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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874606/bacterial-d-amino-acids-suppress-sinonasal-innate-immunity-through-sweet-taste-receptors-in-solitary-chemosensory-cells
#1
Robert J Lee, Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Peihua Jiang, Robert F Margolskee, Noam A Cohen
In the upper respiratory epithelium, bitter and sweet taste receptors present in solitary chemosensory cells influence antimicrobial innate immune defense responses. Whereas activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) stimulates surrounding epithelial cells to release antimicrobial peptides, activation of the sweet taste receptor (T1R) in the same cells inhibits this response. This mechanism is thought to control the magnitude of antimicrobial peptide release based on the sugar content of airway surface liquid...
September 5, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850567/human-taste-detection-of-glucose-oligomers-with-low-degree-of-polymerization
#2
Alexa J Pullicin, Michael H Penner, Juyun Lim
Studies have reported that some animals, including humans, can taste mixtures of glucose oligomers (i.e., maltooligosaccharides, MOS) and that their detection is independent of the known T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor. In an effort to understand potential mechanisms underlying the taste perception of glucose oligomers in humans, this study was designed to investigate: 1) the variability of taste sensitivity to MOS with low degree-of-polymerization (DP), and 2) the potential role of hT1R2/T1R3 in the MOS taste detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833672/a-large-scale-expression-strategy-for-multimeric-extracellular-protein-complexes-using-drosophila-s2-cells-and-its-application-to-the-recombinant-expression-of-heterodimeric-ligand-binding-domains-of-taste-receptor
#3
Atsuko Yamashita, Eriko Nango, Yuji Ashikawa
Many of the extracellular proteins or extracellular domains of plasma membrane proteins exist or function as homo- or heteromeric multimer protein complexes. Successful recombinant production of such proteins is often achieved by co-expression of the components using eukaryotic cells via the secretory pathway. Here we report a strategy addressing large-scale expression of hetero-multimeric extracellular domains of plasma membrane proteins and its application to the extracellular domains of a taste receptor...
November 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782537/expression-of-sweet-taste-receptor-and-gut-hormone-secretion-in-modelled-type-2-diabetes
#4
Rilu Feng, Cheng Qian, Qianjing Liu, Yunqiu Jin, Lianyong Liu, Shengxian Li, Yu Liao, Huan Zhou, Wei Liu, Chris K Rayner, Jing Ma
Sweet taste receptors (STRs) are expressed in L cells which secret glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut. The STR blocker lactisole reduces GLP-1 secretion and increases blood glucose levels. Therefore, we investigated the expression of sweet taste molecules in the proximal and distal small intestine, and gut hormone secretion, in healthy control and type 2 diabetic rats. Two groups of rats (Sprague Dawley (SD), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) were involved in the study. Each group (n=10) received an intragastric glucose infusion (50% glucose solution, 2g/kg body weight)...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768658/detection-of-maltodextrin-and-its-discrimination-from-sucrose-are-independent-of-the-t1r2-t1r3-heterodimer
#5
Kimberly R Smith, Alan C Spector
Maltodextrins, such as Maltrin and Polycose, are glucose polymer mixtures of varying chain lengths that are palatable to rodents. Although glucose and other sugars activate the T1R2 + T1R3 "sweet" taste receptor, recent evidence from T1R2- or T1R3-knockout (KO) mice suggests that maltodextrins, despite their glucose polymer composition, activate a separate receptor mechanism to generate a taste percept qualitatively distinguishable from that of sweeteners. However, explicit discrimination of maltodextrins from prototypical sweeteners has not yet been psychophysically tested in any murine model...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672790/sugars-sweet-taste-receptors-and-brain-responses
#6
REVIEW
Allen A Lee, Chung Owyang
Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors...
