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age related cognitive decline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634548/decline-in-memory-visuospatial-ability-and-crystalized-cognitive-abilities-in-older-adults-normative-aging-or-terminal-decline
#1
R Bendayan, A M Piccinin, S M Hofer, D Cadar, B Johansson, G Muniz-Terrera
The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death) and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline). Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test) and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms), memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory), and visuospatial ability were included...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630235/ultrasound-markers-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-and-cognition-the-northern-manhattan-study
#2
Hannah Gardener, Michelle R Caunca, Chuanhui Dong, Ying Kuen Cheung, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Tatjana Rundek, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound markers of carotid atherosclerosis may be related to cognitive status. We hypothesized that individuals with greater carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque burden would exhibit worse cognition. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-six stroke-free participants from the NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) underwent carotid ultrasound and neuropsychological examination. Among them, 826 underwent a second neuropsychological examination an average of 5 years later...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628597/integrating-health-promotion-into-physical-therapy-practice-to-improve-brain-health-and-prevent-alzheimer-disease
#3
Ellen McGough, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia, and brain pathology appears years before symptoms are evident. Primary prevention through health promotion can incorporate lifestyle improvement across the lifespan. Risk factor assessment and identifying markers of disease might also trigger preventive measures needed for high-risk individuals and groups. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: Many potential risk factors are modifiable through exercise, and may be responsive to early intervention strategies to reduce the downward slope toward disability...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#4
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626809/epidermal-growth-factor-prevents-apoe4-induced-cognitive-and-cerebrovascular-deficits-in-female-mice
#5
Riya Thomas, Alan W J Morris, Leon M Tai
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is re-emerging as a major component of aging, and may contribute to the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two important risk factors for cerebrovascular dysfunction are APOE and female sex, which are primarily researched in the context of high amyloid-β (Aβ) levels as found in AD. However, APOE4 and sex modulate Aβ-independent pathways that may induce cerebrovascular dysfunction as a downstream consequence. Therefore, testing the activity of factors that target cerebrovascular dysfunction in Aβ-independent models that incorporate APOE4 and female sex is crucial...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626442/influence-of-cognitive-functioning-on-age-related-performance-declines-in-visuospatial-sequence-learning
#6
Melanie Krüger, Mark R Hinder, Rohan Puri, Jeffery J Summers
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how age-related performance differences in a visuospatial sequence learning task relate to age-related declines in cognitive functioning. Method: Cognitive functioning of 18 younger and 18 older participants was assessed using a standardized test battery. Participants then undertook a perceptual visuospatial sequence learning task. Various relationships between sequence learning and participants' cognitive functioning were examined through correlation and factor analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626015/reciprocal-interaction-of-dendrite-geometry-and-nuclear-calcium-vegfd-signaling-gates-memory-consolidation-and-extinction
#7
Thekla J Hemstedt, C Peter Bengtson, Omar Ramírez, Ana Mm Oliveira, Hilmar Bading
Nuclear calcium is an important signaling end-point in synaptic excitation-transcription coupling that is critical for long-term neuroadaptations. Here we show that nuclear calcium acting via a target gene VEGFD is required for hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation and extinction in mice. Nuclear calcium-VEGFD signaling upholds structural integrity and complexity of the dendritic arbor of CA1 neurons that renders those cells permissive for the efficient generation of synaptic input-evoked nuclear calcium transients driving the expression of plasticity-related genes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625941/meditation-and-successful-aging-can-meditative-practices-counteract-age-related-cognitive-decline
#8
Marco Sperduti, Dominique Makowski, Philippe Blondé, Pascale Piolino
Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the developed countries due to medical, hygiene and socio-economic advances. Unfortunately, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, aging is associated with growing risk factors for illness associated with societal conditions (isolation, maltreatment), and neurodegenerative diseases. Even normal aging is associated with a cognitive decline that can hinder independence and quality of life of elderly. Thus, one major societal challenge is to build policies that support people of all ages to maintain a maximum health and functional capacity throughout their lives...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625207/use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-relation-to-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-cognition-and-functional-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-over-a-three-year-period-kuopio-alsova-study
#9
Soili Törmälehto, Janne Martikainen, J Simon Bell, Ilona Hallikainen, Anne M Koivisto
BACKGROUND: Psychotropic medications are widely prescribed to manage neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal associations between psychotropic medication use and NPS, cognition, and functional performance in persons with very mild or mild AD at baseline. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the prospective three-year study of home-dwelling persons with AD and their caregivers (n = 236 dyads)...
