered multisensory signal compensation during senescence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the integration rearrangements in unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during age-related cognitive decline. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Longitudinal cohort study unit and of University tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Older UVH individuals ≥ 55 years with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer Disease (AD) and matched UVH control group with age-appropriate cognitive function...
March 15, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Michiko Sakaki, Ayano Yagi, Kou Murayama
Curiosity is a fundamental part of human motivation that supports a variety of human intellectual behaviors ranging from early learning in children to scientific discovery. However, there has been little attention paid to the role of curiosity in aging populations. By bringing together broad but sparse neuroscientific and psychological literature on curiosity and related concepts (e.g., novelty seeking in older adults), we propose that curiosity, although it declines with age, plays an important role in maintaining cognitive function, mental health, and physical health in older adults...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Charlotte Zerna, Amy Y X Yu, Jayesh Modi, Shiel K Patel, Jonathan I Coulter, Eric E Smith, Shelagh B Coutts
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesions (WML) are associated with cognitive decline, increased stroke risk, and disability in old age. We hypothesized that superimposed acute cerebrovascular occlusion on chronic preexisting injury (leukoaraiosis) leads to worse outcome after minor cerebrovascular event, both using quantitative (volumetric) and qualitative (Fazekas scale) assessment, as well as relative total brain volume. METHODS: WML volume assessment was performed in 425 patients with high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA; motor/speech deficits >5 minutes) or minor strokes from the CATCH study (CT and MRI in the Triage of TIA and Minor Cerebrovascular Events to Identify High Risk Patients)...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Andrea R Zammit, Annie Robitaille, Andrea Piccinin, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Scott M Hofer
Objectives: Grip strength and cognitive function reflect upper body muscle strength and mental capacities. Cross-sectional research has suggested that in old age these two processes are moderately to highly associated, and that an underlying common cause drives this association. Our aim was to synthesize and evaluate longitudinal research addressing whether changes in grip strength are associated with changes in cognitive function in healthy older adults. Methods: We systematically reviewed English-language research investigating the longitudinal association between repeated measures of grip strength and of cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults to evaluate the extent to which the two indices decline concurrently...
March 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Stephanie S G Brown, Shinjini Basu, Heather C Whalley, Peter C Kind, Andrew C Stanfield
The FMR1 premutation confers a 40-60% risk for males of developing a neurodegenerative disease called the Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a late-onset disease that primarily involves progressive symptoms of tremor and ataxia, as well as cognitive decline that can develop into dementia in some patients. At present, it is not clear whether changes to brain function are detectable in motor regions prior to the onset of frank symptomatology. The present study therefore aimed to utilize an fMRI motor task for the first time in an asymptomatic premutation population...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kathleen E Hupfeld, David E Vaillancourt, Rachael D Seidler
Mobility and memory declines with aging can limit independence. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with cognitive performance, but studies investigating motor function are scant. We examined 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in dopaminergic metabolism: BDNF (Val66Met), DRD3 (Ser9Gly), DBH (C>T), and COMT (Val158Met) for their relationship to motor and cognitive function in healthy older adults (n = 4605 and n = 7331) who participated in the U.S. Health and Retirement Study...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Takahiro Ezaki, Michiko Sakaki, Takamitsu Watanabe, Naoki Masuda
Executive functions, a set of cognitive processes that enable flexible behavioral control, are known to decay with aging. Because such complex mental functions are considered to rely on the dynamic coordination of functionally different neural systems, the age-related decline in executive functions should be underpinned by alteration of large-scale neural dynamics. However, the effects of age on brain dynamics have not been firmly formulated. Here, we investigate such age-related changes in brain dynamics by applying "energy landscape analysis" to publicly available functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy younger and older human adults...