June 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534491/structural-basis-for-perception-of-diverse-chemical-substances-by-t1r-taste-receptors
#7
Nipawan Nuemket, Norihisa Yasui, Yuko Kusakabe, Yukiyo Nomura, Nanako Atsumi, Shuji Akiyama, Eriko Nango, Yukinari Kato, Mika K Kaneko, Junichi Takagi, Maiko Hosotani, Atsuko Yamashita
The taste receptor type 1 (T1r) family perceives 'palatable' tastes. These receptors function as T1r2-T1r3 and T1r1-T1r3 heterodimers to recognize a wide array of sweet and umami (savory) tastes in sugars and amino acids. Nonetheless, it is unclear how diverse tastes are recognized by so few receptors. Here we present crystal structures of the extracellular ligand-binding domains (LBDs), the taste recognition regions of the fish T1r2-T1r3 heterodimer, bound to different amino acids. The ligand-binding pocket in T1r2LBD is rich in aromatic residues, spacious and accommodates hydrated percepts...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497839/evaluation-of-the-association-between-the-tas1r2-and-tas1r3-variants-and-food-intake-and-nutritional-status-in-children
#8
Silvia V Melo, Grasiela Agnes, Márcia R Vitolo, Vanessa S Mattevi, Paula D B Campagnolo, Silvana Almeida
Taste perception plays a key role in determining individual food preferences and dietary habits and may influence nutritional status. This study aimed to investigate the association of TAS1R2 (Ile191Val - rs35874116) and TAS1R3 (-1266 C/T - rs35744813) variants with food intake and nutritional status in children followed from birth until 7.7 years old. The nutritional status and food intake data of 312 children were collected at three developmental stages (1, 3.9 and 7.7 years old). DNA was extracted from blood samples and the polymorphisms were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) using hydrolysis probes as the detection method...
April 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399012/sweeteners-and-sweetness-enhancers
#9
Christine Belloir, Fabrice Neiers, Loïc Briand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. RECENT FINDINGS: The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383662/phosphorus-taste-involves-t1r2-and-t1r3
#10
Michael G Tordoff
Rodents consume solutions of phosphates and pyrophosphates in preference to water. Recently, we found that the preference for trisodium pyrophosphate (Na3HP2O7) was greater in T1R3 knockout (KO) mice than wild-type (WT) controls, suggesting that T1R3 is a pyrophosphate detector. We now show that this heightened Na3HP2O7 preference of T1R3 KO mice extends to disodium phosphate (Na2HPO4), disodium and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na2H2PO4 and Na4H2PO4), a tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10), a non-sodium phosphate [(NH4)2HPO4], and a non-sodium pyrophosphate (K4P2O7) but not to non-P salts with large anions (sodium gluconate, acetate, or propionate)...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192132/flavor-preferences-conditioned-by-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweeteners-in-mice
#11
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Recent studies suggest that preferences are conditioned by nutritive (sucrose) but not by non-nutritive (sucralose) sweeteners in mice. Here we compared the effectiveness of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners to condition flavor preferences in three mouse strains. Isopreferred sucrose and sucralose solutions both conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J (B6) mice but sucrose was more effective, consistent with its post-oral appetition action. Subsequent experiments compared flavor conditioning by fructose, which has no post-oral appetition effect in B6 mice, and a sucralose+saccharin mixture (SS) which is highly preferred to fructose in 24-h choice tests...
May 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119169/decreased-expression-of-5-ht1a-in-the-circumvallate-taste-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#12
Doyun Kim, Sena Chung, Sung Ho Lee, Jae Hyung Koo, Jong-Ho Lee, Jeong Won Jahng
OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that stress can cause anhedonia, a core symptom of depression, and also affect taste responses of the stressed subjects. Anhedonia refers to a reduction of the ability to experience pleasure, which can be detected by decreased response to palatable food in rats. The present study was conducted to examine if stress-induced anhedonia is accompanied by changes in gene expression for taste. DESIGN: For anhedonia test, rats had free choices of cookies, a palatable food, and chow for 1h following 1h of daily restraint sessions...
January 18, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034739/behavioral-evidence-that-select-carbohydrate-stimuli-activate-t1r-independent-receptor-mechanisms
#13
Alan C Spector, Lindsey A Schier
Three decades ago Tony Sclafani proposed the existence of a polysaccharide taste quality that was distinguishable from the taste generated by common sweeteners and that it was mediated by a separate receptor mechanism. Since that time, evidence has accumulated, including psychophysical studies conducted in our laboratory, buttressing this hypothesis. The use of knockout (KO) mice that lack functional T1R2 + T1R3 heterodimers, the principal taste receptor for sugars and other sweeteners, have been especially informative in this regard...
