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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353466/inter-observer-agreement-between-urologists-and-radiologists-in-interpreting-the-computed-tomography-images-of-emergency-patients-with-renal-colic
#1
Jun Young Hong, Dong Hoon Lee, In Ho Chang, Sung Bin Park, Chan Woong Kim, Byung Hoon Chi
PURPOSE: Low-dose non-enhanced computed tomography (LDCT) has been shown to provide low radiation exposure with proper diagnostic accuracy compared to standard dose non-enhanced computed tomography (SDCT) in patients with renal colic. The goal of our study is to estimate the accuracy of LDCT and SDCT interpretation by emergency medicine residents who primarily treated patients with renal colic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty sample images of both LDCT and SDCT from renal colic patients were extracted from January 2013 to December 2015 in a tertiary teaching hospital...
January 21, 2018: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353372/the-variable-position-of-the-inferior-alveolar-nerve-ian-in-the-mandibular-ramus-a-computed-tomography-ct-study
#2
Andrew Y E Yeh, Brian P Finn, Robert H B Jones, Alastair N Goss
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to quantify the important anatomical landmarks and the path of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) within the human mandibular body and ramus, in particular with reference to the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and eleven CT scans were studied, 299 of these were involved in determining the position of lingula; and 230 were involved in determining the course of IAN in the mandibular molar region, namely from the mesial of the mandibular first molar to the distal of the mandibular second molar; 118 were involved with both measurements...
January 20, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353340/deep-learning-and-computational-neuroscience
#3
EDITORIAL
Erik De Schutter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353289/the-new-agreement-of-the-international-riga-consensus-conference-on-nasal-airway-function-tests
#4
K Vogt, G Bachmann-Harildstad, A Lintermann, A Nechyporenko, F Peters, K D Wernecke
The report reflects an agreement based on the consensus conference of the International Standardization Committee on the Objective Assessment of the Nasal Airway in Riga, 2nd Nov. 2016. The aim of the conference was to address the existing nasal airway function tests and to take into account physical, mathematical and technical correctness as a base of international standardization as well as the requirements of the Council Directive 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices. Rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow, Odiosoft-Rhino, optical rhinometry, 24-h measurements, computational fluid dynamics, nasometry and the mirrow test were evaluated for important diagnostic criteria, which are the precision of the equipment including calibration and the software applied; validity with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, reliability with intra-individual and inter-individual reproducibility and responsiveness in clinical studies...
January 21, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353230/a-model-of-dormant-emergent-metastatic-breast-cancer-progression-enabling-exploration-of-biomarker-signatures
#5
Amanda M Clark, Manu Kumar, Sarah Wheeler, Carissa Young, Raman Venkataramanan, Donna Stolz, Linda Griffith, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Alan Wells
Breast cancer mortality predominantly results from dormant micrometastases that emerge as fatal outgrowths years after initial diagnosis. In order to gain insights concerning factors associated with emergence of liver metastases, we recreated spontaneous dormancy in an all-human ex vivo hepatic microphysiological system (MPS). Seeding this MPS with small numbers (<0.05% by cell count) of the aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, two populations formed: actively proliferating ('growing'; EdU+), and spontaneously quiescent ('dormant'; EdU-)...
January 20, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353220/quantification-of-spheno-occipital-synchondrosis-fusion-in-a-contemporary-malaysian-population
#6
Salina Hisham, Ambika Flavel, Nurliza Abdullah, Mohamad Helmee Mohamad Noor, Daniel Franklin
Timing of fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is correlated with age. Previous research, however, has demonstrated variation in the timing of closure among different global populations. The present study aims to quantify the timing of SOS fusion in Malaysian individuals as visualised in multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scans and to thereafter formulate age estimation models based on fusion status. Anonymised cranial CT scans of 336 males and 164 females, aged 5-25 years, were acquired from the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital Sultanah Aminah...
