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age related cognitive decline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165560/aging-with-long-term-mobility-impairment-maintaining-activities-of-daily-living-via-selection-optimization-and-compensation
#1
Elena T Remillard, Cara Bailey Fausset, Walter Brad Fain, Barbara J Bowers
Background and Objectives: There is a growing number of adults with long-term mobility impairment aging into the older adult population. Little is known about the experiences of these individuals in maintaining activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) as they face age-related changes in addition to a pre-existing mobility impairment. Research Design and Methods: Through in-home interviews with 21 participants (ages 52-86) with long-term mobility impairment, the present study employed a qualitative description design to explore perceptions of how and why select ADL/IADL routines (e...
November 19, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164798/regionally-specific-changes-in-the-hippocampal-circuitry-accompany-progression-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Christine L Tardif, Gabriel A Devenyi, Robert S C Amaral, Sandra Pelleieux, Judes Poirier, Pedro Rosa-Neto, John Breitner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Neuropathological and in vivo brain imaging studies agree that the cornu ammonis 1 and subiculum subfields of the hippocampus are most vulnerable to atrophy in the prodromal phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there has been limited investigation of the structural integrity of the components of the hippocampal circuit, including subfields and extra-hippocampal white matter structure, in relation to the progression of well-accepted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD, amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ) and total-tau (tau)...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164610/shared-pathological-pathways-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-specific-comorbidities-current-perspectives-and-interventions
#3
REVIEW
Christiane M Nday, Despoina Eleftheriadou, Graham Jackson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) belongs to one of the most multifactorial, complex and heterogeneous morbidity-leading disorders. Despite the extensive research in the field, AD pathogenesis is still at some extend obscure. Mechanisms linking AD with certain comorbidities, namely diabetes mellitus, obesity and dyslipidemia, are increasingly gaining importance, mainly due to their potential role in promoting AD development and exacerbation. Their exact cognitive impairment trajectories, however, remain to be fully elucidated...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164373/the-possible-factors-affecting-microglial-activation-in-cases-of-obesity-with-cognitive-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Titikorn Chunchai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries around the world. Several studies have reported that obesity can lead to the development of cognitive decline. There is increasing evidence to demonstrate that microglia play a crucial role in cognitive decline in cases of obesity, Alzheimer's disease and also in the aging process. Although there have been several studies into microglia over the past decades, the mechanistic link between microglia and cognitive decline in obese models is still not fully understood...
November 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164153/sirt1-regulates-cognitive-performance-and-ability-of-learning-and-memory-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-models
#5
REVIEW
Yue Cao, Zi Yan, Tong Zhou, Guixia Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex age-related metabolic disease. Cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits are main characteristics of age-related metabolic diseases in the central nervous system. The underlying mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline are complex, especially cognitive dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SIRT1, as one of the modulators in insulin resistance, is indispensable for learning and memory. In the present study, deacetylation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microRNA, and tau phosphorylation are considered in the context of mechanism and significance of SIRT1 in learning and memory in diabetic and nondiabetic murine models...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163185/orthostatic-intolerance-in-older-persons-etiology-and-countermeasures
#6
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Jean-Pierre Montani
Orthostatic challenge produced by upright posture may lead to syncope if the cardiovascular system is unable to maintain adequate brain perfusion. This review outlines orthostatic intolerance related to the aging process, long-term bedrest confinement, drugs, and disease. Aging-associated illness or injury due to falls often leads to hospitalization. Older patients spend up to 83% of hospital admission lying in bed and thus the consequences of bedrest confinement such as physiological deconditioning, functional decline, and orthostatic intolerance represent a central challenge in the care of the vulnerable older population...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163132/the-influence-of-negative-emotion-on-cognitive-and-emotional-control-remains-intact-in-aging
#7
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Arno Villringer, Sonja A Kotz
Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163096/tai-chi-chuan-and-baduanjin-mind-body-training-changes-resting-state-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-the-frontal-lobe-of-older-adults-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Jing Tao, Xiangli Chen, Jiao Liu, Natalia Egorova, Xiehua Xue, Weilin Liu, Guohua Zheng, Ming Li, Jinsong Wu, Kun Hu, Zengjian Wang, Lidian Chen, Jian Kong
Age-related cognitive decline is a significant public health concern. Recently, non-pharmacological methods, such as physical activity and mental training practices, have emerged as promising low-cost methods to slow the progression of age-related memory decline. In this study, we investigated if Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and Baduanjin modulated the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in different frequency bands (low-frequency: 0.01-0.08 Hz; slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz) and improved memory function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163036/amino-terminal-%C3%AE-amyloid-antibody-blocks-%C3%AE-amyloid-mediated-inhibition-of-the-high-affinity-choline-transporter-cht
#9
Leah K Cuddy, Claudia Seah, Stephen H Pasternak, R Jane Rylett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive cognitive decline. The deficits in cognition and attentional processing that are observed clinically in AD are linked to impaired function of cholinergic neurons that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT) is present at the presynaptic cholinergic nerve terminal and is responsible for the reuptake of choline produced by hydrolysis of ACh following its release...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163003/a-complex-interplay-of-vitamin-b1-and-b6-metabolism-with-cognition-brain-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#10
Kai Jannusch, Christiane Jockwitz, Hans-Jürgen Bidmon, Susanne Moebus, Katrin Amunts, Svenja Caspers
Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161963/age-differences-in-cognitive-flexibility-when-overcoming-a-preexisting-bias-through-feedback
#11
Cristina G Wilson, Amy T Nusbaum, Paul Whitney, John M Hinson
INTRODUCTION: Older adults are often worse than younger adults at adapting to changing situational demands, and this difference is commonly attributed to an age-related decline in acquiring and updating information. Previous research on aging and cognitive flexibility has used measures that require adapting to novel associations learned during a laboratory task (e.g., choice X led to positive outcomes but now leads to negative outcomes). However, in everyday life people must frequently overcome associations based on preexisting beliefs and biases (e...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161540/delirium-symptoms-are-associated-with-decline-in-cognitive-function-between-ages-53-and-69-years-findings-from-a-british-birth-cohort-study
#12
A Tsui, D Kuh, M Richards, D Davis
INTRODUCTION: Few population studies have investigated whether longitudinal decline after delirium in mid-to-late life might affect specific cognitive domains. METHODS: Participants from a birth cohort completing assessments of search speed, verbal memory, and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination at age 69 were asked about delirium symptoms between ages 60 and 69 years. Linear regression models estimated associations between delirium symptoms and cognitive outcomes...