June 19, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625020/methylation-of-the-ribosomal-rna-gene-promoter-is-associated-with-aging-and-age-related-decline
#10
Patrizia D'Aquila, Alberto Montesanto, Maurizio Mandalà, Sabrina Garasto, Vincenzo Mari, Andrea Corsonello, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino
The transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is subject to epigenetic regulation, as it is abrogated by the methylation of CpG dinucleotides within their promoter region. Here, we investigated, through Sequenom platform, the age-related methylation status of the CpG island falling into the rDNA promoter in 472 blood samples from 20- to 105-year-old humans and in different tissues (blood, heart, liver, kidney, and testis) of 15 rats 3-96 weeks old. In humans, we did not find a consistently significant correlation between CpG site methylation and chronological age...
June 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623411/-i-am-not-afraid-of-death-a-survey-on-preferences-concerning-neurosurgical-interventions-among-patients-over-75-years
#11
Claudia Unterhofer, Wing Mann Ho, Katrin Wittlinger, Claudius Thomé, Martin Ortler
INTRODUCTION: Treatment decisions in elderly patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are mainly determined by trauma severity and patient age. The aim of this study was to explore personal preferences of potential patients regarding life-prolonging neurosurgical interventions by interviewing ambulatory, autonomous elderly people. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients older than 75 years frequenting the outpatient clinic of the Department of Neurosurgery were interviewed about their attitudes regarding the hypothetical case of an 81-year-old patient with TBI and a space-occupying acute subdural hematoma (aSDH) using a 21-point questionnaire...
June 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621460/older-adults-display-diminished-error-processing-and-response-in-a-continuous-tracking-task
#12
Francisco L Colino, Harvey Howse, Angela Norton, Robert Trska, Anthony Pluta, Stephen J C Luehr, Todd C Handy, Olave E Krigolson
Advancing age is often accompanied by a decline in motor control that results in a decreased ability to successfully perform motor tasks. While there are multiple factors that contribute to age-related deficits in motor control, one unexplored possibility is that age-related deficits in our ability to evaluate motor output result in an increase in motor errors. In line with this, previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that motor errors evoked an error-related negativity (ERN)-a component of the human ERP associated with error evaluation originating within the human medial-frontal cortex...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620801/fty720-attenuates-infection-induced-enhancement-of-a%C3%AE-accumulation-in-app-ps1-mice-by-modulating-astrocytic-activation
#13
Róisín M McManus, Orla M Finucane, Mieszko M Wilk, Kingston H G Mills, Marina A Lynch
It is well established that infection has a significant detrimental effect on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), accelerating cognitive decline and, even in healthy ageing individuals, increasing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain. In animal models of AD infection can also cause damage, with evidence of increased neuroinflammation, amyloid pathology and deterioration of cognitive function. These changes are against a backdrop of an age- and AD-related increase in susceptibility to infection. Here we set out to determine whether FTY720, a molecule that binds sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and with known immunosuppressant effects mediating its therapeutic action in multiple sclerosis (MS), might modulate the impact of infection in a mouse model of AD...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620295/slow-and-fast-neocortical-oscillations-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-model-samp8
#14
Patricia Castano-Prat, Maria Perez-Zabalza, Lorena Perez-Mendez, Rosa M Escorihuela, Maria V Sanchez-Vives
The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model is characterized by accelerated, progressive cognitive decline as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegenerative changes, and resembles the etiology of multicausal, sporadic late-onset/age-related AD in humans. Our aim was to find whether these AD-like pathological features, together with the cognitive deficits present in the SAMP8 strain, are accompanied by disturbances in cortical network activity with respect to control mice (SAM resistance 1, SAMR1) and, if so, how the alterations in cortical activity progress with age...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617929/age-effects-on-saccadic-adaptation-evidence-from-different-paradigms-reveals-specific-vulnerabilities
