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age related cognitive decline

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792473/cognitive-and-affective-associations-with-an-ecologically-valid-test-of-theory-of-mind-across-the-lifespan
#1
Emilie Johansson Nolaker, Kim Murray, Francesca Happé, Rebecca A Charlton
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have demonstrated that theory of mind (ToM) ability declines with increasing age. Research has found that ToM-age associations are often mediated by other cognitive abilities particularly executive function. However, older adults rarely complain about real-world ToM difficulties. It has been suggested that older adults may perform better in real-world situations compared with experimental settings. METHOD: We examined performance on the Strange Stories Film Task (SSFT) which has been designed to assess ToM using naturalistic, video scenarios...
May 24, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791197/gender-differences-in-psychosocial-determinants-of-self-perceived-health-among-portuguese-older-adults-in-nursing-homes
#2
Violeta Alarcão, Teresa Madeira, Catarina Peixoto-Plácido, Nuno Sousa-Santos, Elisabete Fernandes, Paulo Nicola, Osvaldo Santos, João Gorjão-Clara
OBJECTIVES: Self-perceived health declines with age, varies by gender and is a predictor of mortality, morbidity, physical and psychological functioning. However, gender differences in health and illness perception are complex and not yet fully understood. This study aimed to explore gender-related differences in psychosocial determinants of self-perceived health among older adults living in nursing homes. METHOD: Nationwide face-to-face survey of the Portuguese population aged 65 and over...
May 23, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787609/an-investigation-of-cerebral-oxygen-utilization-blood-flow-and-cognition-in-healthy-aging
#3
Sarah J Catchlove, Helen Macpherson, Matthew E Hughes, Yufen Chen, Todd B Parrish, Andrew Pipingas
BACKGROUND: Understanding how vascular and metabolic factors impact on cognitive function is essential to develop efficient therapies to prevent and treat cognitive losses in older age. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and venous oxygenation (Yv) comprise key physiologic processes that maintain optimum functioning of neural activity. Changes to these parameters across the lifespan may precede neurodegeneration and contribute to age-related cognitive decline...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782322/inhibition-of-histone-acetylation-by-anp32a-induces-memory-deficits
#4
Gao-Shang Chai, Qiong Feng, Rong-Hong Ma, Xiao-Hang Qian, Dan-Ju Luo, Zhi-Hao Wang, Yu Hu, Dong-Sheng Sun, Jun-Fei Zhang, Xiao Li, Xiao-Guang Li, Dan Ke, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xi-Fei Yang, Gong-Ping Liu
There is accumulating evidence that decreased histone acetylation is involved in normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we found that ANP32A, a key component of INHAT (inhibitor of acetyltransferases) that suppresses histone acetylation, increased in aged and cognitively impaired C57 mice and expressing wild-type human full length tau (htau) transgenic mice. Downregulating ANP32A restored cognitive function and synaptic plasticity through upregulation of the expressions of synaptic-related proteins via increasing histone acetylation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782318/amyloid-accumulation-and-cognitive-decline-in-clinically-normal-older-individuals-implications-for-aging-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Elizabeth C Mormino, Kathryn V Papp
 The aberrant accumulation of the amyloid protein is a critical and early event in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cascade. Given the early involvement of this pathological process, it is not surprising that many clinically normal (CN) older individuals demonstrate evidence of abnormal Aβ at postmortem examination and in vivo using either CSF or PET imaging. Converging evidence across multiple research groups suggests that the presence of abnormal Aβ among CN individuals is associated with elevated risk of future clinical impairment and cognitive decline...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780314/effects-of-age-and-working-memory-load-on-syntactic-processing-an-event-related-potential-study
#6
Graciela C Alatorre-Cruz, Juan Silva-Pereyra, Thalía Fernández, Mario A Rodríguez-Camacho, Susana A Castro-Chavira, Javier Sanchez-Lopez
Cognitive changes in aging include working memory (WM) decline, which may hamper language comprehension. An increase in WM demands in older adults would probably provoke a poorer sentence processing performance in this age group. A way to increase the WM load is to separate two lexical units in an agreement relation (i.e., adjective and noun), in a given sentence. To test this hypothesis, event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected from Spanish speakers (30 older adults, mean age = 66.06 years old; and 30 young adults, mean age = 25...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778899/dopamine-loss-alters-the-hippocampus-nucleus-accumbens-synaptic-transmission-in-the-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Alberto Cordella, Paraskevi Krashia, Annalisa Nobili, Annabella Pignataro, Livia La Barbera, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Alessandro Valzania, Flavio Keller, Martine Ammassari-Teule, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Nicola Berretta, Marcello D'Amelio
The functional loop involving the ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a pivotal role in the formation of spatial memory and persistent memory traces. In particular, the dopaminergic innervation from the VTA to the hippocampus is critical for hippocampal-related memory function and alterations in the midbrain dopaminergic system are frequently reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to age-related decline in memory and non-cognitive functions. However, much less is known about the hippocampus-NAc connectivity in AD...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778803/age-affects-reinforcement-learning-through-dopamine-based-learning-imbalance-and-high-decision-noise-not-through-parkinsonian-mechanisms
#8
Ravi B Sojitra, Itamar Lerner, Jessica R Petok, Mark A Gluck
Probabilistic reinforcement learning declines in healthy cognitive aging. While some findings suggest impairments are especially conspicuous in learning from rewards, resembling deficits in Parkinson's disease, others also show impairments in learning from punishments. To reconcile these findings, we tested 252 adults from 3 age groups on a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, analyzed trial-by-trial performance with a Q-reinforcement learning model, and correlated both fitted model parameters and behavior to polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes...
