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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877104/sweet-taste-receptor-serves-to-activate-glucose-and-leptin-responsive-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-participates-in-glucose-responsiveness
#1
Daisuke Kohno, Miho Koike, Yuzo Ninomiya, Itaru Kojima, Tadahiro Kitamura, Toshihiko Yada
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742692/lipid-lowering-pharmaceutical-clofibrate-inhibits-human-sweet-taste
#2
Matthew Kochem, Paul A S Breslin
T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706460/alteration-of-taste-buds-in-experimental-cirrhosis-is-there-correlation-with-human-hypogeusia
#3
Sabrina Alves Fernandes, Silvia Bona, Carlos Thadeu Schmidt Cerski, Norma Possa Marroni, Claudio Augusto Marroni
Background: The inherent complications of cirrhosis include protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.Changes in taste are detrimental to the nutritional status, and the mechanism to explain these changes is not well documented in the cirrhotic patients. Objective: To evaluate the taste buds of cirrhotic rats. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats were evaluated. After 16 weeks, the liver was removed to histologically diagnose cirrhosis, and blood was collected to perform liver integrity tests...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658853/sweeter-and-stronger-enhancing-sweetness-and-stability-of-the-single-chain-monellin-mnei-through-molecular-design
#4
Serena Leone, Andrea Pica, Antonello Merlino, Filomena Sannino, Piero Andrea Temussi, Delia Picone
Sweet proteins are a family of proteins with no structure or sequence homology, able to elicit a sweet sensation in humans through their interaction with the dimeric T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor. In particular, monellin and its single chain derivative (MNEI) are among the sweetest proteins known to men. Starting from a careful analysis of the surface electrostatic potentials, we have designed new mutants of MNEI with enhanced sweetness. Then, we have included in the most promising variant the stabilising mutation E23Q, obtaining a construct with enhanced performances, which combines extreme sweetness to high, pH-independent, thermal stability...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526998/maltodextrin-and-sucrose-preferences-in-sweet-sensitive-c57bl-6j-and-subsensitive-129p3-j-mice-revisited
#5
Karen Ackroff, Anthony Sclafani
Mice are attracted to the tastes of sugar and maltodextrin solutions. Sugar taste is mediated by the T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor, while maltodextrin taste is dependent upon a different as yet unidentified receptor. In a prior study sweet-sensitive C57BL/6J (B6) mice displayed similar preferences for sucrose and maltodextrin solutions in 24-h saccharide vs. water choice tests that exceeded those of sweet-subsensitive 129P3/J (129) mice. In a subsequent experiment reported here, sucrose and maltodextrin (Polycose) preference and acceptance were compared in the two strains in saccharide vs...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388805/impact-of-obesity-on-taste-receptor-expression-in-extra-oral-tissues-emphasis-on-hypothalamus-and-brainstem
#6
D Herrera Moro Chao, C Argmann, M Van Eijk, R G Boot, R Ottenhoff, C Van Roomen, E Foppen, J E Siljee, U A Unmehopa, A Kalsbeek, J M F G Aerts
Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling complex (αGustducin, Gα14 and αTransducin), in oral and extra-oral tissues from lean and obese mice, remains poorly characterized. We focused on the impact of obesity on taste receptor expression in brain areas involved in energy homeostasis, namely the hypothalamus and brainstem...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374965/molecular-mechanisms-of-taste-disorder-in-oxaliplatin-administered-rats
#7
Kentaro Nishida
Taste disorder is one of the adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy resulting in a loss of appetite, leading to malnutrition and a decrease in the quality of life of the patient. Oxaliplatin, a platinum anticancer drug, has a critical role in colon cancer chemotherapy and is known to induce taste disorder. Here, we evaluated the taste functions in oxaliplatin-administered rats. Among the taste receptors, expression levels of T1R2, one of the sweet receptor subunits, increased in the circumvallate papillae of the oxaliplatin-administered rats...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374594/sweetness-induced-activation-of-membrane-dipole-potential-in-stc-1-taste-cells
#8
Li-Chun Chen, Ning-Ning Xie, Shao-Ping Deng
The biological functions of cell membranes strongly influence the binding and transport of molecular species. We developed STC-1 cell line stably expressing the sweet taste receptor (T1R2/T1R3), and explored the possible correlation between sweeteners and membrane dipole potential of STC-1 cells. In this study, sweetener-induced dipole potential activation was elucidated using a fluorescence-based measurement technique, by monitoring the voltage sensitive probe Di-8-ANEPPS using a dual wavelength ratiometric approach...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353597/leptin-suppresses-sweet-taste-responses-of-enteroendocrine-stc-1-cells
#9
Masafumi Jyotaki, Keisuke Sanematsu, Noriatsu Shigemura, Ryusuke Yoshida, Yuzo Ninomiya
Leptin is an important hormone that regulates food intake and energy homeostasis by acting on central and peripheral targets. In the gustatory system, leptin is known to selectively suppress sweet responses by inhibiting the activation of sweet sensitive taste cells. Sweet taste receptor (T1R2+T1R3) is also expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells and contributes to nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption. Because of the similarities in expression patterns between enteroendocrine and taste receptor cells, we hypothesized that they may also share similar mechanisms used to modify/regulate the sweet responsiveness of these cells by leptin...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27327579/duplex-bioelectronic-tongue-for-sensing-umami-and-sweet-tastes-based-on-human-taste-receptor-nanovesicles
#10
Sae Ryun Ahn, Ji Hyun An, Hyun Seok Song, Jin Wook Park, Sang Hun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim, Jyongsik Jang, Tai Hyun Park
For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required...
