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Lung ultrasound

Miguel José Francisco, Antonio Rahal, Fabio Augusto Cardillo Vieira, Paulo Savoia Dias da Silva, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão Funari
Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established...
July 2016: Einstein
Yasunori Minami, Tomohiro Minami, Hirokazu Chishina, Masashi Kono, Tadaaki Arizumi, Masahiro Takita, Norihisa Yada, Satoru Hagiwara, Hiroshi Ida, Kazuomi Ueshima, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
OBJECTIVE: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces gas bubbles in ablation zones, and the ablative margin cannot be evaluated accurately on ultrasound (US) during and immediately after RFA. This study assessed the usefulness of US-US fusion imaging to visualize the ablative margin of RFA for liver metastasis. METHODS: RFA guided by US-US fusion imaging was performed on 12 targeted tumors in 10 patients. Secondary hepatic malignancies included patients with colorectal cancer (n = 4), breast cancer (n = 2), lung cancer (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (n = 1), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1), and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1)...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Chen Zhan, Natalia Grundtvig, Bent Helmuth Klug
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that lung ultrasound is a good, radiation-free alternative to chest radiography in children with pneumonia. We investigated how bedside lung ultrasound performed by a pediatric resident compared with chest radiography in children with suspected pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective study comparing bedside lung ultrasound to chest radiography as the reference standard. Children aged 0 to 15 years with suspected pneumonia at a pediatric emergency department were included and underwent chest radiography and lung ultrasound...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Emily Hopkins, David Moffat, Ian Parkinson, Peter Robinson, Hubertus Jersmann, Brendan Dougherty, Mohammed I Birader, Kate Francis, Phan Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Rapid on site examination (ROSE) is encouraged at endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needles aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to improve diagnostic yield. Due to new therapeutic options in lung cancer, it is not sufficient to merely distinguish between non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) distinction is now standard practice, as well as additional molecular testing where clinically indicated. We investigated the diagnostic yield of on-site smears vs...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Emmelie Stock, Katrien Vanderperren, Hendrik Haers, Luc Duchateau, Myriam Hesta, Jimmy H Saunders
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a valuable and safe technique for the evaluation of organ perfusion. Repeated injections of ultrasound contrast agent are often administered during the same imaging session. However, it remains unclear if quantitative differences are present between the consecutive microbubble injections. Therefore, the first and second injection of contrast agent for the left renal cortex, renal medulla and the splenic parenchyma in healthy cats were compared. A lower peak intensity and area under the curve were observed for the first injection of contrast agent in the feline kidney, both for the renal cortex and medulla, and spleen...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Chor-Kuan Lim, Che-Liang Chung, Yen-Ting Lin, Chia-Hao Chang, Yi-Chun Lai, Hao-Chien Wang, Chong-Jen Yu
Ultrasound elastography has shown promising result in the diagnosis of various diseases; however, its application for pulmonary diseases has yet to be clarified. This study aimed to assess the application and feasibility of ultrasound elastography in various pulmonary lesions and diseases. We enrolled 45 patients with radiographic evidence of pneumonia, tumors or obstructive pneumonitis, and 70 ultrasonic lesions were identified (eight necrosis, 17 atelectasis, seven consolidation and 38 tumors). Ultrasound elastography was performed and the strain ratio, which is the ratio of strain of the reference tissue to an equally measuring region of interest of a lesion, was measured...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
M Riishede, C B Laursen, L S Teglbjærg, A T Lassen, G Baatrup
INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute respiratory problems poses a diagnostic challenge because similar symptoms can be caused by various pathological conditions. Focused ultrasound examination (f-US) of the heart and lungs has proven to increase the diagnostic accuracy in these patients. In this protocol of a randomised multicentre trial, we study the effect of f-US of the heart and lungs in patients with respiratory problems performed by emergency physicians (EP) as soon as the patient arrives to the emergency department (ED)...
October 14, 2016: BMJ Open
Anu K Kaskinen, Laura Martelius, Turkka Kirjavainen, Paula Rautiainen, Sture Andersson, Olli M Pitkänen
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasounds show vertical artifacts known as B-lines in the presence of increased extravascular lung water (EVLW). We aimed to investigate whether lung ultrasound could estimate EVLW after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 61 children (age range 3 days to 7.4 years) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. We compared postoperative B-line scores from lung ultrasounds, early postoperative ultrasound as our primary interest, with corresponding postoperative chest radiography (CXR) lung edema scores, with static lung compliance, and with short-term clinical outcome interpreted as time on mechanical ventilation and length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Lori A Stolz, Uwe Stolz, J Matthew Fields, Turandot Saul, Michael Secko, Matthew J Flannigan, Johnathan M Sheele, Robert P Rifenburg, Anthony J Weekes, Elaine B Josephson, John Bedolla, Dana M Resop, Jonathan Dela Cruz, Megan Boysen-Osborn, Terrell Caffery, Charlotte Derr, Rimon Bengiamin, Gerardo Chiricolo, Brandon Backlund, Jagdipak Heer, Robert J Hyde, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Jana Ambrozic, Gabrijela Brzan Simenc, Katja Prokselj, Natasa Tul, Marta Cvijic, Miha Lucovnik
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung and cardiac ultrasound for assessment of fluid tolerance and fluid responsiveness in severe preeclamptic patients before and after delivery. METHODS: Severe preeclampsia patients and healthy term controls were included in the study. Lung ultrasound Echo Comet Score (ECS) was obtained using the 28-rib interspaces technique. Echocardiographic E/e' ratio, measured by pulsed wave and tissue Doppler, respectively, was used as a marker of diastolic left ventricular function...