January 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353182/observations-on-muscle-activity-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-assessed-with-a-semi-automated-scoring-algorithm
#7
Jesper Jeppesen, Marit Otto, Yoon Frederiksen, Allan K Hansen, Tatyana D Fedorova, Karoline Knudsen, Adjmal Nahimi, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer, Michael Sommerauer
OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is defined by dream enactment due to a failure of normal muscle atonia. Visual assessment of this muscle activity is time consuming and rater-dependent. METHODS: An EMG computer algorithm for scoring 'tonic', 'phasic' and 'any' submental muscle activity during REM sleep was evaluated compared with human visual ratings. Subsequently, 52 subjects were analyzed with the algorithm. Duration and maximal amplitude of muscle activity, and self-awareness of RBD symptoms were assessed...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353161/automated-diagnosis-of-focal-liver-lesions-using-bidirectional-empirical-mode-decomposition-features
#8
U Rajendra Acharya, Joel En Wei Koh, Yuki Hagiwara, Jen Hong Tan, Arkadiusz Gertych, Anushya Vijayananthan, Nur Adura Yaakup, Basri Johan Jeet Abdullah, Mohd Kamil Bin Mohd Fabell, Chai Hong Yeong
Liver is the heaviest internal organ of the human body and performs many vital functions. Prolonged cirrhosis and fatty liver disease may lead to the formation of benign or malignant lesions in this organ, and an early and reliable evaluation of these conditions can improve treatment outcomes. Ultrasound imaging is a safe, non-invasive, and cost-effective way of diagnosing liver lesions. However, this technique has limited performance in determining the nature of the lesions. This study initiates a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to aid radiologists in an objective and more reliable interpretation of ultrasound images of liver lesions...
January 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353139/effects-of-lighting-illuminance-levels-on-stair-negotiation-performance-in-individuals-with-visual-impairment
#9
Aliah F Shaheen, Alexandros Sourlas, Khim Horton, Christopher McLean, David Ewins, David Gould, Salim Ghoussayni
BACKGROUND: Stair-related falls of older people cause a substantial financial and social burden. Deterioration of the visual system amongst other factors put older people at a high risk of falling. Improved lighting is often recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lighting illuminance on stair negotiation performance in older individuals with visual impairment. METHODS: Eleven participants aged 60 or over with a vision of 6/18 or worse ascended and descended a staircase under: 50 lx, 100 lx, 200 lx, 300 lx and distributed 200 lx lighting...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353136/mutual-inhibition-of-lateral-inhibition-a-network-motif-for-an-elementary-computation-in-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Minoru Koyama, Avinash Pujala
A series of classical studies in non-human primates has revealed the neuronal activity patterns underlying decision-making. However, the circuit mechanisms for such patterns remain largely unknown. Recent detailed circuit analyses in simpler neural systems have started to reveal the connectivity patterns underlying analogous processes. Here we review a few of these systems that share a particular connectivity pattern, namely mutual inhibition of lateral inhibition. Close examination of these systems suggests that this recurring connectivity pattern ('network motif') is a building block to enforce particular dynamics, which can be used not only for simple behavioral choice but also for more complex choices and other brain functions...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353104/galactosylated-iodine-based-small-molecule-i-v-ct-contrast-agent-for-bile-duct-imaging
#11
Yeonjin Jung, Hee Sook Hwang, Kun Na
Computed tomography (CT) with contrast plays an important role as a clinical diagnostic tool but still has a limited diagnostic range. In this work, we developed a novel injectable iodine-based small molecule CT contrast agent, even can be used for bile duct diagnostics. The bile duct diagnosable CT contrast agent (BDICA) is synthesized with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthaloyl dichloride (ATIPC), tromethamine and lactobionic acid (LBA) for asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) targeted delivery via receptor-mediated endocytosis and transport to the bile canaliculi...
January 12, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353039/cetylpyridinium-chloride-as-a-novel-inhibitor-of-hepatitis-b-viral-capsid-assembly
#12
Hyun Wook Seo, Joon Pyung Seo, Yoon Jun Kim, Guhung Jung
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. While multiple hepatitis B drugs have been developed, development of drug resistance during treatment or weak efficacies observed in some cases have limited their application. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop better pharmacological agents for HBV-infected individuals. Here, we identified cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as a novel inhibitor of HBV. Using computational analysis of CPC-nucleocapsid proteins, microscale thermophoresis analysis of CPC binding to viral nucleocapsids, and in vitro nucleocapsid formation assays, we found that CPC interacts with dimeric viral nucleocapsid protein (known as core protein or HBcAg)...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353032/clinical-assessment-and-brain-findings-in-a-cohort-of-mothers-fetuses-and-infants-infected-with-zika-virus
#13
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly, and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital ZIKV infection and detected brain abnormalities are: 1) To assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies including a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses and ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography imaging postnatally; 2) To provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by MRI using volumetric analyses and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); 3) To obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathological assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352823/neurocognitive-and-self-efficacy-benefits-of-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Shayden D Bryce, Susan L Rossell, Stuart J Lee, Richard J Lawrence, Eric J Tan, Sean P Carruthers, Jennie L Ponsford
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of computer-assisted "drill-and-strategy" cognitive remediation (CR) for community-dwelling individuals with schizophrenia on cognition, everyday self-efficacy, and independent living skills. METHODS: Fifty-six people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized into CR or computer game (CG) playing (control), and offered twenty 1-hr individual sessions in a group setting over 10 weeks...
