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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224194/establishment-and-evaluation-of-an-indirect-immunofluorescence-assay-for-the-detection-of-salmonid-alphavirus
#1
S Gao, W Shi, Y T Wang, M T Guo, K X Duan, A C Song, G H Lian, Tong Ren, Y J Li, L J Tang, L Sun, M Liu
Salmonid alphaviruses (SAV) severely infects farmed salmonids and rainbow trout. Owing to the recent increase in fish import trade, several SAV-unreported countries, such as China, may face serious threat of this infection. Thus, it is necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the prevention and diagnosis of SAV infection. In this study, we selected a conserved segment of the SAV E1 protein as a target immunogen for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to SAV. A sensitive indirect immunofluorescence (IF) method was developed using 26E9C2 mAb that detected E1 protein and identified subtypes 1, 2 and 5 of SAV...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223828/rationale-for-combination-of-therapeutic-antibodies-targeting-tumor-cells-and-immune-checkpoint-receptors-harnessing-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-through-igg1-isotype-immune-effector-stimulation
#2
REVIEW
Robert L Ferris, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Anna Maria Trotta, Jesús García-Foncillas, Jeltje Schulten, François Audhuy, Marco Merlano, Gerard Milano
Immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 antibodies stimulate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Cetuximab, an IgG1 isotype monoclonal antibody, is a standard-of-care treatment for locally advanced and recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we review evidence regarding the clinical relevance of cetuximab-mediated ADCC and other immune functions and provide a biological rationale concerning why this property positions cetuximab as an ideal partner for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and other emerging immunotherapies...
December 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223735/targeting-secreted-cytokine-bmp9-gates-the-attenuation-of-hepatic-fibrosis
#3
Peng Li, Yongyun Li, Liqi Zhu, Zhi Yang, Jie He, Lihua Wang, Qingfeng Shang, Hui Pan, Huixue Wang, Xiong Ma, Bin Li, Xianqun Fan, Shengfang Ge, Renbing Jia, He Zhang
Liver fibrosis is overly exuberant wound healing that leads to portal hypertension or liver cirrhosis. Recent studies have demonstrated the functions of bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) in liver fibrosis, and thus, targeting liver-specific BMP9 abnormalities will become an attractive approach for developing therapeutics to treat liver fibrosis. Here, we reveal that BMP9 serves as a valuable serum diagnostic indicator and efficient therapeutic target to attenuate liver fibrogenesis. Our analysis of biopsies from liver fibrotic patients revealed that higher BMP9 levels accompanied advanced stages of liver fibrosis...
December 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223444/association-of-vedolizumab-level-anti-drug-antibodies-and-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-occupancy-with-response-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#4
Bella Ungar, Uri Kopylov, Miri Yavzori, Ella Fudim, Orit Picard, Adi Lahat, Daniel Coscas, Matti Waterman, Ola Haj-Natour, Noam Orbach-Zingboim, Ren Mao, Minhu Chen, Yehuda Chowers, Rami Eliakim, Shomron Ben-Horin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few data available on the real-life pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics features of vedolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against integrin α4β7. We performed a prospective study of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with vedolizumab to determine serum drug concentrations, formation of anti-vedolizumab antibodies (AVAs), and integrin α4β7 saturation. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 106 patients with IBD (67 with Crohn's disease and 39 with ulcerative colitis) treated with vedolizumab from September 2014 through March 2017 at 2 tertiary medical centers in Israel...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223145/antibody-biosensors-for-the-measurement-and-characterization-of-soluble-cd147-molecules
#5
Witida Laopajon, Nuchjira Takheaw, Saichit Khummuang, Tanyaluck Kampoun, Kantinan Cheunsirikulchai, Watchara Kasinrerk, Supansa Pata
BACKGROUND: Soluble CD147 (sCD147) is the shed form of membrane-bound CD147, which is involved in the regulation of cellular functions. The presence of sCD147 in body fluids is associated with several diseases. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to establish antibody (Ab) biosensors for the simultaneous differential detection of the general and truncated forms of sCD147. METHOD: By combining biolayer interferometry technology (BLItz) and different anti-CD147 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to different extracellular domains of the CD147 molecule, Ab-based biosensors were established to rapidly measure and characterize sCD147 isoforms...
December 10, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223139/novel-treatments-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Hyo Sun Lee, Soo-Kyung Park, Dong Il Park
Increased understanding of the immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has led to the development of targeted therapies and has unlocked a new era in IBD treatment. The development of treatment options aimed at a variety of pathological mechanisms offers new hope for customized therapies. Beyond anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, selective lymphocyte trafficking inhibitors have been proposed as potent drugs for IBD. Among these, vedolizumab has recently been approved for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis...
