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Cardiac differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448588/allogeneic-pasc-transplantation-in-humanized-pigs-attenuates-cardiac-remodeling-post-myocardial-infarction
#1
Rafael Dariolli, Marcus V Naghetini, Euclydes F Marques, Celso K Takimura, Leonardo S Jensen, Bianca Kiers, Jeane M Tsutsui, Wilson Mathias, Pedro A Lemos Neto, Jose E Krieger
Cell therapy repair strategies using adult mesenchymal stromal cells have shown promising evidence to prevent cardiac deterioration in rodents even in the absence of robust differentiation of the cells into cardiomyocytes. We tested whether increasing doses of porcine adipose-tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (pASCs) increase cardiac tissue perfusion in pigs post-myocardial infarction (MI) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors) and Beta-blockers similarly to patients. Female pigs were subjected to MI induction by sponge permanent occlusion of left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) generating approximately 10% of injured LV area with minimum hemodynamic impact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446485/primary-aortojejunal-fistula-a-rare-cause-for-massive-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#2
Sylvester Paulasir, Rhami Khorfan, Christina Harsant, Harry Linne Anderson
A 68-year-old man presented to the emergency department with haematemesis and shock. Upper endoscopy and selective angiography could not identify the source of bleeding. He underwent selective embolisation of the gastroduodenal artery. The patient then had a period of about 24 hours with relative haemodynamic stability before having another episode of massive upper gastrointestinal bleed. A second attempt to embolise the common hepatic artery and distal coeliac axis was unsuccessful. Hence, he was urgently taken to the operating room for exploratory laparotomy...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446231/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-differentially-attenuates-post-ischemic-cardiac-arrhythmia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-versus-nondiabetic-rats
#3
Zhaoyang Hu, Mou Chen, Ping Zhang, Jin Liu, Geoffrey W Abbott
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD), a leading cause of global mortality, most commonly arises from a substrate of cardiac ischemia, but requires an additional trigger. Diabetes mellitus (DM) predisposes to SCD even after adjusting for other DM-linked cardiovascular pathology such as coronary artery disease. We previously showed that remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) is highly protective against cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) linked ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial infarction, via induction of the cardioprotective RISK pathway, and specifically, inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser 9)...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446005/cardioprotective-effects-of-wharton-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-rodent-model-of-myocardial-injury
#4
Taghrid Gaafar, Wael Attia, Shereen Mahmoud, Dina Sabry, Osama Abdel Aziz, Dina Rasheed, Hala Hamza
Background: Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a valuable alternative source that possess multipotent properties, easy to obtain and available in large scale compared to BMMSCs. We investigated the possibility of cardiac function improvement post isoproterenol induced cardiac injury in a rat model following human WJMSCs transplantation. Materials and Methods: MSCs were extracted and cultured from cord WJ, characterized by morphology, Immunophenotyping and differentiation to osteoblast and adipocytes...
April 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444807/rkip-lessons-of-a-better-way-for-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-activation-in-the-heart
#5
Kristina Lorenz, Marsha Rich Rosner, Theresa Brand, Joachim P Schmitt
Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βAR) provides the most efficient physiological mechanism to enhance contraction and relaxation of the heart. Activation of βAR allows rapid enhancement of myocardial function in order to fuel the muscles for running and fighting in a fight-or-flight response. Likewise, βAR get activated during cardiovascular disease in an attempt to counteract the restrictions of cardiac output. However, long-term stimulation of βAR increases the likelihood of cardiac arrhythmias, adverse ventricular remodelling, decline of cardiac performance and premature death, thereby limiting the use of βAR agonists in the treatment of heart failure...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441369/cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-oncology
#6
Daniel Jeong, Aarti Patel, Christopher J Francois, Kenneth L Gage, Michael G Fradley
BACKGROUND: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as an important diagnostic modality in the management of cardiovascular-related dysfunction in oncological diseases. Advances in imaging techniques have enhanced the detection and evaluation of cardiac masses; meanwhile, innovative applications have created a growing role for cardiac MRI for the management of cardiotoxicity caused by cancer therapies. METHODS: An overview is provided of the clinical indications and technical considerations of cardiac MRI...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439945/enhancement-of-cardiomyogenesis-in-murine-stem-cells-by-low-intensity-ultrasound
#7
Ailing Teo, Amir Morshedi, Jen-Chieh Wang, Yufeng Zhou, Mayasari Lim
OBJECTIVES: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) has been shown to enhance bone and cartilage regeneration from stem cells. The ease of its incorporation makes it an attractive mechanical stimulus for not only osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, but also cardiomyogenesis. However, to date, no study has investigated its effects on cardiomyogenesis from embryonic stem cells. METHODS: In this study, murine embryonic stem cells were differentiated via embryoid body formation and plating, and after 3 days they were subjected to daily 10 minutes of LIUS treatment with various conditions: (1) low-pulsed (21 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), (2) low-continuous, (3) high-pulsed (147 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), and (4) high-continuous LIUS...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439618/-radiofrequency-current-or-cryoballoon-for-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-hot-or-cold
#8
B Reissmann, K-H Kuck, A Metzner
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of therapy in symptomatic patients is the establishment of a stable sinus rhythm (SR). Catheter ablation with isolation of the pulmonary veins is the essential component of all forms of ablation therapy and provides the most effective treatment option. The most frequently used technologies for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) are radiofrequency current (RFC)-based and cryoballoon (CB)-guided ablation. Irrespective of the simplification of PVI, CB ablation is characterized by a short learning curve and short procedural times and demonstrated non-inferiority with respect to safety and efficacy when directly compared to RFC ablation for the treatment of patients with paroxysmal AF; however, the clinical outcome in patients with persistent AF is often insufficient when performing pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone for stabilization of SR...