December 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992462/acute-effects-of-sugars-and-artificial-sweeteners-on-small-intestinal-sugar-transport-a-study-using-caco-2-cells-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-enterocyte
#14
Patrick O'Brien, Christopher Peter Corpe
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the assimilation of nutrients and plays a key role in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and energy balance. The molecular mechanisms by which intestinal sugar transport are regulated are controversial. Based on rodent studies, two models currently exist that involve activation of the sweet-taste receptor, T1R2/3: an indirect model, whereby luminal carbohydrates activate T1R2/3 expressed on enteroendocrine cells, resulting in the release of gut peptides which in turn regulate enterocyte sugar transport capacity; and a direct model, whereby T1R2/3 expressed on the enterocyte regulates enterocyte function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936499/the-anatomy-of-mammalian-sweet-taste-receptors
#15
Jean-Baptiste Chéron, Jérôme Golebiowski, Serge Antonczak, Sébastien Fiorucci
All sweet-tasting compounds are detected by a single G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the heterodimer T1R2-T1R3, for which no experimental structure is available. The sweet taste receptor is a class C GPCR, and the recently published crystallographic structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 and 5 provide a significant step forward for understanding structure-function relationships within this family. In this article, we recapitulate more than 600 single point site-directed mutations and available structural data to obtain a critical alignment of the sweet taste receptor sequences with respect to other class C GPCRs...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877104/sweet-taste-receptor-serves-to-activate-glucose-and-leptin-responsive-neurons-in-the-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus-and-participates-in-glucose-responsiveness
#16
Daisuke Kohno, Miho Koike, Yuzo Ninomiya, Itaru Kojima, Tadahiro Kitamura, Toshihiko Yada
The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742692/lipid-lowering-pharmaceutical-clofibrate-inhibits-human-sweet-taste
#17
Matthew Kochem, Paul A S Breslin
T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations...
January 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706460/alteration-of-taste-buds-in-experimental-cirrhosis-is-there-correlation-with-human-hypogeusia
#18
Sabrina Alves Fernandes, Silvia Bona, Carlos Thadeu Schmidt Cerski, Norma Possa Marroni, Claudio Augusto Marroni
Background: The inherent complications of cirrhosis include protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.Changes in taste are detrimental to the nutritional status, and the mechanism to explain these changes is not well documented in the cirrhotic patients. Objective: To evaluate the taste buds of cirrhotic rats. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats were evaluated. After 16 weeks, the liver was removed to histologically diagnose cirrhosis, and blood was collected to perform liver integrity tests...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658853/sweeter-and-stronger-enhancing-sweetness-and-stability-of-the-single-chain-monellin-mnei-through-molecular-design
#19
Serena Leone, Andrea Pica, Antonello Merlino, Filomena Sannino, Piero Andrea Temussi, Delia Picone
Sweet proteins are a family of proteins with no structure or sequence homology, able to elicit a sweet sensation in humans through their interaction with the dimeric T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor. In particular, monellin and its single chain derivative (MNEI) are among the sweetest proteins known to men. Starting from a careful analysis of the surface electrostatic potentials, we have designed new mutants of MNEI with enhanced sweetness. Then, we have included in the most promising variant the stabilising mutation E23Q, obtaining a construct with enhanced performances, which combines extreme sweetness to high, pH-independent, thermal stability...
September 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526998/maltodextrin-and-sucrose-preferences-in-sweet-sensitive-c57bl-6j-and-subsensitive-129p3-j-mice-revisited
#20
Karen Ackroff, Anthony Sclafani
Mice are attracted to the tastes of sugar and maltodextrin solutions. Sugar taste is mediated by the T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor, while maltodextrin taste is dependent upon a different as yet unidentified receptor. In a prior study sweet-sensitive C57BL/6J (B6) mice displayed similar preferences for sucrose and maltodextrin solutions in 24-h saccharide vs. water choice tests that exceeded those of sweet-subsensitive 129P3/J (129) mice. In a subsequent experiment reported here, sucrose and maltodextrin (Polycose) preference and acceptance were compared in the two strains in saccharide vs...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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