October 13, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Satyajit Pawar, Vanishri Ganakumar, Saket Jha, R Ragesh, Animesh Ray, Aanchal Kakkar, M C Sharma, S K Sharma
We report a case of pulmonary cryptococcoma, in an adult with recently detected diabetes, mimicking as lung cancer. A 45-year-old gentleman with past history of pulmonary tuberculosis presented with fever, cough with expectoration, pleuritic chest pain and hemoptysis. Chest radiograph and computed tomography revealed right lower lobe mass which significantly enhanced on contrast administration. Ultrasound guided biopsy was done which on histopathological examination showed non-necrotizing granulomas with narrow-based budding yeast cells suggestive of cryptococcosis...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Daniel V Christophersen, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Maria H G Andersen, Shea P Connell, Kenneth K Barfod, Morten B Thomsen, Mark R Miller, Rodger Duffin, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ulla Vogel, Håkan Wallin, Steffen Loft, Martin Roursgaard, Peter Møller
Exposure to high aspect ratio nanomaterials, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may be associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis, pulmonary disease, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the cardiovascular and pulmonary health effects of 10 weeks of repeated oral or pulmonary exposures to MWCNTs (4 or 40μg each week) in Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a Western-type diet. Intratracheal instillation of MWCNTs was associated with oxidative damage to DNA in lung tissue and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma, whereas the exposure only caused a modest pulmonary inflammation in terms of increased numbers of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
October 7, 2016: Toxicology
Francesca M Trovato, Daniela Catalano, Guglielmo M Trovato
Imaging workup of patients referred for elective assessment of chest disease requires an articulated approach: Imaging is asked for achieving timely diagnosis. The concurrent or subsequent use of thoracic ultrasound (TUS) with conventional (chest X-rays-) and more advanced imaging procedures (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) implies advantages, limitations and actual problems. Indeed, despite TUS may provide useful imaging of pleura, lung and heart disease, emergency scenarios are currently the most warranted field of application of TUS: Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, lung consolidation...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Nikhil Sonthalia, Samit S Jain, Ravindra G Surude, Vinay B Pawar, Suhas Udgirkar, Pravin M Rathi
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the commonest primary malignant esophageal tumor, which typically presents as endoscopically visible surface mucosal ulcerations, irregularities, or polyploidal masses. We here report a rare case of primary ESCC with completely intramural growth under a normal looking intact nondysplastic surface squamous epithelium disguising as a submucosal tumor. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy-guided mucosal biopsy was negative for malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed a heteroechoic solid mass originating from the muscularis propria of the distal esophagus...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Gastroenterology
Tanmoy Ghatak, Ratender Kumar Singh, Arvind Kumar Baronia
INTRODUCTION: Introducer needle tip is not clearly visible during the real-time ultrasound (US)-guided central vein cannulation (CVC). Blind tip leads to mechanical complications. This study was designed to evaluate whether real-time US-guided CVC with a marked introducer needle is superior to the existing unmarked needle. METHODOLOGY: Sixty-two critically ill patients aged 18-60 years of either sex were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups based on whether a marked or unmarked introducer needle was used...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Ahmed H El-Sherief, Charles T Lau, Nancy A Obuchowski, Atul C Mehta, Thomas W Rice, Eugene H Blackstone
BACKGROUND: Accurate and consistent regional lymph node classification (N) is an important element in the staging and multidisciplinary management of lung cancer. Regional lymph node definition sets-lymph node maps-have been created to standardize N. In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) introduced a lymph node map to supersede all pre-existing lymph node maps. AIM: To study if, and how lung cancer specialists apply the IASLC lymph node map when classifying thoracic lymph nodes encountered on computed tomography (CT) during lung cancer staging...
October 3, 2016: Chest
Fumihiro Tanaka, Seiki Hasegawa, Nobuyuki Kondo, Ryo Miyahara, Hiroshi Date, Shinji Atagi, Masaaki Kawahara, Takeharu Yamanaka, Toshiaki Manabe, Hiromi Wada
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a standard procedure for the pathological evaluation of the mediastinal nodal (N2) status of lung cancer; however, its feasibility in potentially operable patients with suspicion of minimal N2 disease remains unestablished. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective multicenter study was conducted to assess the feasibility of EBUS-TBNA in this setting. Patients with clinical stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mediastinal nodal enlargement on computed tomography (CT) were eligible; patients were ineligible when CT revealed bulky (> 3 cm in the long-axis diameter) N2 or multiple (≥ 3) station N2...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
J Abram, J Klocker, N Innerhofer-Pompernigg, M Mittermayr, M C Freund, N Gravenstein, V Wenzel
Injuries to blood vessels near the heart can quickly become life-threatening and include arterial injuries during central venous puncture, which can lead to hemorrhagic shock. We report 6 patients in whom injury to the subclavian artery and vein led to life-threatening complications. Central venous catheters are associated with a multitude of risks, such as venous thrombosis, air embolism, systemic or local infections, paresthesia, hemothorax, pneumothorax, and cervical hematoma, which are not always immediately discernible...
October 5, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Dong-Ping Xu, Jie Zheng, Yue Zhou, Ya Li, Sha Li, Hua-Bin Li
The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ayperi Ozturk, Nilgun Yilmaz Demirci, Zafer Aktas, Funda Demirag, Ali Alagoz, İbrahim Onur Alici, Aydın Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) commonly presents as hilar/mediastinal masses. In some occasions, conventional flexible bronchoscopy fails and a substantial amount of time is lost until establishing the diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the superiority of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) compared to conventional methods in establishing the diagnosis as an initial modality as well as to point out the saved time until the diagnosis...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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