March 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Akinori Nakamura, Pablo Cuesta, Alberto Fernández, Yutaka Arahata, Kaori Iwata, Izumi Kuratsubo, Masahiko Bundo, Hideyuki Hattori, Takashi Sakurai, Koji Fukuda, Yukihiko Washimi, Hidetoshi Endo, Akinori Takeda, Kersten Diers, Ricardo Bajo, Fernando Maestú, Kengo Ito, Takashi Kato
Biomarkers useful for the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease are needed. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are expected to provide potential biomarker candidates for evaluating the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. However, the physiological relevance of EEG/MEG signal changes and their role in pathophysiological processes such as amyloid-β deposition and neurodegeneration need to be elucidated. We evaluated 28 individuals with mild cognitive impairment and 38 cognitively normal individuals, all of whom were further classified into amyloid-β-positive mild cognitive impairment (n = 17, mean age 74...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Kwun Kei Ng, Yingwei Qiu, June Chi-Yan Lo, Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay, Woon-Puay Koh, Michael Wei-Liang Chee, Juan Zhou
We investigated the influence of the apolipoprotein E-ɛ4 allele (APOE-ɛ4) on longitudinal age-related changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) and cognition, in view of mixed cross-sectional findings. One hundred and twenty-two healthy older adults (aged 58-79; 25 APOE-ɛ4 carriers) underwent task-free fMRI scans at baseline. Seventy-eight (16 carriers) had at least one follow-up (every 2 years). Changes in intra- and internetwork FCs among the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN), and salience (SN) networks, as well as cognition, were quantified using linear mixed models...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Peter Bruhn, Jesper Dammeyer
Background/Aims: Individuals with dual sensory loss (DSL) are more likely to experience cognitive decline with age than individuals without sensory loss. Other studies have pointed to the challenges in assessing cognitive abilities in individuals with DSL, as most existing instruments rely on use of vision and hearing. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Tactile Test Battery (TTB) for cognitive assessment in individuals with DSL. Method: Twenty elderly individuals with DSL, 20 with diagnosed dementia, and 20 without dementia or DSL (controls) completed the following tactile tests developed for the present study: Spatial learning, Spatial recall, Tactile form board, Clock reading, and Naming...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Vanessa Scarapicchia, Erin L Mazerolle, John D Fisk, Lesley J Ritchie, Jodie R Gawryluk
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that may benefit from early diagnosis and intervention. Therefore, there is a need to identify early biomarkers of AD using non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Recently, novel approaches to the analysis of resting-state fMRI data have been developed that focus on the moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. The objective of the current study was to investigate BOLD variability as a novel early biomarker of AD and its associated psychophysiological correlates...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yoko Eguchi, Kumiko Tasato, Shinichiro Nakajima, Yoshihiro Noda, Sakiko Tsugawa, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Hidehito Niimura, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND: Despite a steady increase in life expectancy, a few studies have investigated cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal predictors of cognitive function, a core domain of the successful aging, among socio-clinico-demographic factors in the oldest-old exclusively. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to examine socio-clinico-demographic characteristics associated with global cognition and its changes in the oldest-old. METHODS: We reanalyzed a dataset of cognitively preserved community-dwelling subjects aged 85 years and older in the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health, a 6-year longitudinal observational study...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Michael J Hurley, Robert M J Deacon, Katrin Beyer, Elena Ioannou, Agustin Ibáñez, Jessica L Teeling, Patricia Cogram
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial progressive neurodegenerative disease. Despite decades of research, no disease modifying therapy is available and a change of research objectives and/or development of novel research tools may be required. Much AD research has been based on experimental models using animals with a short lifespan that have been extensively genetically manipulated and do not represent the full spectrum of late-onset AD, which make up the majority of cases. The aetiology of AD is heterogeneous and involves multiple factors associated with the late-onset of the disease like disturbances in brain insulin, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, metabolic syndrome, retinal degeneration and sleep disturbances which are all progressive abnormalities that could account for many molecular, biochemical and histopathological lesions found in brain from patients dying from AD...
March 4, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Marisa Koini, Marco Duering, Benno G Gesierich, Serge A R B Rombouts, Stefan Ropele, Fabian Wagner, Christian Enzinger, Reinhold Schmidt
Loss of grey-matter volume with advancing age affects the entire cortex. It has been suggested that atrophy occurs in a network-dependent manner with advancing age rather than in independent brain areas. The relationship between networks of structural covariance (SCN) disintegration and cognitive functioning during normal aging is not fully explored. We, therefore, aimed to (1) identify networks that lose GM integrity with advancing age, (2) investigate if age-related impairment of integrity in GM networks associates with cognitive function and decreasing fine motor skills (FMS), and (3) examine if GM disintegration is a mediator between age and cognition and FMS...
March 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Nicolai Franzmeier, Julia Hartmann, Alexander N W Taylor, Miguel Á Araque-Caballero, Lee Simon-Vermot, Lana Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Katharina Bürger, Cihan Catak, Daniel Janowitz, Claudia Müller, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Robert Stahl, Martin Dichgans, Marco Duering, Michael Ewers
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggests that functional hubs (i.e., highly connected brain regions) are important for mental health. We found recently that global connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex (LFC connectivity) is associated with relatively preserved memory abilities and higher levels of protective factors (education, IQ) in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. These results suggest that LFC connectivity supports reserve capacity, alleviating memory decline...
March 6, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Takeshi Hatta, Kimiko Kato, Chie Hotta, Mari Higashikawa, Akihiko Iwahara, Taketoshi Hatta, Junko Hatta, Kazumi Fujiwara, Naoko Nagahara, Emi Ito, Nobuyuki Hamajima
The validity of Bucur and Madden's (2010) proposal that an age-related decline is particularly pronounced in executive function measures rather than in elementary perceptual speed measures was examined via the Yakumo Study longitudinal database. Their proposal suggests that cognitive load differentially affects cognitive abilities in older adults. To address their proposal, linear regression coefficients of 104 participants were calculated individually for the digit cancellation task 1 (D-CAT1), where participants search for a given single digit, and the D-CAT3, where they search for 3 digits simultaneously...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
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