April 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#9
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774001/cognitive-motor-interference-in-an-ecologically-valid-street-crossing-scenario
#10
Christin Janouch, Uwe Drescher, Konstantin Wechsler, Mathias Haeger, Otmar Bock, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Laboratory-based research revealed that gait involves higher cognitive processes, leading to performance impairments when executed with a concurrent loading task. Deficits are especially pronounced in older adults. Theoretical approaches like the multiple resource model highlight the role of task similarity and associated attention distribution problems. It has been shown that in cases where these distribution problems are perceived relevant to participant's risk of falls, older adults prioritize gait and posture over the concurrent loading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772526/marine-derived-bioactive-compounds-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Sreeja Lakshmi, Parvathi Prakash, Musthafa M Essa, Walid M Qoronfleh, Mohammed Akbar, Byoung-Joon Song, Suresh Kumar, Preetham Elumalai
Alzheimer's disease (AD ) is mounting as social and economic encumbrance which are accompanied by deficits in cognition and memory. Over the past decades, Alzheimer's disease (AD) holds the frontline as one of the biggest healthcare issues in the world. AD is an age related neurodegenerative disorder marked by a decline in memory and an impairment of cognition. Inspite of tedious scientific effort, AD is still devoid of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment as well as prevention. Current treatment strategies using drugs are symbolic in nature as they treat disease manifestation though are found effective in treating cognition...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771308/what-do-older-people-do-when-sitting-and-why-implications-for-decreasing-sedentary-behavior
#12
Victoria J Palmer, Cindy M Gray, Claire F Fitzsimons, Nanette Mutrie, Sally Wyke, Ian J Deary, Geoff Der, Sebastien F M Chastin, Dawn A Skelton
Background and Objectives: Sitting less can reduce older adults' risk of ill health and disability. Effective sedentary behavior interventions require greater understanding of what older adults do when sitting (and not sitting), and why. This study compares the types, context, and role of sitting activities in the daily lives of older men and women who sit more or less than average. Research Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews with 44 older men and women of different ages, socioeconomic status, and objectively measured sedentary behavior were analyzed using social practice theory to explore the multifactorial, inter-relational influences on their sedentary behavior...