April 24, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439198/assessment-of-tumors-in-children-with-tuberous-sclerosis-a-single-centre-s-experience
#9
Suna Emir, Şadan Hacısalihoğlu, Derya Özyörük, Filiz Ekici, Aydan Değerliyurt, Alev Güven, İlker Çetin
AIM: As a result of mutations in TSC1 (9q34) and TSC2 (16p13.3) tumor supressor genes, the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTor) signaling pathway is overactivated in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal cell proliferation and differentiation is responsible for the growth several different tumors. The aim of this study was to review tumors in our patients with tuberous sclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with tuberous sclerosis were reviewed retrospectively in terms of age, sex, family history, clinical findings, presence of tumors, and treatments...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437860/chronic-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-by-urb597-produces-differential-effects-on-cardiac-performance-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats
#10
Anna Pedzinska-Betiuk, Jolanta Weresa, Marek Toczek, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Irena Kasacka, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Barbara Malinowska
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are postulated to possess anti-hypertensive potential, because their acute injection decreases blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) partially through normalization of cardiac contractile function. Here, we examined whether the potential hypotensive effect of chronic FAAH inhibition by URB597 in hypertensive rats correlates with changes in cardiac performance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Experiments were performed using perfused hearts and left atria isolated from 8-10 week old SHR, age-matched deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt) rats and normotensive controls chronically treated with URB597 (1 mg kg(-1) ) or vehicle...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437736/murine-diet-induced-obesity-remodels-cardiac-and-liver-mitochondrial-phospholipid-acyl-chains-with-differential-effects-on-respiratory-enzyme-activity
#11
E Madison Sullivan, Amy Fix, Miranda J Crouch, Genevieve C Sparagna, Tonya N Zeczycki, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Cardiac phospholipids, notably cardiolipin, undergo acyl chain remodeling and/or loss of content in aging and cardiovascular diseases, which is postulated to mechanistically impair mitochondrial function. Less is known about how diet-induced obesity influences cardiac phospholipid acyl chain composition and thus mitochondrial responses. Here we first tested if a high fat diet remodeled murine cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid acyl chain composition and consequently disrupted membrane packing, supercomplex formation and respiratory enzyme activity...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437575/the-24-segment-sphericity-index-a-new-technique-to-evaluate-fetal-cardiac-diastolic-shape
#12
Greggory R DeVore, Berthold Klas, Gary Satou, Mark Sklansky
INTRODUCTION: Because of parallel circulation in the fetus and the differential effect various disease states may have on the shape of the right and left ventricles, this study was conducted to evaluate the Sphericity Index (SI) of 24 transverse segments distributed from the base to the apex of the ventricular chambers. METHODS: Two hundred control fetuses were examined between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The displacement of the ventricular endocardium during the cardiac cycle was computed using offline software...
April 24, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435328/aortic-valve-papillary-fibroelastoma-causing-embolic-strokes-a-case-report-and-review
#13
Avraham Miller, Audrik Perez, Swathi Pabba, Vijay Shetty
Papillary fibroelastomas (PFEs) are the second most common benign neoplasms of the cardiac valves and are being recognized more frequently because of higher resolution imaging technology. PFEs are associated with substantial complications that are secondary to systemic embolism. Surgical resection should be offered to all patients who have symptoms and to asymptomatic patients who have pedunculated lesions or tumors larger than 1 cm in diameter. Herein, we present a patient who presented for a second time in 2 months with stroke symptoms...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434942/ipsc-derived-regulatory-dendritic-cells-inhibit-allograft-rejection-by%C3%A2-generating-alloantigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Songjie Cai, Jiangang Hou, Masayuki Fujino, Qi Zhang, Naotsugu Ichimaru, Shiro Takahara, Ryoko Araki, Lina Lu, Ji-Mei Chen, Jian Zhuang, Ping Zhu, Xiao-Kang Li
Regulatory dendritic cell (DCregs)-based immunotherapy is a potential therapeutic tool for transplant rejection. We generated DCregs from murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which could remain in a "stable immature stage" even under strong stimulation. Harnessing this characteristic, we hypothesized that iPS-DCregs worked as a negative vaccine to generate regulatory T cells (Tregs), and induced donor-specific allograft acceptance. We immunized naive CBA (H-2K(k)) mice with B6 (H-2K(b)) iPS-DCregs and found that Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)) significantly increased in CBA splenocytes...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434939/calreticulin-is-required-for-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-during-cardiogenesis-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Fereshteh Karimzadeh, Michal Opas
Calreticulin, a multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum resident protein, is required for TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent cardiomyogenesis. Using embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from calreticulin-null and wild-type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we show that expression of EMT and cardiac differentiation markers is induced during differentiation of WT EBs. This induction is inhibited in the absence of calreticulin and can be mimicked by inhibiting TGF-β signaling in WT cells...
