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Associative memory genetic circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042611/developmental-stage-dependent-regulation-of-spine-formation-by-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii%C3%AE-and-rap1
#1
Solveigh Cornelia Koeberle, Shinji Tanaka, Toshihiko Kuriu, Hirohide Iwasaki, Andreas Koeberle, Alexander Schulz, Dario-Lucas Helbing, Yoko Yamagata, Helen Morrison, Shigeo Okabe
The roles of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha (CaMKIIα) in the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity in the adult brain have been extensively studied. However, how increased CaMKIIα activity controls the maturation of neuronal circuits remains incompletely understood. Herein, we show that pyramidal neurons without CaMKIIα activity upregulate the rate of spine addition, resulting in elevated spine density. Genetic elimination of CaMKIIα activity specifically eliminated the observed maturation-dependent suppression of spine formation...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993643/a-sexually-dimorphic-pre-stressed-translational-signature-in-ca3-pyramidal-neurons-of-bdnf-val66met-mice
#2
Jordan Marrocco, Gordon H Petty, Mariel B Ríos, Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Elizabeth M Waters, Eric F Schmidt, Francis S Lee, Bruce S McEwen
Males and females use distinct brain circuits to cope with similar challenges. Using RNA sequencing of ribosome-bound mRNA from hippocampal CA3 neurons, we found remarkable sex differences and discovered that female mice displayed greater gene expression activation after acute stress than males. Stress-sensitive BDNF Val66Met mice of both sexes show a pre-stressed translational phenotype in which the same genes that are activated without applied stress are also induced in wild-type mice by an acute stressor...
October 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774568/synaptic-dysfunction-in-amygdala-in-intellectual-disorder-models
#3
REVIEW
Marianne Aincy, Hamid Meziane, Yann Herault, Yann Humeau
The amygdala is a part of the limbic circuit that has been extensively studied in terms of synaptic connectivity, plasticity and cellular organization since decades (Ehrlich et al., 2009; Ledoux, 2000; Maren, 2001). Amygdala sub-nuclei, including lateral, basolateral and central amygdala appear now as "hubs" providing in parallel and in series neuronal processing enabling the animal to elicit freezing or escaping behavior in response to external threats. In rodents, these behaviors are easily observed and quantified following associative fear conditioning...
August 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483586/what-can-tiny-mushrooms-in-fruit-flies-tell-us-about-learning-and-memory
#4
REVIEW
Toshihide Hige
Nervous systems have evolved to translate external stimuli into appropriate behavioral responses. In an ever-changing environment, flexible adjustment of behavioral choice by experience-dependent learning is essential for the animal's survival. Associative learning is a simple form of learning that is widely observed from worms to humans. To understand the whole process of learning, we need to know how sensory information is represented and transformed in the brain, how it is changed by experience, and how the changes are reflected on motor output...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273291/an-integrated-neuroscience-perspective-on-formulation-and-treatment-planning-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-educational-review
#5
REVIEW
David A Ross, Melissa R Arbuckle, Michael J Travis, Jennifer B Dwyer, Gerrit I van Schalkwyk, Kerry J Ressler
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256686/-neuroplasticity-synaptogenesis-during-normal-development-and-its-implication-in-intellectual-disability
#6
M Martinez-Morga, S Martinez
Neuroplasticity is the biological capacity of the nervous system to modify its structure and functioning to adapt to both physiological and pathological variations in the environment. Its main physiological consequences are learning and memory, and its pathological outcome is neurological rehabilitation. The continuous change and initial fragility of the developing brain make the embryonic and foetal periods especially plastic (what is known as developmental neuroplasticity). The progressive reduction in plasticity, however, is never complete and the capacity to modify the brain circuits in response to new learning (adaptive neuroplasticity) or brain injuries (reactive neuroplasticity) remains throughout the individual's entire lifespan...
