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Cardiac differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822034/microrna-expression-target-genes-and-signaling-pathways-in-infants-with-a-ventricular-septal-defect
#1
Hui Chai, Zhaoyuan Yan, Ke Huang, Yuanqing Jiang, Lin Zhang
This study aimed to systematically investigate the relationship between miRNA expression and the occurrence of ventricular septal defect (VSD), and characterize the miRNA target genes and pathways that can lead to VSD. The miRNAs that were differentially expressed in blood samples from VSD and normal infants were screened and validated by implementing miRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The target genes regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using three target gene databases. The functions and signaling pathways of the target genes were enriched using the GO database and KEGG database, respectively...
August 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820556/unusual-locations-for-cardiac-papillary-fibroelastomas
#2
Davide Carino, Francesco Nicolini, Alberto Molardi, Clara Indira Dadamo, Tiziano Gherli
Papillary fibroelastomas (PFEs) are rare and benign cardiac tumors which usually are localized on the valves (mostly on the aortic valve), though they may originate also from the ventricles or atrial walls. Whilst, in the large majority of cases, these lesions are asymptomatic they may cause serious complications such as thromboembolic events, or more rarely valvular dysfunctions. Surgical excision is necessary for a symptomatic lesion. The management of asymptomatic lesions is not defined. Herein are reported the details of a miniseries of six cases operated on at the authors' institution between 2005 and 2015...
March 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819000/hypoxia-induced-myocardial-regeneration
#3
Wataru Kimura, Yuji Nakada, Hesham A Sadek
The underlying cause of systolic heart failure is the inability of the adult mammalian heart to regenerate damaged myocardium. In contrast, some vertebrate species and immature mammals are capable of full cardiac regeneration following multiple types of injury through cardiomyocyte proliferation. Little is known about what distinguishes proliferative cardiomyocytes from terminally differentiated, non-proliferative cardiomyocytes. Recently, several reports have suggested that oxygen metabolism and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in regulating the proliferative capacity of mammalian cardiomyocytes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818208/catecholamine-dependent-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-model%C3%A2-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#4
Thomas Borchert, Daniela Hübscher, Celina I Guessoum, Tuan-Dinh D Lam, Jelena R Ghadri, Isabel N Schellinger, Malte Tiburcy, Norman Y Liaw, Yun Li, Jan Haas, Samuel Sossalla, Mia A Huber, Lukas Cyganek, Claudius Jacobshagen, Ralf Dressel, Uwe Raaz, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Kaomei Guan, Holger Thiele, Benjamin Meder, Bernd Wollnik, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Thomas F Lüscher, Gerd Hasenfuss, Christian Templin, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by an acute left ventricular dysfunction and is associated with life-threating complications in the acute phase. The underlying disease mechanism in TTS is still unknown. A genetic basis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of TTS, to test the hypothesis of altered β-adrenergic signaling in TTS iPSC-cardiomyocytes (CMs), and to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the pathophysiology of TTS...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817660/cited4-is-related-to-cardiogenic-induction-and-maintenance-of-proliferation-capacity-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-during-in-vitro-cardiogenesis
#5
Junichiro Miake, Tomomi Notsu, Katsumi Higaki, Kyoko Hidaka, Takayuki Morisaki, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Ichiro Hisatome
Cardiac progenitor cells have a limited proliferative capacity. The CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator, with the Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain (Cited) gene family, regulates gene transcription. Increased expression of the Cited4 gene in an adult mouse is associated with exercise-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and proliferation. However, the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during cardiogenesis are largely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during in vitro cardiogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816160/the-impact-of-cardiac-radiation-dosimetry-on-survival-after-radiation-therapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
S Vivekanandan, D B Landau, N Counsell, D R Warren, A Khwanda, S D Rosen, E Parsons, Y Ngai, L Farrelly, L Hughes, M A Hawkins, J D Fenwick
PURPOSE: The heart receives high radiation doses during radiation therapy of advanced-stage lung cancer. We have explored associations between overall survival, cardiac radiation doses, and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in patients treated in IDEAL-CRT, a trial of isotoxically escalated concurrent chemoradiation delivering tumor doses of 63 to 73 Gy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dosimetric and survival data were analyzed for 78 patients. The whole heart, pericardium, AV node, and walls of left and right atria (LA/RA-Wall) and ventricles (LV/RV-Wall) were outlined on radiation therapy planning scans, and differential dose-volume histograms (dDVHs) were calculated...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815865/bone-marrow-and-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cardiac-fibrosis-induced-by-methotrexate-in-rats
#7
Ebtehal Mohammad Fikry, Wedad A Hassan, Amany M Gad
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an ideal adult stem cell with capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with an extensive tissue distribution. The present study evaluates the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) against the development of methotrexate (MTX)-induced cardiac fibrosis versus dexamethasone (DEX). Rats were allocated into five groups; group 1, received normal saline orally; group 2, received MTX (14 mg/kg/week for 2 weeks); groups 3 and 4, treated once with 2 × 10(6) cells of MTX + BM-MSCs and MTX + AD-MSCs, respectively; and group 5, MTX + DEX (0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814447/acute-myocarditis-secondary-to-cardiac-tuberculosis
#8
Alice Cowley, Laura Dobson, John Kurian, Christopher Saunderson
Isolated myocardial involvement in tuberculosis is exceedingly rare but there are reports it can present with sudden cardiac death, atrioventricular block, ventricular arrhythmias or congestive cardiac failure. We report the case of a 33 year-old male, of South Asian descent, who presented with chest pain, shortness of breath and an abnormal ECG. The patient had no significant past medical history and coronary angiogram showed no evidence of coronary artery disease. Of note the patient had recently been discharged from a local district hospital with an episode of myocarditis...
