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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079711/cell-signaling-pathways-in-brain-tumors
#1
Rebecca A Harrison, John F de Groot
Primary brain tumors, particularly glioblastoma, are associated with significant morbidity and are often recalcitrant to standard therapies. In recent years, brain tumors have been the focus of large-scale genomic sequencing efforts, providing unprecedented insight into the genomic aberrations and cellular signaling mechanisms that drive these cancers. Discoveries from these efforts have translated into novel diagnostic algorithms, biomarkers, and therapeutic strategies in Neuro-Oncology. However, the cellular mechanisms that drive brain tumors are heterogeneous and complex: applying this new knowledge to improve patient outcomes remains a challenge...
January 11, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039364/leptomeningeal-metastases-a-rano-proposal-for-response-criteria
#2
REVIEW
Marc Chamberlain, Larry Junck, Dieta Brandsma, Riccardo Soffietti, Roberta Rudà, Jeffrey Raizer, Willem Boogerd, Sophie Taillibert, Morris D Groves, Emilie Le Rhun, Julie Walker, Martin van den Bent, Patrick Y Wen, Kurt A Jaeckle
Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) currently lack standardization with respect to response assessment. A Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group with expertise in LM developed a consensus proposal for evaluating patients treated for this disease. Three basic elements in assessing response in LM are proposed: a standardized neurological examination, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology or flow cytometry, and radiographic evaluation. The group recommends that all patients enrolling in clinical trials undergo CSF analysis (cytology in all cancers; flow cytometry in hematologic cancers), complete contrast-enhanced neuraxis MRI, and in instances of planned intra-CSF therapy, radioisotope CSF flow studies...
December 29, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031556/advances-in-the-molecular-genetics-of-gliomas-implications-for-classification-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Guido Reifenberger, Hans-Georg Wirsching, Christiane B Knobbe-Thomsen, Michael Weller
Genome-wide molecular-profiling studies have revealed the characteristic genetic alterations and epigenetic profiles associated with different types of gliomas. These molecular characteristics can be used to refine glioma classification, to improve prediction of patient outcomes, and to guide individualized treatment. Thus, the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System was revised in 2016 to incorporate molecular biomarkers - together with classic histological features - in an integrated diagnosis, in order to define distinct glioma entities as precisely as possible...
December 29, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031380/reviewer-lists-for-neuro-oncology
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030841/vamorolone-a-dissociative-steroidal-compound-reduces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-glioma-cells-and-increases-activity-and-survival-in-a-murine-model-of-cortical-tumor
#5
Elizabeth Wells, Madhuri Kambhampati, Jesse M Damsker, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Sridevi Yadavilli, Oren J Becher, Jamila Gittens, Mojca Stampar, Roger J Packer, Javad Nazarian
Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, are routinely used as palliative care in neuro-oncology for their anti-inflammatory benefits, however many patients experience dose limiting side effects caused by glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-mediated transcription. The purpose of this study was to use a murine model to investigate a new steroid alternative, vamorolone, which promises to reduce side effects through dissociating GRE-mediated transcription and NF-κB -mediated anti-inflammatory actions. To compare vamorolone to dexamethasone in reducing pro-inflammatory signals in vitro, murine glioma cells were treated with dexamethasone, vamorolone or vehicle control...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995437/toward-personalized-targeted-therapeutics-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Shiao-Pei S Weathers, Mark R Gilbert
In neuro-oncology, there has been a movement towards personalized medicine, or tailoring treatment to the individual patient. Ideally, tumor and patient evaluations would lead to the selection of the best treatment (based on tumor characterization) and the right dosing schedule (based on patient characterization). The recent advances in the molecular analysis of glioblastoma have created optimism that personalized targeted therapy is within reach. Although our understanding of the molecular complexity of glioblastoma has increased over the years, the path to developing effective targeted therapeutic strategies is wrought with many challenges, as described in this review...
December 19, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984537/18f-fcho-pet-and-mri-for-the-prediction-of-response-in-glioblastoma-patients-according-to-the-rano-criteria
#7
Julie Bolcaen, Marjan Acou, Tom Boterberg, Christian Vanhove, Filip De Vos, Caroline Van den Broecke, Roel Van Holen, Karel Deblaere, Ingeborg Goethals
PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated fluorine-18 fluoromethylcholine (F-FCho) PET and contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting therapy response in glioblastoma (GB) patients according to the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria. Our second aim was to investigate which imaging modality enabled prediction of treatment response first. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven GB patients who underwent no surgery or debulking only and received concomitant radiation therapy (RT) and temozolomide were included...
