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Cardiac differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441645/short-telomeres-induce-p53-and-autophagy-and-modulate-age-associated-changes-in-cardiac-progenitor-cell-fate
#1
Collin Matsumoto, Yan Jiang, Jacqueline Emathinger, Pearl Quijada, Nathalie Nguyen, Andrea De La Torre, Maryam Moshref, Jonathan Nguyen, Aimee B Levinson, Minyoung Shin, Mark A Sussman, Nirmala Hariharan
Aging severely limits myocardial repair and regeneration. Delineating the impact of age-associated factors such as short telomeres is critical to enhance the regenerative potential of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). We hypothesized that short telomeres activate p53 and induce autophagy to elicit the age-associated change in CPC fate. We isolated CPCs and compared mouse strains with different telomere lengths for phenotypic characteristics of aging. Wild mouse strain Mus musculus castaneus (CAST) possessing short telomeres exhibits early cardiac aging with cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and senescence, as compared to common lab strains FVB and C57 bearing longer telomeres...
February 14, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440224/competent-for-commitment-you-ve-got-to-have-heart
#2
REVIEW
Rajan Jain, Jonathan A Epstein
The mature heart is composed primarily of four different cell types: cardiac myocytes, endothelium, smooth muscle, and fibroblasts. These cell types derive from pluripotent progenitors that become progressively restricted with regard to lineage potential, giving rise to multipotent cardiac progenitor cells and, ultimately, the differentiated cell types of the heart. Recent studies have begun to shed light on the defining characteristics of the intermediary cell types that exist transiently during this developmental process and the extrinsic and cell-autonomous factors that influence cardiac lineage decisions and cellular competence...
January 1, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439302/pediatric-viral-myocarditis-a-review
#3
Teresa Frey, Nofil Arain
Pediatric myocarditis is a common pediatric illness most commonly secondary to a preceding viral infection. It is a leading cause of acquired heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac transplantation in pediatrics. Due to the variability in presentation, the diagnosis is often unrecognized until later in the disease course. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all children presenting with respiratory distress, since this is the most common presentation. Imagining modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have become a useful diagnostic tool in recent years; however, endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard diagnostic test...
January 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437737/acute-pericarditis-following-endoscopy
#4
Michael Mohseni, Theodore Szymanski
The differential diagnoses for patients presenting with chest discomfort after endoscopy remain broad. In addition to infectious, traumatic and bleeding complications, intrinsic cardiac pathology should be considered. Though rare, pericarditis and pericardial tamponade are additional entities that the clinician should consider when evaluating these patients. We present a 74-year-old man who arrived to the emergency department with substernal chest discomfort that began shortly after upper and lower endoscopy the previous day...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435515/the-smyd-family-of-methyltransferases-role-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-physiology-and-pathology
#5
Christopher Tracy, Junco S Warren, Marta Szulik, Li Wang, June Garcia, Aman Makaju, Kristi Russell, Mickey Miller, Sarah Franklin
Protein methylation plays a pivotal role in the regulation of various cellular processes including chromatin remodeling and gene expression. SET and MYND domain-containing proteins (Smyd) are a special class of lysine methyltransferases whose catalytic SET domain is split by an MYND domain. The hallmark feature of this family was thought to be the methylation of histone H3 (on lysine 4). However, several studies suggest that the role of the Smyd family is dynamic, targeting unique histone residues associated with both transcriptional activation and repression...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434741/inhibition-of-c-x-c-motif-chemokine-10-reduces-graft-loss-mediated-by-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-a-rat-cardiac-re-transplant-model
#6
Jiacheng Xu, Teng Ma, Guorong Deng, Jiawei Zhuang, Cheng Li, Shaohu Wang, Chen Dai, Xiaobiao Zhou, Zhonggui Shan, Zhongquan Qi
The interaction of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) with its receptor (CXCR3) is a critical process in recruiting donor reactive T cells to a graft and alloantigen-specific memory T (Tm) cells exert a principal function in promoting graft dysfunction during accelerated cardiac rejection. However, whether CXCL10 chemokine exerts any effects on acute accelerated rejection mediated by CD8+ Tm cells in a re-transplant model has remained elusive. The present study established a cardiac transplant model by advanced microsurgery technology and improved organ storage...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434162/bradycardia-is-a-specific-phenotype-of-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-induced-by-ryr2-mutations
#7
Kazuaki Miyata, Seiko Ohno, Hideki Itoh, Minoru Horie
Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a lethal inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias induced by physical exercise or emotional stress. The major cause of CPVT is mutations in RYR2, which encodes the cardiac ryanodine receptor channel. Recent advances in sequencing technology have yielded incidental findings of RYR2 variants in other cardiac diseases. Analyzing the characteristics of RYR2 variants related to CPVT will be useful for differentiation from those related to other cardiac diseases...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429407/non-invasive-differentiation-of-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy-with-cardiac-involvement-from-acute-viral-myocarditis-using-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-t1-and-t2-mapping