February 24, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012597/cervical-spine-disorders-and-its-association-with-tinnitus-the-triple-hypothesis
#7
Federica Bressi, Manuele Casale, Rocco Papalia, Antonio Moffa, Alberto Di Martino, Sandra Miccinilli, Fabrizio Salvinelli, Vincenzo Denaro, Silvia Sterzi
Subjective tinnitus and cervical spine disorders (CSD) are among the most common complaints encountered by physicians. Although the relationship between tinnitus and CSD has attracted great interest during the past several years, the pathogenesis of tinnitus induced by CSD remains unclear. Conceivably, CSD could trigger a somatosensory pathway-induced disinhibition of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) activity in the auditory pathway; furthermore, CSD can cause inner ear blood impairment induced by vertebral arteries hemodynamic alterations and trigeminal irritation...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768692/genetic-dissection-of-aversive-associative-olfactory-learning-and-memory-in-drosophila-larvae
#8
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749826/antagonistic-negative-and-positive-neurons-of-the-basolateral-amygdala
#9
Joshua Kim, Michele Pignatelli, Sangyu Xu, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Susumu Tonegawa
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a site of convergence of negative and positive stimuli and is critical for emotional behaviors and associations. However, the neural substrate for negative and positive behaviors and relationship between negative and positive representations in the basolateral amygdala are unknown. Here we identify two genetically distinct, spatially segregated populations of excitatory neurons in the mouse BLA that participate in valence-specific behaviors and are connected through mutual inhibition...
December 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303270/super-resolution-imaging-of-genetically-labeled-synapses-in-drosophila-brain-tissue
#10
Isabelle A Spühler, Gaurasundar M Conley, Frank Scheffold, Simon G Sprecher
Understanding synaptic connectivity and plasticity within brain circuits and their relationship to learning and behavior is a fundamental quest in neuroscience. Visualizing the fine details of synapses using optical microscopy remains however a major technical challenge. Super resolution microscopy opens the possibility to reveal molecular features of synapses beyond the diffraction limit. With direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, dSTORM, we image synaptic proteins in the brain tissue of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266276/hypothetical-biomolecular-probe-based-on-a-genetic-switch-with-tunable-symmetry-and-stability
#11
Nikolay Martyushenko, Sigurd Hagen Johansen, Cheol-Min Ghim, Eivind Almaas
BACKGROUND: Genetic switches are ubiquitous in nature, frequently associated with the control of cellular functions and developmental programs. In the realm of synthetic biology, it is of great interest to engineer genetic circuits that can change their mode of operation from monostable to bistable, or even to multistable, based on the experimental fine-tuning of readily accessible parameters. In order to successfully design robust, bistable synthetic circuits to be used as biomolecular probes, or understand modes of operation of such naturally occurring circuits, we must identify parameters that are key in determining their characteristics...
June 6, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122041/behavioral-neurophysiological-and-synaptic-impairment-in-a-transgenic-neuregulin1-nrg1-iv-murine-schizophrenia-model
#12
Francesco Papaleo, Feng Yang, Clare Paterson, Sara Palumbo, Gregory V Carr, Yanhong Wang, Kirsten Floyd, Wenwei Huang, Craig J Thomas, Jingshan Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Amanda J Law
UNLABELLED: Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling neuropsychiatric disorder with complex genetic origins. The development of strategies for genome manipulation in rodents provides a platform for understanding the pathogenic role of genes and for testing novel therapeutic agents. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a critical developmental neurotrophin, is associated with schizophrenia. The NRG1 gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing and, to date, little is known about the neurobiology of a novel NRG1 isoform, NRG1-IV, which is increased in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia and associated with genetic risk variation...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116888/-age-related-changes-of-the-brain
#13
REVIEW
A A Paltsyn, S V Komissarova
The first morphological signs of aging of the brain are found in the white matter already at a young age (20-40 years), and later (40-50 years) in a gray matter. After the 40-50 years appear and in subsequently are becoming more pronounced functional manifestations of morphological changes: the weakening of sensory-motor and cognitive abilities. While in principle this dynamic of age-related changes is inevitable, the rate of their development to a large extent determined by the genetic characteristics and lifestyle of the individual...
October 2015: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109180/neuroimaging-genetic-approaches-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Lauren A M Lebois, Jonathan D Wolff, Kerry J Ressler
Neuroimaging genetic studies that associate genetic and epigenetic variation with neural activity or structure provide an opportunity to link genes to psychiatric disorders, often before psychopathology is discernable in behavior. Here we review neuroimaging genetics studies with participants who have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Results show that genes related to the physiological stress response (e.g., glucocorticoid receptor and activity, neuroendocrine release), learning and memory (e.g., plasticity), mood, and pain perception are tied to neural intermediate phenotypes associated with PTSD...