August 16, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814251/the-role-of-radiopharmaceuticals-in-amiodarone-induced-thyroid-pathology
#9
Doina Piciu, Alexandru Irimie
Amiodarone is a di-iodinated benzofuran derivative and is classified as a class III antiarrhythmic agent. It is one of the most powerful and effective antiarrhythmics, being a first-line agent due to its ability to treat ventricular and supraventricular dysrhythmias; since 1960 the drug has become one of the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmics, despite its potentially serious, side effects. By far, one of the most challenging condition is the thyroid pathology induced by this drug. Each 200 mg tablet of amiodarone contains approximately 75 mg of iodine, 3-10% from each tablet being released as free iodine...
August 16, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813763/simultaneous-onset-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-pulmonary-embolism-cerebral-infarction-and-myocardial-infarction-in-a-patient-with-patent-foramen-ovale
#10
Jimmy Yee, Vishesh Kumar, Alex Pham, Kashif Shaikh, Muhammad Omar, Adam Stys, Marian Petrasko
Paradoxical embolism is a known complication with intra-cardiac shunts. It should be considered in the differential as the pathophysiologic mechanism of simultaneous thromboembolism in the venous and systemic vasculature. We present a case of simultaneous deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction in the presence of a confirmed patent foramen ovale on echocardiography. Thrombolytic therapy was administered. Subsequent concerns of intracranial hemorrhage on imaging of the brain complicated the management and added to the challenge of co-managing the clot burden in our patient...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812230/simulation-of-left-ventricular-dynamics-using-a-low-order-mathematical-model
#11
Michael J Moulton, Brian D Hong, Timothy W Secomb
The eventual goal of this study is to develop methods for estimating dynamic stresses in the left ventricle (LV) that could be used on-line in clinical settings, based on routinely available measurements. Toward this goal, a low-order theoretical model is presented, in which LV shape is represented using a small number of parameters, allowing rapid computational simulations of LV dynamics. The LV is represented as a thick-walled prolate spheroid containing helical muscle fibers with nonlinear passive and time-dependent active contractile properties...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812126/myocardial-iodine-concentration-measurement-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-the-diagnosis-of-cardiac-amyloidosis-a-pilot-study
#12
Virgile Chevance, Thibaud Damy, Vania Tacher, François Legou, Fourat Ridouani, Alain Luciani, Hicham Kobeiter, Alain Rahmouni, Jean-François Deux
OBJECTIVE: To measure myocardium iodine concentration (MIC) in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). METHODS: Twenty-two patients with CA, 13 with non-amyloid hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (CH) and 10 control patients were explored with pre-contrast, arterial and 5-minute DECT acquisition (Iomeprol; 1.5 mL/kg). Inter-ventricular septum (IVS) thickness, blood pool iodine concentration (BPIC), MIC (mg/mL), iodine ratio and extra-cellular volume (ECV) were calculated...
August 10, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810055/impact-of-mir-26b-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-in-p19-cells-through-regulating-canonical-non-canonical-wnt-signalling
#13
Duo Wang, Chang Liu, Yumei Wang, Wenjing Wang, Kang Wang, Xiujuan Wu, Zhigang Li, Cuimei Zhao, Li Li, Luying Peng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The control of cardiomyocyte differentiation is tightly linked to microRNAs (miRNAs), which have been emerging as important players in heart development. However, the regulation mechanisms mediated by miRNAs in early heart development remains speculative. Here, we evaluated the impact of miR-26b during the progression of cardiomyocyte differentiation from the P19 cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The overexpression of miR-26b in P19 cells was performed by transduction with lentivirus vector...
August 15, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808991/light-chain-al-amyloidosis-the-journey-to-diagnosis
#14
Kristen L McCausland, Michelle K White, Spencer D Guthrie, Tiffany Quock, Muriel Finkel, Isabelle Lousada, Martha S Bayliss
BACKGROUND: Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare, complex disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Delays in diagnosis are common and may have detrimental consequences on patients' prognosis. Too little is known regarding the patient journey to diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the patient-reported journey to a correct diagnosis for AL amyloidosis. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected from clinician (n = 4) and patient (n = 10) interviews and a survey of community-based patients with AL amyloidosis (n = 341)...