#8
Adrian T Huber, Marine Bravetti, Jérôme Lamy, Tania Bacoyannis, Charles Roux, Alain de Cesare, Aude Rigolet, Olivier Benveniste, Yves Allenbach, Mathieu Kerneis, Philippe Cluzel, Nadjia Kachenoura, Alban Redheuil
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is a group of autoimmune diseases with systemic myositis which may involve the myocardium. Cardiac involvement in IIM, although often subclinical, may mimic clinical manifestations of acute viral myocarditis (AVM). Our aim was to investigate the usefulness of the combined analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 and T2 mapping parameters measured both in the myocardium and in the thoracic skeletal muscles to differentiate AVM from IIM cardiac involvement...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428663/shengmai-san-derived-herbal-prevents-the-development-of-a-vulnerable-substrate-for-atrial-fibrillation-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-heart-failure
#9
Jin Ma, Shiyu Ma, Chunxia Yin, Huanlin Wu
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate whether a Shengmai San-derived herbal, Fumai granule (FM), which had a preventive effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure (HF) rat and to determine the underlying mechanisms. DESIGN AND METHODS: MI was induced by a ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. One week after MI surgery, FM was gavaged for 4 weeks. AF inducibility was detected by transesophageal programmed electrical stimulation technology...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428410/fragment-growing-guided-design-of-keap1-nrf2-protein-protein-interaction-inhibitors-for-targeting-myocarditis
#10
Ning Meng, Hua Tang, Hao Zhang, Chengshi Jiang, Li Su, Xiao Min, Wannian Zhang, Hua Zhang, Zhenyuan Miao, Wen Zhang, Chunlin Zhuang
Small-molecule inhibitors that block the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interactions are being intensely pursued as a new therapeutic strategy for oxidative stress-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, inflammation and myocarditis. However, there are not enough studies on antioxidant treatments using small molecules in myocarditis. We herein provided a series of novel hydronaphthoquinones as the Keap1-Nrf2 interaction inhibitors targeting LPS-induced myocarditis both in vitro and in vivo...
February 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427756/crispr-cas9-ablation-of-individual-mirnas-from-a-mirna-family-reveals-their-individual-efficacies-for-regulating-cardiac-differentiation
#11
Ziyao Zhang, Rebecca Ursin, Samiksha Mahapatra, G Ian Gallicano
Although it is well understood that genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and epigenetic miscues can cause congenital birth defects, many defects are still labeled idiopathic, meaning their origin is not yet understood. microRNAs are quickly entering the causal fray of developmental defects. miRNAs use a 7-8 base-pair seed sequence to target a corresponding sequence on one or multiple mRNAs resulting in rapid down-regulation of translation. miRNAs can also control protein 'amounts' in cells. As a result if miRNAs are over or under expressed during development protein homeostasis can be compromised resulting in defects in the development of organ systems...
February 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426834/value-of-circulating-cytokine-profiling-during-submaximal-exercise-testing-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#12
Kegan J Moneghetti, Mehdi Skhiri, Kévin Contrepois, Yukari Kobayashi, Holden Maecker, Mark Davis, Michael Snyder, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a heterogeneous syndrome in which patients often experience severe fatigue and malaise following exertion. Immune and cardiovascular dysfunction have been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology. We therefore, examined whether cytokine profiling or cardiovascular testing following exercise would differentiate patients with ME/CFS. Twenty-four ME/CFS patients were matched to 24 sedentary controls and underwent cardiovascular and circulating immune profiling...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424913/the-targeted-regulation-of-mir-26a-on-pten-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-myocardial-fibrosis-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
S Zhang, R Cui
OBJECTIVE: MiR-26a is involved in regulating myocardial remodeling and it is also related to organ fibrosis. Its role in myocardial fibrosis process is still controversy. As a definite target gene of miR-26a, phosphatase and tensin homology does on chromosome ten (PTEN) plays a role in regulating PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study explored the function of miR-26a in regulating PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, MMP-9 expression, and myocardial fibrosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424163/-research-progress-on-the-effects-of-the-tensile-strain-stimulation-on-proliferation-differention-and-pericellular-matrix-of-cartilage
#14
REVIEW
Ya-Xun Men, Yong-Liang Zhao, Xiang-Yun Cheng, Wan-Quan Cao, Gang Wang, Zi-Quan Yang
Mechanical stimulation widely exists in the body and participates in adjusting biological behavior of many kinds of cells. As a common stress pattern in the body, the tensile strain widely exists in many organs, such as bone and cartilage, muscle tendon, cardiac and pulmonary vessels, and so on. In recent years, with the development of the researches of biomechanics, a variety of mechanical loading devices, which are used to simulate the complex mechanical stimulation in the body to provide the tensile strain including the isometric, uniaxial and various types of mechanical waveform, came into being...
