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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922380/the-warburg-effect-as-an-adaptation-of-cancer-cells-to-rapid-fluctuations-in-energy-demand
#1
Tamir Epstein, Robert A Gatenby, Joel S Brown
To maintain optimal fitness, a cell must balance the risk of inadequate energy reserve for response to a potentially fatal perturbation against the long-term cost of maintaining high concentrations of ATP to meet occasional spikes in demand. Here we apply a game theoretic approach to address the dynamics of energy production and expenditure in eukaryotic cells. Conventionally, glucose metabolism is viewed as a function of oxygen concentrations in which the more efficient oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O produces all or nearly all ATP except under hypoxic conditions when less efficient (2 ATP/ glucose vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921997/simulating-drinking-in-social-networks-to-inform-alcohol-prevention-and-treatment-efforts
#2
Kevin A Hallgren, Barbara S McCrady, Thomas P Caudell, Katie Witkiewitz, J Scott Tonigan
Adolescent drinking influences, and is influenced by, peer alcohol use. Several efficacious adolescent alcohol interventions include elements aimed at reducing susceptibility to peer influence. Modeling these interventions within dynamically changing social networks may improve our understanding of how such interventions work and for whom they work best. We used stochastic actor-based models to simulate longitudinal drinking and friendship formation within social networks using parameters obtained from a meta-analysis of real-world 10th grade adolescent social networks...
September 18, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921473/the-development-and-diversity-of-ilcs-nk-cells-and-their-relevance-in-health-and-diseases
#3
Yuxia Zhang, Bing Huang
Next to T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells are the third largest lymphocyte population. They are recently re-categorized as innate lymphocytes (ILCs), which also include ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, and the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Both NK cells and ILC1 cells are designated as group 1 ILCs because they secrete interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). However, in contrast to ILC1 and all other ILCs, NK cells possess potent cytolytic functions that resemble cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920911/efficient-online-learning-algorithms-based-on-lstm-neural-networks
#4
Tolga Ergen, Suleyman Serdar Kozat
We investigate online nonlinear regression and introduce novel regression structures based on the long short term memory (LSTM) networks. For the introduced structures, we also provide highly efficient and effective online training methods. To train these novel LSTM-based structures, we put the underlying architecture in a state space form and introduce highly efficient and effective particle filtering (PF)-based updates. We also provide stochastic gradient descent and extended Kalman filter-based updates. Our PF-based training method guarantees convergence to the optimal parameter estimation in the mean square error sense provided that we have a sufficient number of particles and satisfy certain technical conditions...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920611/an-efficient-algorithm-for-extracting-the-magnitude-of-the-measurement-error-for-fractional-dynamics
#5
G Sikora, E Kepten, A Weron, M Balcerek, K Burnecki
Modern live-imaging fluorescent microscopy techniques following the stochastic motion of labeled tracer particles, i.e. single particle tracking (SPT) experiments, have uncovered significant deviations from the laws of Brownian motion in a variety of biological systems. Accurately characterizing the anomalous diffusion for SPT experiments has become a central issue in biophysics. However, measurement errors raise difficulty in the analysis of single trajectories. In this paper, we introduce a novel surface calibration method based on a fractionally integrated moving average (FIMA) process as an effective tool for extracting both the magnitude of the measurement error and the anomalous exponent for autocorrelated processes of various origins...
September 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919397/inferring-within-host-bottleneck-size-a-bayesian-approach
#6
R Dybowski, O Restif, D J Price, P Mastroeni
Recent technical developments in microbiology have led to new discoveries on the within-host dynamics of bacterial infections in laboratory animals. In particular, they have highlighted the importance of stochastic bottlenecks at the onset of invasive disease. A number of approaches exist for bottleneck-size estimation with respect to within-host bacterial infections; however, some are more appropriate than others under certain circumstances. A Bayesian comparison of several approaches is made in terms of the availability of isogenic multitype bacteria (e...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918951/collective-force-regulation-in-anti-parallel-microtubule-gliding-by-dimeric-kif15-kinesin-motors
#7
Dana N Reinemann, Emma G Sturgill, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Miriam Steiner Degen, Zsuzsanna Vörös, Wonmuk Hwang, Ryoma Ohi, Matthew J Lang
During cell division, the mitotic kinesin-5 Eg5 generates most of the force required to separate centrosomes during spindle assembly. However, Kif15, another mitotic kinesin, can replace Eg5 function, permitting mammalian cells to acquire resistance to Eg5 poisons. Unlike Eg5, the mechanism by which Kif15 generates centrosome separation forces is unknown. Here we investigated the mechanical properties and force generation capacity of Kif15 at the single-molecule level using optical tweezers. We found that the non-motor microtubule-binding tail domain interacts with the microtubule's E-hook tail with a rupture force higher than the stall force of the motor...
