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Cardiac differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677652/cardiomyocytes-have-mosaic-patterns-of-protein-expression
#1
Tony Y Wang, Dongwong Lee, Karen Fox-Talbot, Dan E Arking, Aravinda Chakravarti, Marc K Halushka
Skeletal myocytes have well-established fast and slow twitch fibers with unique gene and protein specific expression patterns. By immunohistochemical staining, these show a mosaic pattern across myocytes. We hypothesized cardiac myocytes may behave similarly where some proteins are differentially expressed between mature cardiomyocytes. We utilized the tool HPASubC on over 52,000 cardiac images of the Human Protein Atlas to identify differential protein expression patterns by immunohistochemistry across the cardiomyocytes...
March 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675928/differential-cardiac-sympatho-inhibitory-responses-produced-by-the-agonists-b-ht-933-quinpirole-and-immepip-in-normoglycemic-and-diabetic-pithed-rats
#2
Eduardo Rivera-Mancilla, Alain H Altamirano-Espinoza, Guadalupe Manrique-Maldonado, Belinda Villanueva-Castillo, Carlos M Villalón
This study compared the cardiac sympatho-inhibitory responses produced by agonists at α2 -adrenergic (B-HT 933), dopamine D2 -like (quinpirole) and histamine H3 /H4 (immepip) receptors between normoglycemic and streptozotocin-pretreated (diabetic) pithed rats. Intravenous (i.v.) continuous infusions of B-HT 933, quinpirole or immepip were used in normoglycemic and diabetic pithed rats to analyse their sympatho-inhibitory effects on the electrically-stimulated cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow. Both in normoglycemic and diabetic animals, B-HT 933 (until 100 μg/kg...
April 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674714/mechanisms-of-physiological-and-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy
#3
REVIEW
Michinari Nakamura, Junichi Sadoshima
Cardiomyocytes exit the cell cycle and become terminally differentiated soon after birth. Therefore, in the adult heart, instead of an increase in cardiomyocyte number, individual cardiomyocytes increase in size, and the heart develops hypertrophy to reduce ventricular wall stress and maintain function and efficiency in response to an increased workload. There are two types of hypertrophy: physiological and pathological. Hypertrophy initially develops as an adaptive response to physiological and pathological stimuli, but pathological hypertrophy generally progresses to heart failure...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672821/a-rapid-differential-effect-of-rosuvastatin-and-atorvastatin-on-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-i-in-subjects-with-stable-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Mathijs C Bodde, Paul Welsh, Sandrin C Bergheanu, Willem M Lijfering, Bart Mertens, An-Ho Liem, Arnoud van der Laarse, Naveed Sattar, J Wouter Jukema
Serum troponin within the normal range is an emerging predictor of cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to determine how rapidly high-sensitivity troponin -I (hs-cTnI) levels are lowered by statin therapy in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. In the RADAR substudy, patients were randomized, to atorvastatin 20 mg/day (n = 39) or rosuvastatin 10 mg/day (n = 39) and up-titrated in 6 week intervals to 80 mg of atorvastatin or 40 mg of rosuvastatin. Hs-cTnI concentrations were measured at baseline and at 6 and 18 weeks of follow-up...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671418/the-role-of-k-atp-channels-in-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-and-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Vivian Szeto, Nai-Hong Chen, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels are ubiquitously expressed on the plasma membrane of cells in multiple organs, including the heart, pancreas and brain. KATP channels play important roles in controlling and regulating cellular functions in response to metabolic state, which are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP, allowing the cell to couple cellular metabolic state (ATP/ADP ratio) to electrical activity of the cell membrane. KATP channels mediate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells, and controlling vascular tone...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671004/impact-of-flow-differentials-according-to-cardiac-and-respiratory-cycles-on-three-types-of-fontan-operation
#6
Kee Soo Ha, Jae Young Choi, Jo Won Jung, Nam Kyun Kim
Few hemodynamic comparison studies on various types of Fontan operation have been reported. The objective of this study was to perform hemodynamic comparisons for flow size and volume in three types of Fontan operation: atriopulmonary connection (APC), lateral tunnel (LT), and extracardiac conduit (ECC). Forty patients with Fontan operation (8 with APC Fontan, 22 with LT Fontan, and 10 with ECC Fontan) were enrolled. Velocity time integral (VTI) and average peak velocity (APV) were assessed according to cardiac and respiratory cycles in SVC, IVC, hepatic vein, conduit, LPA, and RPA using direct intravenous Doppler echocardiography...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668883/deletion-of-delta-like-1-homologue-accelerates-fibroblast-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-induces-myocardial-fibrosis
#7
Patricia Rodriguez, Yassine Sassi, Luca Troncone, Ludovic Benard, Kiyotake Ishikawa, Ronald E Gordon, Santiago Lamas, Jorge Laborda, Roger J Hajjar, Djamel Lebeche
Aims: Myocardial fibrosis is associated with profound changes in ventricular architecture and geometry, resulting in diminished cardiac function. There is currently no information on the role of the delta-like homologue 1 (Dlk1) in the regulation of the fibrotic response. Here, we investigated whether Dlk1 is involved in cardiac fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation and regulates myocardial fibrosis and explored the molecular mechanism underpinning its effects in this process. Methods and results: Using Dlk1-knockout mice and adenoviral gene delivery, we demonstrate that overexpression of Dlk1 in cardio-fibroblasts resulted in inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation into myofibroblasts...