April 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433661/differential-protein-acetylation-assists-import-of-excess-sod2-into-mitochondria-and-mediates-sod2-aggregation-associated-with-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-the-murine-sod2-tg-heart
#16
Liwen Zhang, Chwen-Lih Chen, Patrick T Kang, Zhicheng Jin, Yeong-Renn Chen
SOD2 is the primary antioxidant enzyme neutralizing ((•))O2((-)) in mitochondria. Cardiac-specific SOD2 overexpression (SOD2-tg) induces supernormal function and cardiac hypertrophy in the mouse heart. However, the reductive stress imposed by SOD2 overexpression results in protein aggregation of SOD2 pentamers and differential hyperacetylation of SOD2 in the mitochondria and cytosol. Here, we studied SOD2 acetylation in SOD2-tg and wild-type mouse hearts. LC-MS/MS analysis indicated the presence of four acetylated lysines in matrix SOD2 and nine acetylated lysines in cytosolic SOD2 from the SOD2-tg heart...
April 19, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433099/other-organ-involvement-and-clinical-aspects-of-wilson-disease
#17
Karolina Dzieżyc, Tomasz Litwin, Anna Członkowska
Wilson disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism that presents mainly with hepatic and neuropsychiatric features. Copper accumulates not only in the liver and brain, but also in other organs. Liver injury can also be the cause of secondary impairment of other tissues. Therefore, the clinical manifestation of WD may be renal, cardiac, skin, osteoarticular, or endocrinologic and include other organ disturbances. Renal abnormalities include tubular dysfunction (e.g., renal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria) and nephrolithiasis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432312/growth-differentiation-factor-15-deficiency-augments-inflammatory-response-and-exacerbates-septic-heart-and-renal-injury-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#18
Palida Abulizi, Neruja Loganathan, Duo Zhao, Tina Mele, Yixin Zhang, Terry Zwiep, Kexiang Liu, Xiufen Zheng
Septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and myocardial dysfunction are leading causes of mortality with no accepted method of therapy. In this study we demonstrate the role of growth differentiating factor 15 (GDF15) in septic AKI and myocardial dysfunction using a murine lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model and an in vitro cell culture system. Data show that GDF15 deficiency augments inflammatory response and exacerbates renal and cardiac injury induced by LPS, while over-expression of GDF15 protects the kidney and heart from LPS-induced organ dysfunction...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432103/morphology-and-cardiac-physiology-are-differentially-affected-by-temperature-in-developing-larvae-of-the-marine-fish-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#19
Prescilla Perrichon, Christina Pasparakis, Edward M Mager, John D Stieglitz, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Warren W Burggren
Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute vs. chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity was investigated in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g. standard length, heart angle) and physiological cardiac variables (e.g. heart rate fH, stroke volume, cardiac output) were recorded under two conditions by imaging: i) under acute temperature exposure where embryos were reared at 25°C up to 128 hours post-fertilization (hpf) and then acutely exposed to 25° (rearing temperature), 27° and 30°C; ii) at two rearing (chronic) temperatures of 26° and 30°C and performed at 32 and 56 hpf...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432060/toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-dominance-over-tlr4-in-stressful-conditions-for-its-detrimental-role-in-the-heart
#20
Ashim K Bagchi, Gauri Akolkar, Soma Mandal, Prathapan Ayyappan, Xi Yang, Pawan K Singal
It has been suggested that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) promotes interleukin-10 (IL-10)-mediated cardiac cell survival while another receptor, TLR2, from the same family is detrimental. Here we examined the interactive role of these two innate signaling molecules under stressful conditions including interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice, global ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat hearts and in-vitro shRNA experimental models in presence or absence of IL-10 (10ng/ml). Circulating and myocardial levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as apoptosis and fibrosis were higher in IL-10(-/-) mice...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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