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Associative memory genetic circuits

Federica Bressi, Manuele Casale, Rocco Papalia, Antonio Moffa, Alberto Di Martino, Sandra Miccinilli, Fabrizio Salvinelli, Vincenzo Denaro, Silvia Sterzi
Subjective tinnitus and cervical spine disorders (CSD) are among the most common complaints encountered by physicians. Although the relationship between tinnitus and CSD has attracted great interest during the past several years, the pathogenesis of tinnitus induced by CSD remains unclear. Conceivably, CSD could trigger a somatosensory pathway-induced disinhibition of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) activity in the auditory pathway; furthermore, CSD can cause inner ear blood impairment induced by vertebral arteries hemodynamic alterations and trigeminal irritation...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Joshua Kim, Michele Pignatelli, Sangyu Xu, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Susumu Tonegawa
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a site of convergence of negative and positive stimuli and is critical for emotional behaviors and associations. However, the neural substrate for negative and positive behaviors and relationship between negative and positive representations in the basolateral amygdala are unknown. Here we identify two genetically distinct, spatially segregated populations of excitatory neurons in the mouse BLA that participate in valence-specific behaviors and are connected through mutual inhibition...
December 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Isabelle A Spühler, Gaurasundar M Conley, Frank Scheffold, Simon G Sprecher
Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nikolay Martyushenko, Sigurd Hagen Johansen, Cheol-Min Ghim, Eivind Almaas
BACKGROUND: Genetic switches are ubiquitous in nature, frequently associated with the control of cellular functions and developmental programs. In the realm of synthetic biology, it is of great interest to engineer genetic circuits that can change their mode of operation from monostable to bistable, or even to multistable, based on the experimental fine-tuning of readily accessible parameters. In order to successfully design robust, bistable synthetic circuits to be used as biomolecular probes, or understand modes of operation of such naturally occurring circuits, we must identify parameters that are key in determining their characteristics...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Francesco Papaleo, Feng Yang, Clare Paterson, Sara Palumbo, Gregory V Carr, Yanhong Wang, Kirsten Floyd, Wenwei Huang, Craig J Thomas, Jingshan Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Amanda J Law
UNLABELLED: Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling neuropsychiatric disorder with complex genetic origins. The development of strategies for genome manipulation in rodents provides a platform for understanding the pathogenic role of genes and for testing novel therapeutic agents. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a critical developmental neurotrophin, is associated with schizophrenia. The NRG1 gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing and, to date, little is known about the neurobiology of a novel NRG1 isoform, NRG1-IV, which is increased in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia and associated with genetic risk variation...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A A Paltsyn, S V Komissarova
The first morphological signs of aging of the brain are found in the white matter already at a young age (20-40 years), and later (40-50 years) in a gray matter. After the 40-50 years appear and in subsequently are becoming more pronounced functional manifestations of morphological changes: the weakening of sensory-motor and cognitive abilities. While in principle this dynamic of age-related changes is inevitable, the rate of their development to a large extent determined by the genetic characteristics and lifestyle of the individual...
October 2015: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
Lauren A M Lebois, Jonathan D Wolff, Kerry J Ressler
Neuroimaging genetic studies that associate genetic and epigenetic variation with neural activity or structure provide an opportunity to link genes to psychiatric disorders, often before psychopathology is discernable in behavior. Here we review neuroimaging genetics studies with participants who have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Results show that genes related to the physiological stress response (e.g., glucocorticoid receptor and activity, neuroendocrine release), learning and memory (e.g., plasticity), mood, and pain perception are tied to neural intermediate phenotypes associated with PTSD...
October 2016: Experimental Neurology
Philip Lieberman
Language primarily evolved as a vocal medium that transmits the attributes of human culture and the necessities of daily communication. Human language has a long, complex evolutionary history. Language also serves as an instrument of thought since it has become evident that in the course of this process neural circuits that initially evolved to regulate motor control, motor responses to external events, and ultimately talking were recycled to serve tasks such as working memory, cognitive flexibility linguistic tasks such as comprehending distinctions in meaning conveyed by syntax...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
Myron L Glucksman
Freud's "Project for a Scientific Psychology" (1895) reflected his attempt to explain psychic phenomena in neurobiological terms. The recent discovery of the neuron motivated him to embark on this endeavor. His basic hypothesis was that neurons were vehicles for the conduction of "currents" or "excitations," and that they were connected to one another. Using this model, Freud attempted to describe a number of mental phenomena, including: consciousness, perception, affect, self, cognition, dreaming, memory, and symptom formation...
March 2016: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Ling-Bo Li, Haoyun Lei, Rachel N Arey, Pengpeng Li, Jianfeng Liu, Coleen T Murphy, X Z Shawn Xu, Kang Shen
Aging is the greatest risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, normal aging is associated with a decline in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. Emerging evidence suggests that synapse alterations, rather than neuronal cell death, are the causes of neuronal dysfunctions in normal aging and in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying age-related synaptic decline. Here, we uncover a surprising role of the anterograde molecular motor UNC-104/KIF1A as a key regulator of neural circuit deterioration in aging C...