August 14, 2017: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807150/two-ef-hand-motifs-in-ryanodine-receptor-calcium-release-channels-contribute-to-isoform-specific-regulation-by-calmodulin
#15
Le Xu, Angela C Gomez, Daniel A Pasek, Gerhard Meissner, Naohiro Yamaguchi
The mammalian ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel (RyR) has a single conserved high affinity calmodulin (CaM) binding domain. However, the skeletal muscle RyR1 is activated and cardiac muscle RyR2 is inhibited by CaM at submicromolar Ca(2+). This suggests isoform-specific domains are involved in RyR regulation by CaM. To gain insight into the differential regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle RyRs by CaM, RyR1/RyR2 chimeras and mutants were expressed in HEK293 cells, and their single channel activities were measured using a lipid bilayer method...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807014/epigenetic-reprogramming-converts-human-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-functional-cardiomyocytes-by-differential-regulation-of-wnt-mediators
#16
G Bhuvanalakshmi, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar, Arun Dharmarajan, Sudha Warrier
BACKGROUND: Lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to cardiac differentiation is controlled by transcription factors that are regulated by epigenetic events, mainly histone deacetylation and promoter DNA methylation. Here, we studied the differentiation of human Wharton's jelly MSCs (WJMSCs) into the cardiomyocyte lineage via epigenetic manipulations. METHODS: We introduced these changes using inhibitors of DNA methyl transferase and histone deacetylase, DC301, DC302, and DC303, in various combinations...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805996/what-can-we-learn-from-pulmonary-function-testing-in-heart-failure
#17
REVIEW
Helgo Magnussen, Marco Canepa, Peter Emilio Zambito, Vito Brusasco, Thomas Meinertz, Stephan Rosenkranz
Pulmonary diseases frequently coexist in heart failure (HF), thus posing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to cardiologists evaluating patients with overlapping symptoms and implementing recommended HF treatments. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that pulmonary function testing might provide useful information for the best management of these patients. The availability of portable devices, allowing the measurement of spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide outside of hospital-based pulmonary lung function laboratories, provides an opportunity for a more widespread use of these measures in the cardiology community, but their interpretation can be challenging...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805615/prenatal-diagnosis-of-holoprosencephaly-associated-with-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome-slos-in-a-46-xx-fetus
#18
André Travessa, Patrícia Dias, Pedro Rocha, Ana Berta Sousa
OBJECTIVE: To show the importance of measuring cholesterol precursor levels in amniotic fluid in all pregnancies with ultrasound features (such as holoprosencephaly) suggestive of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), after exclusion of chromosomal anomalies. CASE REPORT: A 28-year-old woman, gravida 1 para 0, performed chorionic villus sampling for fetal karyotyping at 13 weeks of gestation due to positive combined first trimester screening in a fetus with increased nuchal translucency and suspected holoprosencephaly...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802308/vitreous-amyloidosis-with-autonomic-neuropathy-of-the-digestive-tract-associated-with-a-novel-transthyretin-p-gly87arg-variant-in-a-bangladeshi-patient-a-case-report
#19
Benjamin Terrier, Magali Colombat, Caroline Beugnet, Astrid Quéant, Jonathan London, Jean-Baptiste Daudin, Claire Le Jeunne, Luc Mouthon, Dominique Monnet, Cécile Cauquil, Catherine Lacroix, David Adams, Antoine Brézin, Sophie Valleix
BACKGROUND: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder, first described in families with sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy. Since its first description, more than 120 amyloidogenic transthyretin mutations have been reported with various geographic distributions and associated with a wide range of phenotypes involving the peripheral nerve, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, the eyes, the central nervous system, or the kidneys. In some cases of transthyretin amyloidosis, the first clinical manifestation is vitreous opacity...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801517/effect-of-densely-ionizing-radiation-on-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Erdene Baljinnyam, Sundararajan Venkatesh, Richard Gordan, Satvik Mareedu, Jianyi Zhang, Lai-Hua Xie, Edouard I Azzam, Carolyn K Suzuki, Diego Fraidenraich
The process of human cardiac development can be faithfully recapitulated in a culture dish with human pluripotent stem cells, where the impact of environmental stressors can be evaluated. The consequences of ionizing radiation exposure on human cardiac differentiation are largely unknown. In this study, human-induced pluripotent stem cell cultures (hiPSCs) were subjected to an external beam of 3.7 MeV α-particles at low mean absorbed doses of 0.5, 3, and 10 cGy. Subsequently, the hiPSCs were differentiated into beating cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CMs)...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
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