#15
Jing Huang, Karl R Gegenfurtner, Alexander C Schütz, Jutta Billino
Saccadic eye movements provide an opportunity to study closely interwoven perceptual, motor, and cognitive changes during aging. Here, we investigated age effects on different mechanisms of saccadic plasticity. We compared age effects in two different adaptation paradigms that tap into low- and high-level adaptation processes. A total of 27 senior adults and 25 young adults participated in our experiments. In our first experiment, we elicited adaptation by a double-step paradigm, which is designed to trigger primarily low-level, gradual motor adaptation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615083/importance-of-social-relationships-in-the-association-between-sleep-duration-and-cognitive-function-data-from-community-dwelling-older-singaporeans
#16
Grand H-L Cheng, Angelique Chan, June C Lo
BACKGROUND: Aging is accompanied by cognitive decline that is escalated in older adults reporting extreme sleep duration. Social relationships can influence health outcomes and thus may qualify the association between sleep duration and cognitive function. The present study examines the moderating effects of marital status, household size, and social network with friends and relatives on the sleep-cognition association among older adults. METHODS: Data (N = 4,169) came from the Social Isolation, Health, and Lifestyles Survey, a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling older Singaporeans (≥ 60 years)...
June 15, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611699/the-age-effects-on-the-cognitive-processes-of-intention-based-and-stimulus-based-actions-an-erp-study
#17
Ya-Nan Niu, Xinyi Zhu, Juan Li
The functional decline in action among older adults is caused not only by physical weakness but also by cognitive decline. In this study, we aimed to compare the cognitive effects of age between intention-based and stimulus-based action modes electrophysiologically. Because age-related declines in cognitive function might proceed distinctly according to specific action modes and processes, four specific cognitive processes, action-effect binding, stimulus-response linkage, action-effect feedback control, and effect-action retrieval, were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611654/age-related-gene-expression-in-the-frontal-cortex-suggests-synaptic-function-changes-in-specific-inhibitory-neuron-subtypes
#18
Leon French, TianZhou Ma, Hyunjung Oh, George C Tseng, Etienne Sibille
Genome-wide expression profiling of the human brain has revealed genes that are differentially expressed across the lifespan. Characterizing these genes adds to our understanding of both normal functions and pathological conditions. Additionally, the specific cell-types that contribute to the motor, sensory and cognitive declines during aging are unclear. Here we test if age-related genes show higher expression in specific neural cell types. Our study leverages data from two sources of murine single-cell expression data and two sources of age-associations from large gene expression studies of postmortem human brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611236/quantification-of-circulating-gdf-11-and-%C3%AE-2-mg-in-aged-patients-with-age-related-impairment-in-cognitive-function
#19
Rungong Yang, Shuhong Fu, Liang Zhao, Bei Zhen, Ling Ye, Xiaolu Niu, Xiaoxia Li, Pumin Zhang, Jie Bai
GDF-11 has been implicated in reverse effects of aging on the central nervous system of humans. β2-MG has been reported to negatively regulate cognitive. However, there is a lot of controversy about the role of GDF-11 and β2-MG in ageing and cognitive regulation. Objective: To examine the involvement of GDF-11 and β2-MG in the aging process and cognitive dysfunction. Methods: A total of 51 healthy subjects and 41 elderly patients with different degrees of age-related cognitive impairment participated in the study...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609533/association-between-elevated-brain-amyloid-and-subsequent-cognitive-decline-among-cognitively-normal-persons
#20
Michael C Donohue, Reisa A Sperling, Ronald Petersen, Chung-Kai Sun, Michael W Weiner, Paul S Aisen
Importance: Among cognitively normal individuals, elevated brain amyloid (defined by cerebrospinal fluid assays or positron emission tomography regional summaries) can be related to risk for later Alzheimer-related cognitive decline. Objective: To characterize and quantify the risk for Alzheimer-related cognitive decline among cognitively normal individuals with elevated brain amyloid. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analyses were conducted with longitudinal cognitive and biomarker data from 445 cognitively normal individuals in the United States and Canada...
June 13, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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