March 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
J David Sweatt
This brief review summarizes sixty years of conceptual advances that have demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal connectivity as a controller of behavior and behavioral change. Seminal studies in the first phase of the six-decade span of this review firmly established the cellular basis of behavior - a concept that we take for granted now, but which was an open question at the time. Hebbian plasticity, including LTP and LTD, was then discovered as being important for local circuit refinement in the context of memory formation and behavioral change and stabilization in the mammalian central nervous system...
February 14, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Gemma Flore, Giuseppina Di Ruberto, Joséphine Parisot, Sara Sannino, Fabio Russo, Elizabeth A Illingworth, Michèle Studer, Elvira De Leonibus
The hippocampus (HP), a medial cortical structure, is subdivided into a distinct dorsal (septal) and ventral (temporal) portion, which is separated by an intermediate region lying on a longitudinal curvature. While the dorsal portion is more dedicated to spatial navigation and memory, the most ventral part processes emotional information. Genetic factors expressed in gradient during development seem to control the size and correct positioning of the HP along its longitudinal axis; however, their roles in regulating differential growth and in supporting its anatomical and functional dissociation remain unexplored...
January 26, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Hitoshi Nagura, Tomoko Doi, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi
The hippocampal formation is involved in several important brain functions of animals, such as memory formation and pattern separation, and the synapses in the dentate gyrus (DG) play critical roles as the first step in the hippocampal circuit. Previous studies have reported that mice with genetic modifications of the PDZ1/2 domains of postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 exhibit altered synaptic properties in the DG and impaired hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Based on the involvement of the DG in the regulation of behaviors, these data suggest that the abnormal behavior of these knockin (KI) mice is due partly to altered DG function...
March 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Min Wang, Amy F T Arnsten
Revealing how molecular mechanisms influence higher brain circuits in primates will be essential for understanding how genetic insults lead to increased risk of cognitive disorders. Traditionally, modulatory influences on higher cortical circuits have been examined using lesion techniques, where a brain region is depleted of a particular transmitter to determine how its loss impacts cognitive function. For example, depletion of catecholamines or acetylcholine from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex produces striking deficits in working memory abilities...
November 18, 2015: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
Astrid Rohwedder, Mareike Selcho, Bérénice Chassot, Andreas S Thum
All organisms continuously have to adapt their behavior according to changes in the environment in order to survive. Experience-driven changes in behavior are usually mediated and maintained by modifications in signaling within defined brain circuits. Given the simplicity of the larval brain of Drosophila and its experimental accessibility on the genetic and behavioral level, we analyzed if Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) neurons are involved in classical olfactory conditioning. dNPF is an ortholog of the mammalian neuropeptide Y, a highly conserved neuromodulator that stimulates food-seeking behavior...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tomer Langberg, Ryan Dashek, Bernard Mulvey, Kimberly A Miller, Susan Osting, Carl E Stafstrom, Thomas P Sutula
Kindling is a phenomenon of activity-dependent neural circuit plasticity induced by repeated seizures that results in progressive permanent increases in susceptibility to epilepsy. As the permanent structural and functional modifications induced by kindling include a diverse range of molecular, cellular, and functional alterations in neural circuits, it is of interest to determine if genetic background associated with seizure-induced plasticity might also influence plasticity in neural circuitry underlying other behaviors...
January 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Cara Altimus, Jon Harrold, Hanna Jaaro-Peled, Akira Sawa, David J Foster
We present results from a novel comparative approach to the study of mechanisms of psychiatric disease. Previous work examined neural activity patterns in the hippocampus of a freely behaving mouse model associated with schizophrenia, the calcineurin knockout mouse. Here we examined a genetically distinct mouse that exhibits a similar set of behavioral phenotypes associated with schizophrenia, a transgenic model expressing a putative dominant-negative DISC1 (DN-DISC1). Strikingly, the principal finding of the earlier work is replicated in the DN-DISC1 mice, that is, a selective increase in the numbers of sharp-wave ripple events in the local hippocampal LFP, while at the same time other LFP patterns such as theta and gamma are unaffected...
May 2015: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Orna Levran, Einat Peles, Matthew Randesi, Joel Correa da Rosa, Jurg Ott, John Rotrosen, Miriam Adelson, Mary Jeanne Kreek
AIM: Drug addiction is characterized, in part, by deregulation of synaptic plasticity in circuits involved in reward, stress, cue learning, and memory. This study was designed to assess whether 185 variants in 32 genes central to synaptic plasticity and signal transduction contribute to vulnerability to develop heroin and/or cocaine addiction. METHODS: Analyses were conducted in a sample of 1860 subjects divided according to ancestry (African and European) and drug of abuse (heroin or cocaine)...
November 2015: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Daewoo Lee
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a popular model to study cAMP signaling and resultant behaviors due to its powerful genetic approaches. All molecular components (AC, PDE, PKA, CREB, etc) essential for cAMP signaling have been identified in the fly. Among them, adenylyl cyclase (AC) gene rutabaga and phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene dunce have been intensively studied to understand the role of cAMP signaling. Interestingly, these two mutant genes were originally identified on the basis of associative learning deficits...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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