December 11, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223051/ultrasensitive-colorimetric-immunoassay-for-hcg-detection-based-on-dual-catalysis-of-au-pt-core-shell-nanoparticle-functionalized-by-horseradish-peroxidase
#7
Weiguo Wang, Yake Zou, Jinwu Yan, Jing Liu, Huixiong Chen, Shan Li, Lei Zhang
In this paper, an ultrasensitive colorimetric biosensor for human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) detection was designed from bottom-up method based on the dual catalysis of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Au@Pt nanoparticles (NPs) relative to H2O2-TEM system. HRP and monoclonal mouse anti-hCG antibody (β-submit, mAb1) were co-immobilized onto the Au@Pt NP surface to improve catalytic efficiency and specificity, which formed a dual functionalized Au@Pt-HRP probe with the mean size of 42.8nm (D50). The colorimetric immunoassay was developed for the hCG detection, and the Au@Pt-HRP probe featured a higher sensitivity in the concentration range of 0...
December 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222965/co-existence-of-myeloid-neoplasm-and-monoclonal-gammopathy-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#8
Navkirti Mittal, Ruchi Gupta, Khaliqur Rahman, Tanvi Gupta, Soniya Nityanand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222947/safety-and-efficacy-of-guselkumab-in-japanese-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-ascending-dose-study
#9
O Nemoto, K Hirose, S Shibata, K Li, H Kubo
BACKGROUND: The Interlukin-23 (IL-23)/Interlukin-17 (IL-17) pathway is central in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The favourable efficacy and safety of guselkumab, an IL-23 specific monoclonal antibody, has been demonstrated in global Phase 3 studies of plaque psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a single-dose subcutaneous guselkumab in Japanese patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. METHODS: Patients with ≥ 10% of total body surface area (BSA) involvement and a Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) ≥12 were randomised (5:1) to receive guselkumab or placebo in 4 cohorts of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose, single-centre study...
December 9, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222812/spheroid-type-of-al-amyloid-deposition-associated-with-colonic-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#10
Moon Joo Kim, Zulfia McCroskey, Yingchao Piao, Anna Belcheva, Luan Truong, Paul J Kurtin, Jae Y Ro
We report a colonic adenocarcinoma associated with diffuse submucosal deposition of a peculiar spheroid-type amyloid identified in the colon, terminal ileum, and appendix. A 65-year-old woman with past medical histories of hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presented to the emergency room with cramping abdominal pain and nausea. A computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen showed right colonic volvulus. Emergency right hemicolectomy was performed. The specimen showed colonic adenocarcinoma with focal submucosal invasion (pT1) arising from a villotubular adenoma...
December 8, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222502/pharmacokinetics-biodistribution-and-brain-retention-of-a-bispecific-antibody-based-pet-radioligand-for-imaging-of-amyloid-%C3%AE
#11
Dag Sehlin, Xiaotian T Fang, Silvio R Meier, Malin Jansson, Stina Syvänen
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have not been used as positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for in vivo imaging of the brain because of their limited passage across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, due to their high affinity and specificity, mAbs may be an attractive option for brain PET if their brain distribution can be facilitated. In the present study, a F(ab')2 fragment of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) protofibril selective mAb158 was chemically conjugated to the transferrin receptor (TfR) antibody 8D3 to enable TfR mediated transcytosis across the BBB...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222409/immune-stealth-driven-o2-serotype-prevalence-and-potential-for-therapeutic-antibodies-against-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#12
Meghan E Pennini, Anna De Marco, Mark Pelletier, Jessica Bonnell, Romana Cvitkovic, Martina Beltramello, Elisabetta Cameroni, Siro Bianchi, Fabrizia Zatta, Wei Zhao, Xiaodong Xiao, Maria M Camara, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Elena Semenova, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Paul Warrener, JoAnn Suzich, Qun Wang, Davide Corti, C Kendall Stover
Emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria are a challenge for modern medicine, but how these pathogens are so successful is not fully understood. Robust antibacterial vaccines have prevented and reduced resistance suggesting a pivotal role for immunity in deterring antibiotic resistance. Here, we show the increased prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O2 serotype strains in all major drug resistance groups correlating with a paucity of anti-O2 antibodies in human B cell repertoires. We identify human monoclonal antibodies to O-antigens that are highly protective in mouse models of infection, even against heavily encapsulated strains...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222300/emerging-options-in-multiple-myeloma-targeted-immune-and-epigenetic-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Shaji Kumar
Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the past decade with median survival for the disease improving significantly. This has come through a combination of better understanding of the disease biology and coordinated research into new treatment approaches including better supportive care. However, patients eventually become refractory to available treatments and succumb to the disease, highlighting the need to develop new treatment approaches. The genetic heterogeneity in the disease and clonal evolution under treatment pressure underlie the development of resistance, underscoring the need to develop more effective therapies that can eradicate the disease at initial treatment as well as the need for new classes of drugs with varying mechanisms of action...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222299/management-of-multiple-myeloma-in-the-relapsed-refractory-patient