August 23, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247080/a-review-of-the-associations-between-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-taste-receptors-eating-behaviours-and-health
#11
Elie Chamoun, David M Mutch, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Andrea C Buchholz, Alison M Duncan, Lawrence L Spriet, Jess Haines, David W L Ma
Food preferences and dietary habits are heavily influenced by taste perception. There is growing interest in characterizing taste preferences based on genetic variation. Genetic differences in the ability to perceive key tastes may impact eating behavior and nutritional intake. Therefore, increased understanding of taste biology and genetics may lead to new personalized strategies which may prevent or influence the trajectory of chronic diseases risk. Recent advances show that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD36 fat taste receptor are linked to differences in fat perception, fat preference, and chronic-disease biomarkers...
May 31, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162343/taste-cell-expressed-%C3%AE-glucosidase-enzymes-contribute-to-gustatory-responses-to-disaccharides
#12
Sunil K Sukumaran, Karen K Yee, Shusuke Iwata, Ramana Kotha, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Sankar Mohan, B Mario Pinto, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya, Robert F Margolskee
The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K(+) (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160511/taste-substance-binding-elicits-conformational-change-of-taste-receptor-t1r-heterodimer-extracellular-domains
#13
Eriko Nango, Shuji Akiyama, Saori Maki-Yonekura, Yuji Ashikawa, Yuko Kusakabe, Elena Krayukhina, Takahiro Maruno, Susumu Uchiyama, Nipawan Nuemket, Koji Yonekura, Madoka Shimizu, Nanako Atsumi, Norihisa Yasui, Takaaki Hikima, Masaki Yamamoto, Yuji Kobayashi, Atsuko Yamashita
Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085864/what-does-diabetes-taste-like
#14
REVIEW
Fabrice Neiers, Marie-Chantal Canivenc-Lavier, Loïc Briand
The T1R2 (taste type 1 receptor, member 2)/T1R3 (taste type 1 receptor, member 3) sweet taste receptor is expressed in taste buds on the tongue, where it allows the detection of energy-rich carbohydrates of food. This single receptor responds to all compounds perceived as sweet by humans, including natural sugars and natural and artificial sweeteners. Importantly, the T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor is also expressed in extra-oral tissues, including the stomach, pancreas, gut, liver, and brain. Although its physiological role remains to be established in numerous organs, T1R2/T1R3 is suspected to be involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, such as sugar sensing, glucose homeostasis, and satiety hormone release...
June 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040630/oxaliplatin-alters-expression-of-t1r2-receptor-and-sensitivity-to-sweet-taste-in-rats
#15
Akihiro Ohishi, Kentaro Nishida, Yuri Yamanaka, Ai Miyata, Akiko Ikukawa, Miharu Yabu, Karin Miyamoto, Saho Bansho, Kazuki Nagasawa
As one of the adverse effects of oxaliplatin, a key agent in colon cancer chemotherapy, a taste disorder is a severe issue in a clinical situation because it decreases the quality of life of patients. However, there is little information on the mechanism underlying the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder. Here, we examined the molecular and behavioral characteristics of the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder in rats. Oxaliplatin (4-16 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intraperitoneally for 2 d...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992959/molecular-mechanism-of-sweetness-sensation
#16
REVIEW
Grant E DuBois
The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation)...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972710/molecules-implicated-in-glucose-homeostasis-are-differentially-expressed-in-the-trachea-of-lean-and-obese-zucker-rats
#17
F Merigo, F Boschi, C Lasconi, D Benati, A Sbarbati
Recent studies indicate that the processes mediated by the (T1R2/T1R3) glucose/sugar receptor of gustatory cells in the tongue, and hormones like leptin and ghrelin contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Altered plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin are associated with obesity both in humans and rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the ultrastructure of the mucosa, and the expression of molecules implicated in the regulation of glucose homeostasis (GLUT2, SGLT1, T1R3, ghrelin and its receptor) in the trachea of an animal model of obesity (Zucker rats)...
2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912569/taste-information-derived-from-t1r-expressing-taste-cells-in-mice
#18
REVIEW
Ryusuke Yoshida, Yuzo Ninomiya
The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet)...
March 1, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884387/disruption-of-the-sugar-sensing-receptor-t1r2-attenuates-metabolic-derangements-associated-with-diet-induced-obesity
#19
Kathleen R Smith, Tania Hussain, Elnaz Karimian Azari, Jennifer L Steiner, Julio E Ayala, Richard E Pratley, George A Kyriazis
Sweet taste receptors (STRs) on the tongue mediate gustatory sweet sensing, but their expression in the gut, pancreas and adipose tissue suggests a physiological contribution to whole-body nutrient sensing and metabolism. However, little is known about the function and contribution of these sugar sensors during metabolic stress induced by over-nutrition and subsequent obesity. Here we investigate the effects of high fat/ low carbohydrate diet (HF/LC diet) on glucose homeostasis and energy balance in mice with global disruption of the sweet taste receptor protein, T1R2...
February 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837600/a-hypersweet-protein-removal-of-the-specific-negative-charge-at-asp21-enhances-thaumatin-sweetness
#20
Tetsuya Masuda, Keisuke Ohta, Naoko Ojiro, Kazuki Murata, Bunzo Mikami, Fumito Tani, Piero Andrea Temussi, Naofumi Kitabatake
Thaumatin is an intensely sweet-tasting protein that elicits sweet taste at a concentration of 50 nM, a value 100,000 times larger than that of sucrose on a molar basis. Here we attempted to produce a protein with enhanced sweetness by removing negative charges on the interacting side of thaumatin with the taste receptor. We obtained a D21N mutant which, with a threshold value 31 nM is much sweeter than wild type thaumatin and, together with the Y65R mutant of single chain monellin, one of the two sweetest proteins known so far...
2016: Scientific Reports
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