December 14, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978508/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-pediatric-neuro-oncology-patients-improves-diagnosis-identifies-pathogenic-germline-mutations-and-directs-targeted-therapy
#8
Cassie N Kline, Nancy M Joseph, James P Grenert, Jessica van Ziffle, Eric Talevich, Courtney Onodera, Mariam Aboian, Soonmee Cha, David R Raleigh, Steve Braunstein, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Michelle Bloomer, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes, Anuradha Banerjee, Nicholas Butowski, Corey Raffel, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, W Michael Korn, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Nalin Gupta, Sabine Mueller, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon
BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling is revolutionizing cancer diagnostics and leading to personalized therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe our clinical experience performing targeted sequencing for 31 pediatric neuro-oncology patients. METHODS: We sequenced 510 cancer-associated genes from tumor and peripheral blood to identify germline and somatic mutations, structural variants, and copy number changes. RESULTS: Genomic profiling was performed on 31 patients with tumors including 11 high-grade gliomas, 8 medulloblastomas, 6 low-grade gliomas, 1 embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 uveal ganglioneuroma, 1 choroid plexus carcinoma, 1 chordoma, and 1 high-grade neuroepithelial tumor...
November 14, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936194/change-in-18f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-is-an-early-predictor-of-the-prognosis-in-the-patients-with-recurrent-high-grade-glioma-receiving-bevacizumab-treatment
#9
Shigeru Yamaguchi, Kenji Hirata, Takuya Toyonaga, Kentaro Kobayashi, Yukitomo Ishi, Hiroaki Motegi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Tohru Shiga, Nagara Tamaki, Shunsuke Terasaka, Kiyohiro Houkin
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab (BEV), a humanized monoclonal antibody, become a currently important chemotherapeutic option for the patients with recurrent glioma. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate whether 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET have the potential to detect BEV-resistant gliomas in the early-stage. METHODS: We reviewed the FMISO PET and MRI appearances before and 3 to 4 courses after BEV treatment on 18 recurrent glioma patients. FMISO accumulation was assessed by visual inspection and semi-quantitative values which were tumor-to-normal (T/N) ratio and hypoxic volume...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920940/3d-printing-in-neurosurgery-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Michael Randazzo, Jared M Pisapia, Nickpreet Singh, Jayesh P Thawani
BACKGROUND: The recent expansion of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology into the field of neurosurgery has prompted a widespread investigation of its utility. In this article, we review the current body of literature describing rapid prototyping techniques with applications to the practice of neurosurgery. METHODS: An extensive and systematic search of the Compendex, Scopus, and PubMed medical databases was conducted using keywords relating to 3D printing and neurosurgery...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918718/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-phase-ii-study-of-onartuzumab-plus-bevacizumab-versus-placebo-plus-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-recurrent-glioblastoma-efficacy-safety-and-hepatocyte-growth-factor-and-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase
#11
Timothy Cloughesy, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Cristóbal Belda-Iniesta, Lawrence Recht, Alba A Brandes, Estela Pineda, Tom Mikkelsen, Olivier L Chinot, Carmen Balana, David R Macdonald, Manfred Westphal, Kirsten Hopkins, Michael Weller, Carlos Bais, Thomas Sandmann, Jean-Marie Bruey, Hartmut Koeppen, Bo Liu, Wendy Verret, See-Chun Phan, David S Shames
Purpose Bevacizumab regimens are approved for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in many countries. Aberrant mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) expression has been reported in glioblastoma and may contribute to bevacizumab resistance. The phase II study GO27819 investigated the monovalent MET inhibitor onartuzumab plus bevacizumab (Ona + Bev) versus placebo plus bevacizumab (Pla + Bev) in recurrent glioblastoma. Methods At first recurrence after chemoradiation, bevacizumab-naïve patients with glioblastoma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive Ona (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) + Bev (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) or Pla + Bev until disease progression...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889022/advanced-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-clinical-applications
#12
REVIEW
Maarten Lequin, Jeroen Hendrikse
Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864705/the-clinical-and-financial-impact-of-a-pediatric-surgical-neuro-oncology-clinical-trial
#13
Eric M Thompson, Sridharan Gururangan, Gerald Grant, Duane Mitchell, John H Sampson
Pediatric surgical trials are rare and the impact of such trials on the institutions in which they are conducted is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and financial impact of The Re-MATCH trial, a Phase I clinical trial requiring the biopsy or resection of recurrent medulloblastoma or PNET for enrollment. Inpatient financial and clinical volume information was collected during the 3 years of trial enrollment and the years preceding and following it. The primary endpoints were the difference in direct contribution margin (DCM), or net gain, of study and non-study patients and the difference in surgical volume during the study and non-study periods...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861322/laser-ablation-of-newly-diagnosed-malignant-gliomas-a-meta-analysis
#14
Michael E Ivan, Alireza M Mohammadi, Nicoleta De Deugd, Joshua Reyes, Gregor Rodriguez, Ashish Shah, Gene H Barnett, Ricardo J Komotar
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance-guided laser-interstitial thermotherapy (MR-LITT) is a minimally invasive technique that shows promise in neuro-oncology because of its superiority in delivering precise minimally invasive thermal energy with minimal collateral damage. OBJECTIVE: In this analysis, we investigate initial data on the use of MR-LITT in the treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. METHODS: With the use of the PubMed, OVID, and Google-scholar database systems, a comprehensive search of the English literature was performed...