January 21, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352818/validity-and-reliability-of-the-palliative-care-transition-measure-for-caregivers-pctm-c
#15
Daniela D'Angelo, Chiara Mastroianni, Marco Artico, Valentina Biagioli, Roberto Latina, Michela Guarda, Michela Piredda, Maria Grazia De Marinis
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from advanced disease face different care transitions. The transition from acute to palliative care is challenging and may lead to the discontinuity of care. Family caregivers become important sources of information, as patients begin to experience difficulties in coping with emotional transition events. The Care Transition Measure was developed to evaluate care transitions as experienced by the elderly. It has never been used in palliative care. The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a modified version of the Palliative Care Transition Measure, specifically the Palliative Care Transition Measure for Caregivers (PCTM-C)...
January 21, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352800/efficient-reactive-brownian-dynamics
#16
Aleksandar Donev, Chiao-Yu Yang, Changho Kim
We develop a Split Reactive Brownian Dynamics (SRBD) algorithm for particle simulations of reaction-diffusion systems based on the Doi or volume reactivity model, in which pairs of particles react with a specified Poisson rate if they are closer than a chosen reactive distance. In our Doi model, we ensure that the microscopic reaction rules for various association and dissociation reactions are consistent with detailed balance (time reversibility) at thermodynamic equilibrium. The SRBD algorithm uses Strang splitting in time to separate reaction and diffusion and solves both the diffusion-only and reaction-only subproblems exactly, even at high packing densities...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352799/an-atomistic-fingerprint-algorithm-for-learning-ab-initio-molecular-force-fields
#17
Yu-Hang Tang, Dongkun Zhang, George Em Karniadakis
Molecular fingerprints, i.e., feature vectors describing atomistic neighborhood configurations, is an important abstraction and a key ingredient for data-driven modeling of potential energy surface and interatomic force. In this paper, we present the density-encoded canonically aligned fingerprint algorithm, which is robust and efficient, for fitting per-atom scalar and vector quantities. The fingerprint is essentially a continuous density field formed through the superimposition of smoothing kernels centered on the atoms...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352798/two-component-relativistic-coupled-cluster-methods-using-mean-field-spin-orbit-integrals
#18
Junzi Liu, Yue Shen, Ayush Asthana, Lan Cheng
A novel implementation of the two-component spin-orbit (SO) coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method and the CCSD augmented with the perturbative inclusion of triple excitations [CCSD(T)] method using mean-field SO integrals is reported. The new formulation of SO-CCSD(T) features an atomic-orbital-based algorithm for the particle-particle ladder term in the CCSD equation, which not only removes the computational bottleneck associated with the large molecular-orbital integral file but also accelerates the evaluation of the particle-particle ladder term by around a factor of 4 by taking advantage of the spin-free nature of the instantaneous electron-electron Coulomb interaction...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352795/impact-of-surface-energy-on-the-shock-properties-of-granular-explosives
#19
X Bidault, N Pineau
This paper presents the first part of a two-fold molecular dynamics study of the impact of the granularity on the shock properties of high explosives. Recent experimental studies show that the granularity can have a substantial impact on the properties of detonation products {i.e., variations in the size distributions of detonation nanodiamonds [V. Pichot et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2159 (2013)]}. These variations can have two origins: the surface energy, which is a priori enhanced from micro- to nano-scale, and the porosity induced by the granular structure...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352790/on-the-theoretical-prediction-of-fluorescence-rates-from-first-principles-using-the-path-integral-approach
#20
Bernardo de Souza, Frank Neese, Róbert Izsák
In this work, we present and implement the theory for calculating fluorescence rates and absorption and emission spectra from first principles, using the path integral approach. We discuss some approximations and modifications to the full set of equations that improve speed and numerical stability for the case when a large number of modes are considered. New methods to approximate the excited state potential energy surface are also discussed and it is shown that for most purposes, these can be used instead of a full geometry optimization to obtain the rates mentioned above...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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