April 13, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668531/correlation-between-extended-leukocyte-differential-count-and-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Si Chen, Shulan Zhang, Haixia Luan, Xiaoli Zeng, Yongzhe Li, Hui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte count is closely associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Levels of leukocyte subpopulations in CAD patients, however, remain largely unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the distributions and counts of 16 leukocyte subpopulations between 40 CAD patients and 40 healthy controls using the CytoDiff flow cytometric system. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated significant increases in the frequencies and counts of all monocytes, immature granulocytes and B-lymphocytes in CAD patients, suggesting the levels of these leukocyte subpopulations may serve as potential biomarkers for diagnosis of CAD...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667349/asb1-differential-methylation-in-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy-relationship-with-left-ventricular-performance-in-end-stage-heart-failure-patients
#9
Ana Ortega, Estefanía Tarazón, Carolina Gil-Cayuela, Luis Martínez-Dolz, Francisca Lago, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Juan Sandoval, Manuel Portolés, Esther Roselló-Lletí, Miguel Rivera
AIMS: Ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) leads to impaired contraction and ventricular dysfunction, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. Epigenomics allows the identification of epigenetic signatures in human diseases. We analyse the differential epigenetic patterns of the ASB gene family in ICM patients and relate these alterations to their haemodynamic and functional status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Epigenomic analysis was carried out using 16 left ventricular (LV) tissue samples, eight from ICM patients undergoing heart transplantation and eight from control (CNT) subjects without cardiac disease...
April 17, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666070/gata4-dependent-differentiation-of-c-kit-derived-endothelial-cells-underlies-artefactual-cardiomyocyte-regeneration-in-the-heart
#10
Bryan D Maliken, Onur Kanisicak, Jason Karch, Hadi Khalil, Xing Fu, Justin G Boyer, Vikram Prasad, Yi Zheng, Jeffery D Molkentin
Background -While c-Kit+ adult progenitor cells were initially reported to produce new cardiomyocytes in the heart, recent genetic evidence suggests that such events are exceedingly rare. However, to determine if these rare events represent true de novo cardiomyocyte formation we deleted the necessary cardiogenic transcription factors Gata4 and Gata6 from c-Kit-expressing cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Methods - Kit allele-dependent lineage tracing and fusion analysis was performed in mice following simultaneous Gata4 and Gata6 cell-type specific deletion to examine rates of putative de novo cardiomyocyte formation from c-Kit+ cells...
April 17, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665845/deletion-of-hp1%C3%AE-in-cardiac-myocytes-affects-h4k20me3-levels-but-does-not-impact-cardiac-growth
#11
Kyohei Oyama, Danny El-Nachef, Chen Fang, Hidemi Kajimoto, Jeremy P Brown, Prim B Singh, W Robb MacLellan
BACKGROUND: Heterochromatin, which is formed when tri-methyl lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3) is bound by heterochromatin 1 proteins (HP1s), plays an important role in differentiation and senescence by silencing cell cycle genes. Cardiac myocytes (CMs) accumulate heterochromatin during differentiation and demethylation of H3K9me3 inhibits cell cycle gene silencing and cell cycle exit in CMs; however, it is unclear if this process is mediated by HP1s. In this study, we created a conditional CM-specific HP1 gamma (HP1γ) knockout (KO) mouse model and tested whether HP1γ is required for cell cycle gene silencing and cardiac growth...