#14
REVIEW
Pieter Sonneveld
The approach to the patient with relapsed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma requires a careful evaluation of the results of previous treatments, the toxicities associated with it, and an assessment of prognostic factors. The majority of patients will have received prior therapy with drug combinations, including a proteasome inhibitor and an immune-modulatory agent. It is the physician's task to choose the right moment for the start of therapy and decide with the patient which goals need to be achieved...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222280/toward-personalized-treatment-in-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia
#15
REVIEW
Jorge J Castillo, Steven P Treon
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare lymphoma with 1000 to 1500 new patients diagnosed per year in the United States. Patients with WM can experience prolonged survival times, which seem to have increased in the last decade, but relapse is inevitable. The identification of recurrent mutations in the MYD88 and CXCR4 genes has opened avenues of research to better understand and treat patients with WM. These developments are giving way to personalized treatment approaches for these patients, focusing on increasing depth and duration of response alongside lower toxicity rates...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222277/how-should-we-sequence-and-combine-novel-therapies-in-cll
#16
REVIEW
Matthew S Davids
With the recent approval of several effective and well-tolerated novel agents (NAs), including ibrutinib, idelalisib, venetoclax, and obinutuzumab, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have more therapeutic options than ever before. The availability of these agents is both an important advance for patients but also a challenge for practicing hematologist/oncologists to learn how best to sequence NAs, both with respect to chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) and to other NAs. The sequencing of NAs in clinical practice should be guided both by an individual patient's prognostic markers, such as FISH and immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV)-mutation status, as well as the patient's medical comorbidities and goals of care...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222264/incorporation-of-nonchemotherapeutic-agents-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#17
REVIEW
Lewis B Silverman
With current available therapies, the prognosis for most children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is favorable. However, the multiagent chemotherapy regimens used to treat newly diagnosed patients are associated with many acute and long-term complications, and therapy for relapsed disease is intensive and suboptimally effective. Over the last decade, several nonchemotherapeutic approaches have been evaluated, with the goal of identifying more effective, less toxic therapies that can be used in conjunction with, or even replace, current regimens...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222219/an-uncommon-diagnosis-for-a-recurrent-erythematous-patch-in-a-paediatric-patient
#18
Priya Umesh Patel
A 14-year-old girl presented with a circular erythematous patch over the left buttock for approximately 10 years, with ongoing ulceration and papules developing over the last 4 years. Punch biopsies were taken within and above the patch for diagnosis. Both revealed marked inflammatory infiltrates with atypical, irregular lymphocytes and increased mitosis. Immunostaining revealed CD8 positivity and a pan T helper cell phenotype. T cell receptor gene rearrangement analysis showed T cell clonality in both biopsies...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221729/high-dimensional-phenotypic-mapping-of-human-dendritic-cells-reveals-interindividual-variation-and-tissue-specialization
#19
Marcela Alcántara-Hernández, Rebecca Leylek, Lisa E Wagar, Edgar G Engleman, Tibor Keler, M Peter Marinkovich, Mark M Davis, Garry P Nolan, Juliana Idoyaga
Given the limited efficacy of clinical approaches that rely on ex vivo generated dendritic cells (DCs), it is imperative to design strategies that harness specialized DC subsets in situ. This requires delineating the expression of surface markers by DC subsets among individuals and tissues. Here, we performed a multiparametric phenotypic characterization and unbiased analysis of human DC subsets in blood, tonsil, spleen, and skin. We uncovered previously unreported phenotypic heterogeneity of human cDC2s among individuals, including variable expression of functional receptors such as CD172a...
November 28, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221604/effect-of-evolocumab-on-lipoprotein-particles
#20
Peter P Toth, Naveed Sattar, Dirk J Blom, Seth S Martin, Steven R Jones, Maria Laura Monsalvo, Mary Elliott, Mike Davis, Ransi Somaratne, David Preiss
The level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reflects the cholesterol carried mainly by low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL-P). LDL-C, however, does not always correlate with LDL-P because of the variable amounts of cholesterol per particle. Consideration of LDL-P concentrations in addition to LDL-C may help guide therapeutic decisions in a select number of patients. Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 that lowers both LDL-C and cardiovascular events...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
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