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Exercise programme

Manuela Schnyder, Hubertus Hertzberg, Alexander Mathis, Marietta Schönmann, Adrian Hehl, Peter Deplazes
Pursuant to the Joint Declaration by 29 European education ministers in June 1999 in the city of Bologna, Italy, the so-called 'Bologna Process' was officially introduced at the Vetsuisse Faculty (Universities of Zurich and Berne) in Switzerland in 2007. The long-term goal of restructuring the study programmes was to create a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with uniform and clearly defined standards for degrees ("diplomas"). Accordingly, the Vetsuisse curriculum was organised as a 3-year Bachelor and a 2-year Master study program...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
J L Sanchez-Gonzalez, J I Calvo-Arenillas, J L Sanchez-Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: Clinical evidence gathered in recent years indicates that elderly individuals more frequently display cognitive changes. These age-related changes refer, above all, to memory functions and to the speed of thinking and reasoning. A number of studies have shown that physical activity can be used as an important mechanism for protecting the cognitive functions. AIM: To test the hypothesis that physical exercise is able to bring about changes in the cognitive functions of healthy elderly adults without cognitive impairment, thereby improving their quality of life...
April 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Trudy Mooren, Yoke Rabaia, Suzan Mitwalli, Relinde Reiffers, Rosemarijn Koenen, Marguerithe de Man
BACKGROUND: Families with a child who has a disability have extra difficulties, particularly when services are hard to reach or less available. In a collaborative project, the Institute of Community and Public Health, the Palestinian community-based rehabilitation programme, and international non-governmental organisations cooperated to share and develop expertise and knowledge on increasing families' resilience through establishing family groups. This contribution focuses on the use of the Multi-Family Approach (MFA) in a Palestinian context...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Nobuhisa Morimoto, Chikako Kasuga, Airi Tanaka, Keiko Kamachi, Masumi Ai, Kevin Y Urayama, Akira Tanaka
An easily understandable index that measures the quality of carbohydrate may aid people in adopting dietary habits that improve their glucose tolerance. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between a ratio of dietary fibre to carbohydrate intakes (fibre:carbohydrate ratio (F:C-R)) and glucose tolerance cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Subjects were 190 Japanese men and women without type 2 diabetes (mean age 55·4 years) who participated in a 5-month diet and exercise programme. We compared baseline anthropometric, dietary and metabolic profiles between those with higher F:C-R and those with lower ratios...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
John R Best, Janice J Eng, Jennifer C Davis, Robin Hsiung, Peter A Hall, Laura E Middleton, Peter Graf, Charles H Goldsmith, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular disease-such as stroke-is the second most common cause of dementia (ie, vascular dementia). Specifically, a stroke increases one's risk for dementia by a factor of two. Thus, stroke survivors represent a target population in need of intervention strategies to promote cognitive function and prevent dementia. The current standard of care in stroke rehabilitation does not adequately address the significant cognitive consequences of stroke, especially for those who are in the chronic phase (ie, >12 months since an index stroke)...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Alison Luther, Joseph Gabriel, Richard P Watson, Nader K Francis
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in perioperative care, post-operative clinical and functional outcomes after major abdominal surgery can be suboptimal. Prehabilitation programmes attempt to optimise a patient's preoperative condition to improve outcomes. Total body prehabilitation includes structured exercise, nutritional optimisation, psychological support and cessation of negative health behaviours. This systematic review aims to report on the current literature regarding the impact of total body prehabilitation prior to major abdominal surgery...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Monika Löfgren, Christina H Opava, Ingrid Demmelmaier, Cecilia Fridén, Ingrid E Lundberg, Birgitta Nordgren, Eva Kosek
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore pressure pain sensitivity and the function of segmental and plurisegmental exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with healthy control subjects (HC). METHODS: Forty-six participants with RA (43 female, 3 male) and 20 HC (16 female, 4 male) participated in the study. Pressure pain thresholds, suprathreshold pressure pain at rest, and segmental and plurisegmental EIH during standardised submaximal contractions were assessed by algometry...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
L Vincze, M E Rollo, M J Hutchesson, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: A tailored approach to nutrition and physical activity advice can support women following childbirth in managing barriers (i.e. time and childcare) to making healthy lifestyle changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a personally tailored nutrition and exercise programme for postpartum women delivered via video-consultations by an accredited practising dietitian (APD) and accredited exercise physiologist (AEP)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Sherrie L Kelly, Rowan Martin-Hughes, Robyn M Stuart, Xiao F Yap, David J Kedziora, Kelsey L Grantham, S Azfar Hussain, Iyanoosh Reporter, Andrew J Shattock, Laura Grobicki, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Zofia Baranczuk, Olivia Keiser, Janne Estill, Janka Petravic, Richard T Gray, Clemens J Benedikt, Nicole Fraser, Marelize Gorgens, David Wilson, Cliff C Kerr, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: To move towards ending AIDS by 2030, HIV resources should be allocated cost-effectively. We used the Optima HIV model to estimate how global HIV resources could be retargeted for greatest epidemiological effect and how many additional new infections could be averted by 2030. METHODS: We collated standard data used in country modelling exercises (including demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, programmatic, and expenditure data) from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2015 for 44 countries, capturing 80% of people living with HIV worldwide...
