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Associative learning genetic circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163022/the-insula-and-taste-learning
#1
REVIEW
Adonis Yiannakas, Kobi Rosenblum
The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC), among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042611/developmental-stage-dependent-regulation-of-spine-formation-by-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii%C3%AE-and-rap1
#2
Solveigh Cornelia Koeberle, Shinji Tanaka, Toshihiko Kuriu, Hirohide Iwasaki, Andreas Koeberle, Alexander Schulz, Dario-Lucas Helbing, Yoko Yamagata, Helen Morrison, Shigeo Okabe
The roles of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha (CaMKIIα) in the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity in the adult brain have been extensively studied. However, how increased CaMKIIα activity controls the maturation of neuronal circuits remains incompletely understood. Herein, we show that pyramidal neurons without CaMKIIα activity upregulate the rate of spine addition, resulting in elevated spine density. Genetic elimination of CaMKIIα activity specifically eliminated the observed maturation-dependent suppression of spine formation...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918262/circuit-changes-in-motor-cortex-during-motor-skill-learning
#3
Andrew E Papale, Bryan M Hooks
Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774568/synaptic-dysfunction-in-amygdala-in-intellectual-disorder-models
#4
REVIEW
Marianne Aincy, Hamid Meziane, Yann Herault, Yann Humeau
The amygdala is a part of the limbic circuit that has been extensively studied in terms of synaptic connectivity, plasticity and cellular organization since decades (Ehrlich et al., 2009; Ledoux, 2000; Maren, 2001). Amygdala sub-nuclei, including lateral, basolateral and central amygdala appear now as "hubs" providing in parallel and in series neuronal processing enabling the animal to elicit freezing or escaping behavior in response to external threats. In rodents, these behaviors are easily observed and quantified following associative fear conditioning...
August 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751200/gene-regulation-in-adult-neural-stem-cells-current-challenges-and-possible-applications
#5
Juan Manuel Encinas, Carlos P Fitzsimons
Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) offer a unique opportunity for neural regeneration and niche modification in physiopathological conditions, harnessing the capability to modify from neuronal circuits to glial scar. Findings exposing the vast plasticity and potential of NSPCs have accumulated over the past years and we currently know that adult NSPCs can naturally give rise not only to neurons but also to astrocytes and reactive astrocytes, and eventually to oligodendrocytes through genetic manipulation...
July 25, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511982/characteristic-and-intermingled-neocortical-circuits-encode-different-visual-object-discriminations
#6
Guo-Rong Zhang, Hua Zhao, Nathan Cook, Michael Svestka, Eui M Choi, Mary Jan, Robert G Cook, Alfred I Geller
Synaptic plasticity and neural network theories hypothesize that the essential information for advanced cognitive tasks is encoded in specific circuits and neurons within distributed neocortical networks. However, these circuits are incompletely characterized, and we do not know if a specific discrimination is encoded in characteristic circuits among multiple animals. Here, we determined the spatial distribution of active neurons for a circuit that encodes some of the essential information for a cognitive task...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483586/what-can-tiny-mushrooms-in-fruit-flies-tell-us-about-learning-and-memory
#7
REVIEW
Toshihide Hige
Nervous systems have evolved to translate external stimuli into appropriate behavioral responses. In an ever-changing environment, flexible adjustment of behavioral choice by experience-dependent learning is essential for the animal's survival. Associative learning is a simple form of learning that is widely observed from worms to humans. To understand the whole process of learning, we need to know how sensory information is represented and transformed in the brain, how it is changed by experience, and how the changes are reflected on motor output...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402856/chd8-mutation-leads-to-autistic-like-behaviors-and-impaired-striatal-circuits
#8
Randall J Platt, Yang Zhou, Ian M Slaymaker, Ashwin S Shetty, Niels R Weisbach, Jin-Ah Kim, Jitendra Sharma, Mitul Desai, Sabina Sood, Hannah R Kempton, Gerald R Crabtree, Guoping Feng, Feng Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disease, but genetically defined models can provide an entry point to studying the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. We generated germline mutant mice with loss-of-function mutations in Chd8, a de novo mutation strongly associated with ASD, and demonstrate that these mice display hallmark ASD behaviors, macrocephaly, and craniofacial abnormalities similar to patient phenotypes. Chd8(+/-) mice display a broad, brain-region-specific dysregulation of major regulatory and cellular processes, most notably histone and chromatin modification, mRNA and protein processing, Wnt signaling, and cell-cycle regulation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273291/an-integrated-neuroscience-perspective-on-formulation-and-treatment-planning-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-educational-review
#9
REVIEW
David A Ross, Melissa R Arbuckle, Michael J Travis, Jennifer B Dwyer, Gerrit I van Schalkwyk, Kerry J Ressler
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256686/-neuroplasticity-synaptogenesis-during-normal-development-and-its-implication-in-intellectual-disability
#10
M Martinez-Morga, S Martinez
Neuroplasticity is the biological capacity of the nervous system to modify its structure and functioning to adapt to both physiological and pathological variations in the environment. Its main physiological consequences are learning and memory, and its pathological outcome is neurological rehabilitation. The continuous change and initial fragility of the developing brain make the embryonic and foetal periods especially plastic (what is known as developmental neuroplasticity). The progressive reduction in plasticity, however, is never complete and the capacity to modify the brain circuits in response to new learning (adaptive neuroplasticity) or brain injuries (reactive neuroplasticity) remains throughout the individual's entire lifespan...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031150/functional-dysconnection-of-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-in-young-people-with-bipolar-disorder-or-at-genetic-high-risk
#11
Gloria Roberts, Anton Lord, Andrew Frankland, Adam Wright, Phoebe Lau, Florence Levy, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Philip B Mitchell, Michael Breakspear
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by a dysregulation of affect and impaired integration of emotion with cognition. These traits are also expressed in probands at high genetic risk of BD. The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a key cortical hub in the circuits of emotion and cognitive control, and it has been frequently associated with BD. Here, we studied resting-state functional connectivity of the left IFG in participants with BD and in those at increased genetic risk...