April 17, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665255/concise-review-rational-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-heart-disease
#12
REVIEW
Michael R Ward, Armin Abadeh, Kim A Connelly
The capacity of stem and progenitor cells to stimulate cardiac regeneration has been studied for almost 20 years, with very promising preclinical data and mixed clinical results. Several cell types have been studied, identified by their cell surface markers, differentiation capacity and their secreted growth factors. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to have potent regenerative capacity, through multiple mechanisms, including mesoderm lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine stimulation...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665002/three-dimensional-collagenous-niche-and-azacytidine-selectively-promote-time-dependent-cardiomyogenesis-from-human-bone-marrow-derived-msc-spheroids
#13
Jyotsna Joshi, Gautam Mahajan, Chandrasekhar R Kothapalli
Endogenous adult cardiac regenerative machinery is not capable of replacing the lost cells following myocardial infarction, often leading to permanent alterations in structure-function-mechanical properties. Regenerative therapies based on delivering autologous stem cells within an appropriate 3D milieu could meet such demand, by enabling homing and directed differentiation of the transplanted cells into lost specialized cell populations. Since type I collagen is the predominant cardiac tissue matrix protein, we here optimized the 3D niche which could promote time-dependent evolution of cardiomyogenesis from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC)...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664925/actin-and-myosin-ii-modulate-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Liana C Boraas, Emma T Pineda, Tabassum Ahsan
Use of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is hindered by efficient means of directed differentiation. For pluripotent stem cells, an initial critical differentiation event is specification to one of three germ lineages: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Differentiation is known to be regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors, but the role of the cytoskeleton during specification, or early differentiation, is still unknown. In these studies, we used agonists and antagonists to modulate actin polymerization and the actin-myosin molecular motor during spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664809/microrna-19a-b-3p-protect-the-heart-from-hypertension-induced-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy-through-pde5a
#15
Kun Liu, Qiongyu Hao, Jie Wei, Gong-Hao Li, Yong Wu, Yun-Feng Zhao
AIM: PDE5A is a leading factor contributing to cGMP signaling and cardiac hypertrophy. However, microRNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulation of PDE5A has not been reported. The aim of this study is to screen the microRNAs that are able to regulate PDE5A and explore the function of the microRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Although miR-19a/b-3p (microRNA-19a-3p and microRNA-19b-3p) have been reported to be differentially expressed during cardiac hypertrophy, the direct targets and the functions of this microRNA family for regulation of cardiac hypertrophy have not yet been investigated...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664017/specialized-fibroblast-differentiated-states-underlie-scar-formation-in-the-infarcted-mouse-heart
#16
Xing Fu, Hadi Khalil, Onur Kanisicak, Justin G Boyer, Ronald J Vagnozzi, Bryan D Maliken, Michelle A Sargent, Vikram Prasad, Iñigo Valiente-Alandi, Burns C Blaxall, Jeffery D Molkentin
Fibroblasts are a dynamic cell type that achieve selective differentiated states to mediate acute wound healing and long-term tissue remodeling with scarring. With myocardial infarction injury, cardiomyocytes are replaced by secreted extracellular matrix proteins produced by proliferating and differentiating fibroblasts. Here, we employed 3 different mouse lineage-tracing models and stage-specific gene profiling to phenotypically analyze and classify resident cardiac fibroblast dynamics during myocardial infarction injury and stable scar formation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663841/novel-heart-failure-biomarkers-why-do-we-fail-to-exploit-their-potential
#17
Arnold Piek, Weijie Du, Rudolf A de Boer, Herman H W Silljé
Plasma biomarkers are useful tools in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF). In the last decade, numerous studies have aimed to identify novel HF biomarkers that would provide superior and/or additional diagnostic, prognostic, or stratification utility. Although numerous biomarkers have been identified, their implementation in clinical practice has so far remained largely unsuccessful. Whereas cardiac-specific biomarkers, including natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) and high sensitivity troponins (hsTn), are widely used in clinical practice, other biomarkers have not yet proven their utility...
April 17, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663529/a-group-of-tissue-specific-micrornas-contribute-to-the-silencing-of-cux1-in-different-cell-lineages-during-development
#18
Hui Xu, Jie-Hua He, Shi-Jun Xu, Shu-Juan Xie, Li-Ming Ma, Yin Zhang, Hui Zhou, Liang-Hu Qu
Cut-like homeobox 1 (CUX1) is a highly conserved homeoprotein that functions as a transcriptional repressor of genes specifying terminal differentiation. We previously showed that liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) regulates the timing of liver development by silencing CUX1 post-transcriptionally. Since the CUX1 protein is expressed in a subset of embryonic tissues, we hypothesized that it is regulated by specific microRNAs (miRNAs) in each cell type during development. Using a large-scale screening method, we identified ten tissue-specific miRNAs from different cell lineages that directly targeted CUX1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661985/a-net-shaped-multicellular-formation-facilitates-the-maturation-of-hpsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-through-mechanical-and-electrophysiological-stimuli
#19
Taoyan Liu, Chengwu Huang, Hongxia Li, Fujian Wu, Jianwen Luo, Wenjing Lu, Feng Lan
The use of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) is limited in drug discovery and cardiac disease mechanism studies due to cell immaturity. Although many approaches have been reported to improve the maturation of hiPSC-CMs, the elucidation of the process of maturation is crucial. We applied a small-molecule-based differentiation method to generate cardiomyocytes (CMs) with multiple aggregation forms. The motion analysis revealed significant physical differences in the differently shaped CMs, and the net-shaped CMs had larger motion amplitudes and faster velocities than the sheet-shaped CMs...
April 14, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661969/mutations-in-plasmalemma-vesicle-associated-protein-cause-severe-syndromic-protein-losing-enteropathy
#20
Ilse Julia Broekaert, Kerstin Becker, Ingo Gottschalk, Friederike Körber, Jörg Dötsch, Holger Thiele, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Christoph Hünseler, Sebahattin Cirak
BACKGROUND: Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is characterised by gastrointestinal protein leakage due to loss of mucosal integrity or lymphatic abnormalities. PLE can manifest as congenital diarrhoea and should be differentiated from other congenital diarrhoeal disorders. Primary PLEs are genetically heterogeneous and the underlying genetic defects are currently emerging. OBJECTIVES: We report an infant with fatal PLE for whom we aimed to uncover the underlying pathogenic mutation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
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