November 18, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161431/volunteering-in-the-community-potential-benefits-for-cognitive-aging
#13
Hayley Guiney, Liana Machado, Bob G Knight
Objectives: This review aims to advance understanding of the potential benefits of volunteering in the community for older adults' cognitive functioning by taking an in-depth look at the relevant evidence to date. Method: This review describes the main pathways through which volunteering could plausibly benefit cognitive functioning and critically examines research that has specifically investigated links between volunteering and cognition. Fifteen articles that assessed in adults aged ≥ 55 years the relationship between volunteering (predictor) and cognitive functioning (outcome) were identified via literature database searches...
November 17, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161349/relation-of-retinal-and-serum-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-to-white-matter-integrity-in-older-adults-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#14
Catherine M Mewborn, Douglas P Terry, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Billy R Hammond, L Stephen Miller
Objective: Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are phytonutrients that accumulate in human brain tissue and positively impact cognition. Given their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and their role in stabilizing cell membranes, L&Z may relate to measures of white matter integrity (WMI). Method: The current study tested the relation of retinal (macular pigment optical density/MPOD) and blood serum concentrations of L&Z to WMI in community-dwelling older adults (n = 54) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160333/effect-of-education-on-listening-comprehension-of-sentences-on-healthy-elderly-analysis-of-number-of-correct-responses-and-task-execution-time
#15
Marcela Lima Silagi, Camila Maia Rabelo, Eliane Schochat, Letícia Lessa Mansur
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of education on sentence listening comprehension on cognitively healthy elderly. METHODS: A total of 111 healthy elderly, aged 60-80 years of both genders were divided into two groups according to educational level: low education (0-8 years of formal education) and high education (≥9 years of formal education). The participants were assessed using the Revised Token Test, an instrument that supports the evaluation of auditory comprehension of orders with different working memory and syntactic complexity demands...
November 13, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159907/the-ability-to-self-monitor-cognitive-performance-during-60%C3%A2-h-total-sleep-deprivation-and-following-2%C3%A2-nights-recovery-sleep
#16
Johanna M Boardman, Bei Bei, Alix Mellor, Clare Anderson, Tracey L Sletten, Sean P A Drummond
We aimed to investigate whether self-monitoring of performance is altered during 60 h of total sleep deprivation, following 2 nights of recovery sleep, and by task difficulty and/or subjective sleepiness. Forty adults (22 females, aged 19-39 years) underwent a 5-day protocol, with a well-rested day, 66 h total sleep deprivation (last test session at 60 h), and 2 nights of 8 h recovery sleep. An arithmetic task (MATH) with three difficulty levels assessed working memory. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task assessed sustained attention...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159043/neuroimaging-and-other-modalities-to-assess-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Natalie Neale, Concepcion Padilla, Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca, Tony Holland, Shahid Zaman
People with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) at higher rates and a younger age of onset compared to the general population. As the average lifespan of people with DS is increasing, AD is becoming an important health concern in this group. Neuroimaging is becoming an increasingly useful tool in understanding the pathogenesis of dementia development in relation to clinical symptoms. Furthermore, neuroimaging has the potential to play a role in AD diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutics. This review describes major recent findings from in vivo neuroimaging studies analysing DS and AD via ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET), [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158448/executive-function-declines-in-the-first-6-months-after-a-transient-ischemic-attack-or-transient-neurological-attack
#18
Frank G van Rooij, Nicole O Plaizier, Sarah E Vermeer, Bozena M Góraj, Peter J Koudstaal, Edo Richard, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Roy P C Kessels, Ewoud J van Dijk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although by definition transient, both transient ischemic attack (TIA) and transient neurological attack (TNA) are associated with cognitive impairment. Determinants and course of cognitive function afterward are, however, unclear. We prospectively determined cognitive performance after TIA and TNA in relation to clinical diagnosis and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) results. METHODS: TIA and TNA patients aged ≥45 years without prior stroke or dementia underwent comprehensive cognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging within 7 days after the qualifying event...
November 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#19
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin R Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Y Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65-84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154038/dna-damage-and-neurodegenerative-phenotypes-in-aged-ciz1-null-mice
#20
Mohammad Moshahid Khan, Jianfeng Xiao, Damini Patel, Mark S LeDoux
Cell-cycle dysfunction and faulty DNA repair are closely intertwined pathobiological processes that may contribute to several neurodegenerative disorders. CDKN1A interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1) plays a critical role in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression at the G1/S checkpoint. Germline or somatic variants in CIZ1 have been linked to several neural and extra-neural diseases. Recently, we showed that germline knockout of Ciz1 is associated with motor and hematological abnormalities in young adult mice...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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