April 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999532/genetic-feedback-regulation-of-frontal-cortical-neuronal-ensembles-through-activity-dependent-arc-expression-and-dopaminergic-input
#12
Surjeet Mastwal, Vania Cao, Kuan Hong Wang
Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903825/synthetic-biology-routes-to-bio-artificial-intelligence
#13
REVIEW
Darren N Nesbeth, Alexey Zaikin, Yasushi Saka, M Carmen Romano, Claudiu V Giuraniuc, Oleg Kanakov, Tetyana Laptyeva
The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular 'teachers' and 'students' is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#14
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693255/molecular-and-neural-functions-of-rai1-the-causal-gene-for-smith-magenis-syndrome
#15
Wei-Hsiang Huang, Casey J Guenthner, Jin Xu, Tiffany Nguyen, Lindsay A Schwarz, Alex W Wilkinson, Or Gozani, Howard Y Chang, Mehrdad Shamloo, Liqun Luo
Haploinsufficiency of Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which is associated with diverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral symptoms as well as obesity. RAI1 encodes a nuclear protein but little is known about its molecular function or the cell types responsible for SMS symptoms. Using genetically engineered mice, we found that Rai1 preferentially occupies DNA regions near active promoters and promotes the expression of a group of genes involved in circuit assembly and neuronal communication...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559168/task-learning-promotes-plasticity-of-interneuron-connectivity-maps-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#16
Longwen Huang, Kevin Ung, Isabella Garcia, Kathleen B Quast, Keith Cordiner, Peter Saggau, Benjamin R Arenkiel
UNLABELLED: Elucidating patterns of functional synaptic connectivity and deciphering mechanisms of how plasticity influences such connectivity is essential toward understanding brain function. In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), principal neurons (mitral/tufted cells) make reciprocal connections with local inhibitory interneurons, including granule cells (GCs) and external plexiform layer (EPL) interneurons. Our current understanding of the functional connectivity between these cell types, as well as their experience-dependent plasticity, remains incomplete...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303270/super-resolution-imaging-of-genetically-labeled-synapses-in-drosophila-brain-tissue
#17
Isabelle A Spühler, Gaurasundar M Conley, Frank Scheffold, Simon G Sprecher
Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161151/altered-mglur5-homer-scaffolds-and-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-a-shank3-complete-knockout-model-of-autism
#18
Xiaoming Wang, Alexandra L Bey, Brittany M Katz, Alexandra Badea, Namsoo Kim, Lisa K David, Lara J Duffney, Sunil Kumar, Stephen D Mague, Samuel W Hulbert, Nisha Dutta, Volodya Hayrapetyan, Chunxiu Yu, Erin Gaidis, Shengli Zhao, Jin-Dong Ding, Qiong Xu, Leeyup Chung, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Fan Wang, Richard J Weinberg, William C Wetsel, Kafui Dzirasa, Henry Yin, Yong-Hui Jiang
Human neuroimaging studies suggest that aberrant neural connectivity underlies behavioural deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the molecular and neural circuit mechanisms underlying ASDs remain elusive. Here, we describe a complete knockout mouse model of the autism-associated Shank3 gene, with a deletion of exons 4-22 (Δe4-22). Both mGluR5-Homer scaffolds and mGluR5-mediated signalling are selectively altered in striatal neurons. These changes are associated with perturbed function at striatal synapses, abnormal brain morphology, aberrant structural connectivity and ASD-like behaviour...
May 10, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122041/behavioral-neurophysiological-and-synaptic-impairment-in-a-transgenic-neuregulin1-nrg1-iv-murine-schizophrenia-model
#19
Francesco Papaleo, Feng Yang, Clare Paterson, Sara Palumbo, Gregory V Carr, Yanhong Wang, Kirsten Floyd, Wenwei Huang, Craig J Thomas, Jingshan Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Amanda J Law
UNLABELLED: Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling neuropsychiatric disorder with complex genetic origins. The development of strategies for genome manipulation in rodents provides a platform for understanding the pathogenic role of genes and for testing novel therapeutic agents. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a critical developmental neurotrophin, is associated with schizophrenia. The NRG1 gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing and, to date, little is known about the neurobiology of a novel NRG1 isoform, NRG1-IV, which is increased in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia and associated with genetic risk variation...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122037/epac-signaling-is-required-for-cocaine-induced-change-in-ampa-receptor-subunit-composition-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#20
Xiaojie Liu, Yao Chen, Jiaqing Tong, Ashley M Reynolds, Sarah C Proudfoot, Jinshun Qi, Peter Penzes, Youming Lu, Qing-Song Liu
UNLABELLED: Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) and protein kinase A (PKA) are intracellular receptors for cAMP. Although PKA and its downstream effectors have been studied extensively in the context of drug addiction, whether and how Epac regulates cellular and behavioral effects of drugs of abuse remain essentially unknown. Epac is known to regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking. Previous studies have shown that a single cocaine exposure in vivo leads to an increase in GluA2-lacking AMPARs in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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