July 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424033/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human-skeletal-muscle-biopsies-of-lipid-storage-disorder
#15
B Debashree, Manish Kumar, T S Keshava Prasad, Archana Natarajan, Rita Christopher, A Nalini, P S Bindu, N Gayathri, M M Srinivas Bharath
Mitochondria regulate the balance between lipid metabolism and storage in the skeletal muscle. Altered lipid transport, metabolism and storage influence the bioenergetics, redox status and insulin signalling contributing to cardiac and neurological diseases. Lipid storage disorders (LSDs) are neurological disorders which entail intramuscular lipid accumulation and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the skeletal muscle causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness. However, the mitochondrial changes including molecular events associated with impaired lipid storage have not been completely understood in the human skeletal muscle...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423554/performance-of-a-second-generation-pulmonary-capnotracking-system-for-continuous-monitoring-of-cardiac-output
#16
Philip J Peyton, Monique Kozub
Technologies for minimally-invasive cardiac output measurement in patients during surgery remain little used in routine practice. We tested a redeveloped system based on CO 2 elimination (VCO 2 ) by the lungs for use in ventilated patients, which can be seamlessly integrated into a modern anesthesia/monitoring platform, and provides automated, continuous breath-by-breath cardiac output monitoring. A prototype measurement system was constructed to measure VCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 concentration with each breath...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423163/metastatic-epicardial-leiomyoma-with-uncertain-malignant-potential
#17
Miroslav P Peev, Anne Therese C Lim, Tianle Zou, Laurence H Brinckerhoff
A 49-year-old female with history of uterine leiomyoma and intermittent shortness of breath presented to the emergency department with new onset of tachycardia and chest pain. Subsequent cardiac work up revealed hypoechoic mass compressing the right ventricle. Computer tomography guided biopsy for tissue characterization revealed a benign spindle cell tumor. Surgical resection of a large epicardial tumor was undertaken. The histologic examination of the tumor was consistent with Estrogen and Progesterone positive leiomyoma of uncertain malignant potential...
September 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423089/rs2459976-in-zw10-gene-associated-with-congenital-heart-diseases-in-chinese-han-population
#18
Chao-Yu Sun, Chi Sun, Rui Cheng, Shuai Shi, Ying Han, Xue-Qi Li, Ji-Xin Zhi, Fei-Feng Li, Shu-Lin Liu
Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are a large group of prevalent and complex anatomic malformations of the heart, with the genetic basis remaining largely unknown. Since genes or factors associated with the differentiation of human embryonic stem (HES) cells would affect the development of all embryonic tissues, including cardiac progenitor cells, we postulated their potential roles in CHD. In this study, we focused on ZW10, a kinetochore protein involved in the process of proper chromosome segregation, and conducted comparative studies between CHD patients and normal controls matched in gender and age in Chinese Han populations...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421235/analysis-of-rat-cardiac-myocytes-and-fibroblasts-identifies-combinatorial-enhancer-organization-and-transcription-factor-families
#19
Tal Golan-Lagziel, Yair E Lewis, Omer Shkedi, Guy Douvdevany, Lilac H Caspi, Izhak Kehat
Cardiac fibroblasts play key roles in both health and disease. Their regulatory elements, transcription factors (TFs), and mechanisms of expression control have not been fully elucidated. We used a differential open chromatin approach, coupled with active enhancer mark, transcriptomic, and computational TFs binding analysis to map cell-type-specific active enhancers in cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, and outline the TFs families that control them. This approach was validated by its ability to uncover the known cardiomyocyte TF biology in an unbiased manner, and was then applied to cardiac fibroblasts...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420830/acellular-therapeutic-approach-for-heart-failure-in%C3%A2-vitro-production-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-human-cardiovascular-progenitors
#20
Nadia El Harane, Anaïs Kervadec, Valérie Bellamy, Laetitia Pidial, Hany J Neametalla, Marie-Cécile Perier, Bruna Lima Correa, Léa Thiébault, Nicolas Cagnard, Angéline Duché, Camille Brunaud, Mathilde Lemitre, Jeanne Gauthier, Alexandra T Bourdillon, Marc P Renault, Yeranuhi Hovhannisyan, Solenne Paiva, Alexandre R Colas, Onnik Agbulut, Albert Hagège, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre, Philippe Menasché, Nisa K E Renault
Aims: We have shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by embryonic stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (Pg) recapitulate the therapeutic effects of their parent cells in a mouse model of chronic heart failure (CHF). Our objectives are to investigate whether EV released by more readily available cell sources are therapeutic, whether their effectiveness is influenced by the differentiation state of the secreting cell, and through which mechanisms they act. Methods and results: The total EV secreted by human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitors (iPSC-Pg) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) were isolated by ultracentrifugation and characterized by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, western blot, and cryo-electron microscopy...
February 6, 2018: European Heart Journal
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