October 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963222/the-evolution-of-language-and-thought
#15
Philip Lieberman
Language primarily evolved as a vocal medium that transmits the attributes of human culture and the necessities of daily communication. Human language has a long, complex evolutionary history. Language also serves as an instrument of thought since it has become evident that in the course of this process neural circuits that initially evolved to regulate motor control, motor responses to external events, and ultimately talking were recycled to serve tasks such as working memory, cognitive flexibility linguistic tasks such as comprehending distinctions in meaning conveyed by syntax...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26938800/freud-s-project-the-mind-brain-connection-revisited
#16
REVIEW
Myron L Glucksman
Freud's "Project for a Scientific Psychology" (1895) reflected his attempt to explain psychic phenomena in neurobiological terms. The recent discovery of the neuron motivated him to embark on this endeavor. His basic hypothesis was that neurons were vehicles for the conduction of "currents" or "excitations," and that they were connected to one another. Using this model, Freud attempted to describe a number of mental phenomena, including: consciousness, perception, affect, self, cognition, dreaming, memory, and symptom formation...
March 2016: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877087/the-neuronal-kinesin-unc-104-kif1a-is-a-key-regulator-of-synaptic-aging-and-insulin-signaling-regulated-memory
#17
Ling-Bo Li, Haoyun Lei, Rachel N Arey, Pengpeng Li, Jianfeng Liu, Coleen T Murphy, X Z Shawn Xu, Kang Shen
Aging is the greatest risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, normal aging is associated with a decline in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. Emerging evidence suggests that synapse alterations, rather than neuronal cell death, are the causes of neuronal dysfunctions in normal aging and in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying age-related synaptic decline. Here, we uncover a surprising role of the anterograde molecular motor UNC-104/KIF1A as a key regulator of neural circuit deterioration in aging C...
March 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26875778/neural-plasticity-and-behavior-sixty-years-of-conceptual-advances
#18
REVIEW
J David Sweatt
This brief review summarizes 60 years of conceptual advances that have demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal connectivity as a controller of behavior and behavioral change. Seminal studies in the first phase of the six-decade span of this review firmly established the cellular basis of behavior - a concept that we take for granted now, but which was an open question at the time. Hebbian plasticity, including long-term potentiation and long-term depression, was then discovered as being important for local circuit refinement in the context of memory formation and behavioral change and stabilization in the mammalian central nervous system...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26813976/gradient-coup-tfi-expression-is-required-for-functional-organization-of-the-hippocampal-septo-temporal-longitudinal-axis
#19
Gemma Flore, Giuseppina Di Ruberto, Joséphine Parisot, Sara Sannino, Fabio Russo, Elizabeth A Illingworth, Michèle Studer, Elvira De Leonibus
The hippocampus (HP), a medial cortical structure, is subdivided into a distinct dorsal (septal) and ventral (temporal) portion, which is separated by an intermediate region lying on a longitudinal curvature. While the dorsal portion is more dedicated to spatial navigation and memory, the most ventral part processes emotional information. Genetic factors expressed in gradient during development seem to control the size and correct positioning of the HP along its longitudinal axis; however, their roles in regulating differential growth and in supporting its anatomical and functional dissociation remain unexplored...
February 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684546/characterization-of-physiological-phenotypes-of-dentate-gyrus-synapses-of-pdz1-2-domain-deficient-psd-95-knockin-mice
#20
Hitoshi Nagura, Tomoko Doi, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi
The hippocampal formation is involved in several important brain functions of animals, such as memory formation and pattern separation, and the synapses in the dentate gyrus (DG) play critical roles as the first step in the hippocampal circuit. Previous studies have reported that mice with genetic modifications of the PDZ1/2 domains of postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 exhibit altered synaptic properties in the DG and impaired hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Based on the involvement of the DG in the regulation of behaviors, these data suggest that the abnormal behavior of these knockin (KI) mice is due partly to altered DG function...
March 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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