September 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918743/eb-family-proteins-functions-and-microtubule-interaction-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
V V Mustyatsa, A V Boyakhchyan, F I Ataullakhanov, N B Gudimchuk
Microtubules are polymers of tubulin protein, one of the key components of cytoskeleton. They are polar filaments whose plus-ends usually oriented toward the cell periphery are more dynamic than their minus-ends, which face the center of the cell. In cells, microtubules are organized into a network that is being constantly rebuilt and renovated due to stochastic switching of its individual filaments from growth to shrinkage and back. Because of these dynamics and their mechanical properties, microtubules take part in various essential processes, from intracellular transport to search and capture of chromosomes during mitosis...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916772/limits-of-predictability-of-cascading-overload-failures-in-spatially-embedded-networks-with-distributed-flows
#9
A Moussawi, N Derzsy, X Lin, B K Szymanski, G Korniss
Cascading failures are a critical vulnerability of complex information or infrastructure networks. Here we investigate the properties of load-based cascading failures in real and synthetic spatially-embedded network structures, and propose mitigation strategies to reduce the severity of damages caused by such failures. We introduce a stochastic method for optimal heterogeneous distribution of resources (node capacities) subject to a fixed total cost. Additionally, we design and compare the performance of networks with N-stable and (N-1)-stable network-capacity allocations by triggering cascades using various real-world node-attack and node-failure scenarios...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916757/muscle-pathology-from-stochastic-low-level-dux4-expression-in-an-fshd-mouse-model
#10
Darko Bosnakovski, Sunny S K Chan, Olivia O Recht, Lynn M Hartweck, Collin J Gustafson, Laura L Athman, Dawn A Lowe, Michael Kyba
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a slowly progressive but devastating myopathy caused by loss of repression of the transcription factor DUX4; however, DUX4 expression is very low, and protein has not been detected directly in patient biopsies. Efforts to model DUX4 myopathy in mice have foundered either in being too severe, or in lacking muscle phenotypes. Here we show that the endogenous facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy-specific DUX4 polyadenylation signal is surprisingly inefficient, and use this finding to develop an facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy mouse model with muscle-specific doxycycline-regulated DUX4 expression...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916588/glioblastoma-stem-cell-clonal-dynamics-drive-intratumor-heterogeneity
#11
(no author information available yet)
GBM heterogeneity is primarily driven by the stochastic outcome of GBM stem cell hierarchical growth.
September 15, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915892/modelling-the-impact-of-the-long-term-use-of-insecticide-treated-bed-nets-on-anopheles-mosquito-biting-time
#12
Claudia P Ferreira, Silas P Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs...
September 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915753/non-renewal-statistics-for-electron-transport-in-a-molecular-junction-with-electron-vibration-interaction
#13
Daniel S Kosov
Quantum transport of electrons through a molecule is a series of individual electron tunneling events separated by stochastic waiting time intervals. We study the emergence of temporal correlations between successive waiting times for the electron transport in a vibrating molecular junction. Using the master equation approach, we compute the joint probability distribution for waiting times of two successive tunneling events. We show that the probability distribution is completely reset after each tunneling event if molecular vibrations are thermally equilibrated...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914818/optimal-energy-efficiency-fairness-of-nodes-in-wireless-powered-communication-networks
#14
Jing Zhang, Qingjie Zhou, Derrick Wing Kwan Ng, Minho Jo
In wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs), it is essential to research energy efficiency fairness in order to evaluate the balance of nodes for receiving information and harvesting energy. In this paper, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm for optimal energy efficiency proportional fairness in WPCN. The main idea is to use stochastic geometry to derive the mean proportionally fairness utility function with respect to user association probability and receive threshold. Subsequently, we prove that the relaxed proportionally fairness utility function is a concave function for user association probability and receive threshold, respectively...