December 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857123/low-grade-epilepsy-associated-neuroepithelial-tumours-the-2016-who-classification
#15
REVIEW
Ingmar Blümcke, Eleonora Aronica, Albert Becker, David Capper, Roland Coras, Mrinalini Honavar, Thomas S Jacques, Katja Kobow, Hajime Miyata, Angelika Mühlebner, José Pimentel, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Maria Thom
Rapid developments in molecular genetic technology and research have swiftly advanced our understanding of neuro-oncology. As a consequence, the WHO invited their expert panels to revise the current classification system of brain tumours and to introduce, for the first time, a molecular genetic approach for selected tumour entities, thus setting a new gold standard in histopathology. The revised 5th edition of the 'blue book' was released in May 2016 and will have a major impact in stratifying diagnosis and treatment...
November 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854097/optimizing-the-delivery-of-antineoplastic-therapies-to-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Jarushka Naidoo, Hardik Panday, Sadhana Jackson, Stuart A Grossman
Despite significant advances in the treatment of systemic cancers, progress in the treatment of primary brain tumors has been quite modest. In addition, an increasing proportion of patients with systemic cancers are presenting with brain-only metastases. These observations highlight the critical role that the blood-brain barrier plays in preventing antineoplastic therapies from reaching the central nervous system in therapeutic concentrations. This review describes the anatomy of the blood-brain barrier and currently available methods to quantify the entry of therapeutic compounds into the brain...
November 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849336/durability-of-single-dose-intra-arterial-bevacizumab-after-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-for-recurrent-glioblastoma
#17
Shamik Chakraborty, Christopher G Filippi, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Sherese Fralin, Ashley Ray, Tamika Wong, Rafael Ortiz, David J Langer, John A Boockvar
BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab (BV) has been used to treat recurrent glioblastoma with a progression free survival of approximately 3-3.5 months. Typically, it is administered intravenously every 2-3 weeks at dosages ranging from 5-15 mg/kg. Serious side effects include GI tract perforations, hematologic disorders, intracranial hemorrhage, and malignant hypertension. We hypothesized that selective intracranial intra-arterial infusion (SIACI) of BV following blood/brain barrier disruption (BBBD) with mannitol may allow for reduced dosage, lower toxicity, and equivalent or superior progression free survival (PFS)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837434/prediction-of-genetic-subgroups-in-adult-supra-tentorial-gliomas-by-pre-and-intraoperative-parameters
#18
Shunsuke Nakae, Kazuhiro Murayama, Hikaru Sasaki, Masanobu Kumon, Yuya Nishiyama, Shigeo Ohba, Kazuhide Adachi, Shinya Nagahisa, Takuro Hayashi, Joji Inamasu, Masato Abe, Mitsuhiro Hasegawa, Yuichi Hirose
Recent progress in neuro-oncology has validated the significance of genetic diagnosis in gliomas. We previously investigated IDH1/2 and TP53 mutations via Sanger sequencing for adult supratentorial gliomas and reported that PCR-based sequence analysis classified gliomas into three genetic subgroups that have a strong association with patient prognosis: IDH mutant gliomas without TP53 mutations, IDH and TP53 mutant gliomas, and IDH wild-type gliomas. Furthermore, this analysis had a strong association with patient prognosis...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836394/pre-and-postoperative-neurocognitive-deficits-in-brain-tumor-patients-assessed-by-a-computer-based-screening-test
#19
Markus Hoffermann, Lukas Bruckmann, Kariem Mahdy Ali, Karla Zaar, Alexander Avian, Gord von Campe
Neurocognitive assessment becomes increasingly important in neuro-oncology. The presence and degree of neurocognitive deficits in patients with brain tumors appear to be important not only as outcome measures but also in treatment planning and as possible prognostic markers for tumor-progression. Common screening methods for neurocognitive deficits are often insufficient in uncovering subtle changes or harbor the risk of being observer-dependent and time-consuming. We present data of brain tumor patients screened by a computer-based neurocognitive assessment tool before and after surgery...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830477/association-of-thyroid-hormone-concentrations-with-quality-of-life-of-primary-brain-tumor-patients-a-pilot-study
#20
Adomas Bunevicius, Edward R Laws, Vytenis Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas
Reduced triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were implicated in worse prognosis of brain tumor patients. In this study we investigated the association of normal and abnormal thyroid hormone concentrations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with primary brain tumors. Sixty-three patients (67% women and a mean age of 55.5 ± 13.8 years) before brain tumor surgery were evaluated for: (1) HRQoL using the EORTC questionnaire for cancer patients (QLQ-C30) and the Brain Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-BN20); (2) functional status (Barthel Index); and (3) clinical disease severity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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