March 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
Hannah Kuper, Tracey Smythe, Antony Duttine
Universal health coverage (UHC) has been adopted by many countries as a national target for 2030. People with disabilities need to be included within efforts towards UHC, as they are a large group making up 15% of the world's population and are more vulnerable to poor health. UHC focuses both on covering the whole population as well as providing all the services needed and must include an emphasis on health promotion, as well as disease treatment and cure. Health promotion often focusses on tackling individual behaviours, such as encouraging exercise or good nutrition...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alberto Raggi, Licia Grazzi, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Paola Ciasca, Luisa Chiapparini, Alessandra Erbetta, Giuseppe Faragò, Matilde Leonardi, Domenico D'Amico
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is associated with obesity, and weight loss is important to reduce intracranial pressure and improve visual function. A 38-year-old woman with IIH followed an extreme diet, which resulted in 30% weight loss (BMI moved from 34.9 to 24.6). Weight loss resulted in a significant reduction of papilloedema, normalization of intracranial pressure and improvement in headache pattern, but also induced a state of initial malnutrition, relevant depression and disability. She was discharged with the indication to start a controlled diet and improve physical activity: clinical situation get back to stability, with the patient loosing further weight (BMI=21...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Katy Sutcliffe, G J Melendez-Torres, Helen E D Burchett, Michelle Richardson, Rebecca Rees, James Thomas
BACKGROUND: Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review...
March 14, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
J M Colston, A M S Ahmed, S B Soofi, E Svensen, R Haque, J Shrestha, R Nshama, Z Bhutta, I F N Lima, A Samie, L Bodhidatta, A A M Lima, P Bessong, M Paredes Olortegui, A Turab, V R Mohan, L H Moulton, E N Naumova, G Kang, M N Kosek
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Cesare de Gregorio, Dalia Di Nunzio, Gianluca Di Bella
Physical activity comprises all muscular activities that require energy expenditure. Regular sequence of structured and organized exercise with the specific purpose of improving wellness and athletic performance is defined as a sports activity.Exercise can be performed at various levels of intensity and duration. According to the social context and pathways, it can be recreational, occupational, and competitive. Therefore, the training burden varies inherently and the heart adaptation is challenging.Although a general agreement on the fact that sports practice leads to metabolic, functional and physical benefits, there is evidence that some athletes may be subjected to adverse outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Samuel T Orange, Phil Marshall, Leigh A Madden, Rebecca V Vince
This study compared the effects of a 4-week supervised (SUP) and unsupervised (UNSUP) resistance training programme followed by 12 weeks of detraining (DET). Thirty-six healthy aging adults (age: 53.6 ± 3.6 years; body mass index: 28.3 ± 5.1 kg/m) were randomly allocated to a SUP group (n = 17) or an UNSUP group (n = 19). Participants completed three training sessions per week using resistance bands and body weight movements. Measures of physical performance were administered at baseline, at the end of the training programme, and after the DET period...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Andrew J Maiorana, Andrew D Williams, Christopher D Askew, Itamar Levinger, Jeff Coombes, Bill Vicenzino, Kade Davison, Neil A Smart, Steve E Selig
Regular exercise improves health but can also induce adverse responses. Although such episodes are rare, many guidelines for pre-participation exercise screening have historically had a low threshold for recommending medical clearance prior to the commencement of exercise, placing the responsibility for decision making about exercise participation on physicians. The 'clearance to exercise' model still occurs widely in practice, but creates cost burdens and barriers to the uptake of exercise. Moreover, many physicians are not provided the training, nor time in a standard consultation, to be able to effectively perform this role...
March 9, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jesús Cespón, Carlo Miniussi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari
A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease)...
March 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Gerry Fowkes, Ian N Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication is pain in the legs due to muscle ischaemia associated with arterial stenosis or occlusion. Angioplasty is a technique that involves dilatation and recanalisation of a stenosed or occluded artery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the effects of angioplasty of arteries in the leg when compared with non surgical therapy, or no therapy, for people with mild to moderate intermittent claudication. SEARCH METHODS: Sources searched include the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group's Specialized Trials Register (August 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3, 2006) and reference lists of relevant articles...
March 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gwendolyn Vuurberg, Alexander Hoorntje, Lauren M Wink, Brent F W van der Doelen, Michel P van den Bekerom, Rienk Dekker, C Niek van Dijk, Rover Krips, Masja C M Loogman, Milan L Ridderikhof, Frank F Smithuis, Sjoerd A S Stufkens, Evert A L M Verhagen, Rob A de Bie, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs
This guideline aimed to advance current understandings regarding the diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic interventions for ankle sprains by updating the existing guideline and incorporate new research. A secondary objective was to provide an update related to the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic procedures, therapeutic interventions and prevention strategies. It was posited that subsequent interaction of clinicians with this guideline could help reduce health impairments and patient burden associated with this prevalent musculoskeletal injury...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Matheus Oliveira Almeida, Chris G Maher, Bruno T Saragiotto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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