September 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914534/stochastic-formulation-of-the-resolution-of-identity-application-to-second-order-m%C3%A3-ller-plesset-perturbation-theory
#15
Tyler Y Takeshita, Wibe A de Jong, Daniel Neuhauser, Roi Baer, Eran Rabani
A stochastic orbital approach to the resolution of identity (RI) approximation for 4-index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) is presented. The stochastic RI-ERIs are then applied to second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) utilizing a multiple stochastic orbital approach. The introduction of multiple stochastic orbitals results in an O(NAO(3)) scaling for both the stochastic RI-ERIs and stochastic RI-MP2, NAO being the number of basis functions. For a range of water clusters we demonstrate that this method exhibits a small prefactor and observed scalings of O(Ne(2...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914350/a-stochastic-model-for-speciation-by-mating-preferences
#16
Camille Coron, Manon Costa, Hélène Leman, Charline Smadi
Mechanisms leading to speciation are a major focus in evolutionary biology. In this paper, we present and study a stochastic model of population where individuals, with type a or A, are equivalent from ecological, demographical and spatial points of view, and differ only by their mating preference: two individuals with the same genotype have a higher probability to mate and produce a viable offspring. The population is subdivided in several patches and individuals may migrate between them. We show that mating preferences by themselves, even if they are very small, are enough to entail reproductive isolation between patches, and we provide the time needed for this isolation to occur as a function of the carrying capacity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913925/a-cascade-of-destabilizations-combining-wolbachia-and-allee-effects-to-eradicate-insect-pests
#17
Julie C Blackwood, Roger Vargas, Xavier Fauvergue
1.The management of insect pests has long been dominated by the use of chemical insecticides, with the aim of instantaneously killing enough individuals to limit their damage. To minimize unwanted consequences, environmentally friendly approaches have been proposed that utilize biological control and take advantage of intrinsic demographic processes to reduce pest populations. 2.We address the feasibility of a novel pest management strategy based on the release of insects infected with Wolbachia, which causes cytoplasmic incompatibilities in its host population, into a population with a pre-existing Allee effect...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913341/assessing-the-risk-of-a-canine-rabies-incursion-in-northern-australia
#18
Emily G Hudson, Victoria J Brookes, Michael P Ward
Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912671/brownian-optogenetic-noise-photostimulation-on-the-brain-amplifies-somatosensory-evoked-field-potentials
#19
Nayeli Huidobro, Abraham Mendez-Fernandez, Ignacio Mendez-Balbuena, Ranier Gutierrez, Rumyana Kristeva, Elias Manjarrez
Stochastic resonance (SR) is an inherent and counter-intuitive mechanism of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) facilitation in biological systems associated with the application of an intermediate level of noise. As a first step to investigate in detail this phenomenon in the somatosensory system, here we examined whether the direct application of noisy light on pyramidal neurons from the mouse-barrel cortex expressing a light-gated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can produce facilitation in somatosensory evoked field potentials...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912597/angle-resolved-stochastic-photon-emission-in-the-quantum-radiation-dominated-regime
#20
Jian-Xing Li, Yue-Yue Chen, Karen Z Hatsagortsyan, Christoph H Keitel
Signatures of stochastic effects in the radiation of a relativistic electron beam interacting with a counterpropagating superstrong short focused laser pulse are investigated in a quantum regime when the electron's radiation dominates its dynamics. We consider the electron-laser interaction at near-reflection conditions when pronounced high-energy gamma-ray bursts arise in the backward-emission direction with respect to the initial motion of the electrons. The quantum stochastic nature of the gamma-photon emission is exhibited in the angular distributions of the radiation and explained in an intuitive picture...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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