May 15, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768473/impaired-serial-ordering-in-nondemented-patients-with-mild-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Jinghong Ma, Shaoyang Ma, Haiqiang Zou, Yizhi Zhang, Piu Chan, Zheng Ye
The ability to arrange thoughts and actions in an appropriate serial order (the problem of serial order) is essential to complex behaviors such as language, reasoning and cognitive planning. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) perform poorly in tasks that rely on the successful rearrangement of working memory representations. We hypothesized that serial ordering is impaired in nondemented patients with mild PD. We recruited 49 patients with mild idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr Scale 1-2.5) and 51 matched healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767822/sexual-activity-and-cognitive-decline-in-older-adults
#14
Mark S Allen
This prospective study tested whether sexual activity and emotional closeness during partnered sexual activity relate to cognitive decline (episodic memory performance) in older adulthood. In total, 6016 adults aged 50 and over (2672 men, 3344 women; M age = 66.0 ± 8.8 years) completed an episodic memory task and self-report questions related to health, sexual activity, and emotional closeness. Two years later, participants again completed the episodic memory task. After controlling for demographic and health-related lifestyle factors, more frequent sexual activity and greater emotional closeness during partnered sexual activity were associated with better memory performance...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764877/efficacy-of-practising-tai-chi-for-older-people-with-mild-dementia-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-study
#15
Jihui Lyu, Wenjie Li, Xiangjiang Rong, Lian Wei, Nayan Huang, Mei Champ, Qian Xiong, Xueli Chen, Mo Li, Fangling Li
INTRODUCTION: Many studies suggest that Tai Chi exercise is a safe and appropriate mind-body exercise for older people and effectively slows down age-related cognitive decline. A set of bespoke Tai Chi exercise named 'Cognition Protecting Tai Chi' (CPT) has been created for older people with cognitive impairments by the research team of geriatricians, neurologists, rehabilitation specialists, experts of sports medicine and experienced practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine. This trial is designed to evaluate its effects on cognitive function, behaviour/moods, risk of falls and activities of daily living of the participants with mild dementia...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761088/vascular-aging-and-cognitive-dysfunction-silent-midlife-crisis-in-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Chen-Hua Lin, Hao-Min Cheng, Shao-Yuan Chuang, Chen-Huan Chen
Background: Vascular aging may cause cerebral microvascular damage and cognitive dysfunction. There is incremental evidence that consistently implicates arterial stiffness being involved in the manifestation of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, few investigations have examined the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment in midlife. Summary: Past studies inconsistently showed improved cognitive outcomes after antihypertensive therapy in elderly populations...
March 2018: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760066/socioeconomic-status-moderates-age-related-differences-in-the-brain-s-functional-network-organization-and-anatomy-across-the-adult-lifespan
#17
Micaela Y Chan, Jinkyung Na, Phillip F Agres, Neil K Savalia, Denise C Park, Gagan S Wig
An individual's environmental surroundings interact with the development and maturation of their brain. An important aspect of an individual's environment is his or her socioeconomic status (SES), which estimates access to material resources and social prestige. Previous characterizations of the relation between SES and the brain have primarily focused on earlier or later epochs of the lifespan (i.e., childhood, older age). We broaden this work to examine the relationship between SES and the brain across a wide range of human adulthood (20-89 years), including individuals from the less studied middle-age range...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759684/how-aging-impacts-the-encoding-of-binaural-cues-and-the-perception-of-auditory-space
#18
REVIEW
Ann Clock Eddins, Erol J Ozmeral, David A Eddins
Over the years, the effect of aging on auditory function has been investigated in animal models and humans in an effort to characterize age-related changes in both perception and physiology. Here, we review how aging may impact neural encoding and processing of binaural and spatial cues in human listeners with a focus on recent work by the authors as well as others. Age-related declines in monaural temporal processing, as estimated from measures of gap detection and temporal fine structure discrimination, have been associated with poorer performance on binaural tasks that require precise temporal processing...
May 5, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758939/higher-blood-vitamin-c-levels-are-associated-with-reduction-of-apolipoprotein-e-e4-related-risks-of-cognitive-decline-in-women-the-nakajima-study
#19
Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Chiemi Abe, Sohshi Yuki-Nozaki, Chiaki Dohmoto, Ayaka Mori, Koji Hayashi, Syutaro Shibata, Yoshihisa Ikeda, Kenji Sakai, Kazuo Iwasa, Masami Yokogawa, Mai Ishimiya, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Hidehiro Yokoji, Kiyonobu Komai, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Masahito Yamada
BACKGROUND: Antioxidants like vitamins C and E may minimize the risk for Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether vitamins C and E modify the apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4-related risks for developing cognitive decline. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective study including Japanese residents aged 65 years from Nakajima, Japan. The participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and underwent blood tests including tests for vitamins C and E levels and APOE phenotypes...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758374/age-and-alzheimer-s-pathology-disrupt-default-mode-network-functioning-via-alterations-in-white-matter-microstructure-but-not-hyperintensities
#20
Christopher A Brown, Yang Jiang, Charles D Smith, Brian T Gold
The default mode network (DMN) comprises defined brain regions contributing to internally-directed thought processes. Reductions in task-induced deactivation in the DMN have been associated with increasing age and poorer executive task performance, but factors underlying these functional changes remain unclear. We investigated contributions of white matter (WM) microstructure, WM hyperintensities (WMH) and Alzheimer's pathology to age-related alterations in DMN function. Thirty-five cognitively normal older adults and 29 younger adults underwent working memory task fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging...
April 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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