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Daniel Edsgärd, Per Johnsson, Rickard Sandberg
As methods for measuring spatial gene expression at single-cell resolution become available, there is a need for computational analysis strategies. We present trendsceek, a method based on marked point processes that identifies genes with statistically significant spatial expression trends. trendsceek finds these genes in spatial transcriptomic and sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization data, and also reveals significant gene expression gradients and hot spots in low-dimensional projections of dissociated single-cell RNA-seq data...
March 19, 2018: Nature Methods
Hui Jiang, Yicun Wang, Zhantao Deng, Jiewen Jin, Jia Meng, Shuo Chen, Jun Wang, Yang Qiu, Ting Guo, Jianning Zhao
Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in arthroplasty failure, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Due to long follow-ups necessary for detection and sporadic occurrence, it is challenging to assess the pathogenesis ofparticle-induced osteolysis in clinical cases. Hence, optimal animal models are required for further studies. The murine model of calvarial osteolysis established by exposure to CoCrMo particles is an effective and valid tool for assessing the interactions between particles and various cells in aseptic loosening...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tiffany Guess, Hoyin Lai, Serenah E Smith, Linda Sircy, Kirsten Cunningham, David E Nelson, Erin E McClelland
The polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is the primary virulence factor and one of the most commonly studied aspects of this pathogenic yeast. Capsule size can vary widely between strains, has the ability to grow rapidly when introduced to stressful or low nutrient conditions, and has been positively correlated with strain virulence. For these reasons, the size of the capsule is of great interest to C. neoformans researchers. The growth of the C. neoformans capsule is induced during phenotypic testing to help understand the effects of different treatments on the yeast or size differences between strains...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrey Zavadsky, Lev Shemer
This manuscript describes an experimental procedure that allows obtaining diverse quantitative information on temporal and spatial evolution of water waves excited by time-dependent and steady wind forcing. Capacitance-type wave gauge and Laser Slope Gauge (LSG) are used to measure instantaneous water surface elevation and two components of the instantaneous surface slope at a number of locations along the test section of a wind-wave facility. The computer-controlled blower provides airflow over the water in the tank whose rate can vary in time...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John E Downey, Nathaniel Schwed, Steven M Chase, Andrew B Schwartz, Jennifer L Collinger
Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are being developed to assist people with motor disabilities in communicating and interacting with the world around them. This technology relies on recordings from the primary motor cortex, which may vary from day to day. 
 Approach: Here we quantify, in two long-term BCI subjects, the length of time that action potentials from the same neuron, or group of neurons, can be recorded from motor cortex. 
 Main Results: These action potentials, are identified by their extracellular waveforms and may change within a single day, although some of these identified units can be identified consistently for weeks and even months...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Zakaria Aboulbanine, Naïma El Khayati
The use of phase space in medical linear accelerator Monte Carlo (MC) simulations significantly improves the execution time and leads to results comparable to those obtained from full calculations. The classical representation of phase space stores directly the information of millions of particles, producing bulky files. This paper presents a virtual source model (VSM) based on a reconstruction algorithm, taking as input a compressed file of roughly 800 kb derived from phase space data freely available in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) database...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jon M Houck, Jennifer K Manuel, Theresa B Moyers
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of a causal chain in motivational interviewing (MI) involving counselor MI-consistent skills, client change language, and outcomes. MI was a key component of the combined behavioral intervention in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study. Participants in COMBINE were treatment-seeking and medication-seeking, and were required to maintain a period of abstinence before enrollment. Counselors were closely monitored and were temporarily removed from the study for remediation and supervision if their performance fell below threshold...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Tomislav Rončević, Damir Vukičević, Nada Ilić, Lucija Krce, Goran Gajski, Marija Tonkić, Ivana Goić-Barišić, Larisa Zoranić, Yogesh Sonavane, Monica Benincasa, Davor Juretić, Ana Maravić, Alessandro Tossi
Antimicrobial peptides often show broad-spectrum activity due to a mechanism based on bacterial membrane disruption, which also reduces development of permanent resistance, a desirable characteristic in view of the escalating multidrug resistance problem. Host cell toxicity however requires design of artificial variants of natural AMPs to increase selectivity and reduce side effects. Kiadins were designed using rules obtained from natural peptides active against E. coli and a validated computational algorithm based on a training set of such peptides, followed by rational conformational alterations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Greg A Mutch, Sarah Shulda, Alan J McCue, Martin J Menart, Cristian V Ciobanu, Chilan Ngo, James A Anderson, Ryan M Richards, David Vega-Maza
Solid metal oxides for carbon capture exhibit reduced adsorption capacity following high temperature exposure, due to surface area reduction by sintering. Furthermore, only low coordinate corner/edge sites on the thermodynamically sta-ble (100) facet display favourable binding towards CO2 , providing inherently low capacity. The (111) facet however, exhibits a high concentration of low coordinate sites. In this work, MgO(111) nanosheets displayed high capacity for CO2 , as well as a ≈ 65% increase in capacity despite a ≈ 30% reduction in surface area following sintering (0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Matthew J Harper, Christopher J Arthur, John Crosby, Edward J Emmett, Rosalyn L Falconer, Andrew J Fensham-Smith, Paul J Gates, Thomas Leman, John E McGrady, John F Bower, Christopher A Russell
Three-coordinate bipyridyl complexes of gold, [(κ2 -bipy)Au(η2 -C2 H4 )][NTf2 ], are readily accessed by direct reaction of 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), or its derivatives, with the homoleptic gold ethylene complex [Au(C2 H4 )3 ][NTf2 ]. The cheap and readily available bipyridyl ligands facilitate oxidative addition of aryl iodides to the Au(I) center to give [(κ2 -bipy)Au(Ar)I][NTf2 ], which undergo first aryl-zinc transmetalation and second C-C reductive elimination to produce biaryl products. The products of each distinct step have been characterized...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Po-Chia Chen, Pawel Masiewicz, Vladimir Rybin, Dmitri I Svergun, Janosch Hennig
We present a screening protocol utilizing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to obtain structural information of biomolecular interactions independent of prior knowledge, so as to complement affinity-based screening and provide leads for further exploration. This protocol categorizes ligand titrations by computing pair-wise agreement between curves, and separately estimates affinities by quantifying complex formation as a departure from the linear sum properties of solution SAXS. The protocol is validated by sparse sequence search around the native poly-uridine RNA motifs of the two-RRM domain Sex-lethal protein (Sxl)...
March 19, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Pablo Cortegoso Valdivia, Mauro Bruno, Silvia Gaia, Giorgio M Saracco, Claudio DE Angelis
We report a rare case of gastric fistulization in a patient with main-duct (MD) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Fistulization to adjacent organs is a rare complication of this disease, mainly affecting the duodenum; the fact that the stomach was the only organ involved makes this case even more peculiar. The diagnosis of the fistula was made after examination with Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS), since a previous computed tomography (CT) scan wasn't able to detect it.
March 16, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Yasin Yurt, Gül Şener, Yavuz Yakut
BACKGROUND: Foot orthoses are widely used in conservative treatment of painful flexible flatfoot however research is limited to choose the best option in orthotic treatment. AIM: We aimed to compare the effects of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) and conventional insole types in comparison with sham insole, on pain and health related quality of life in patients with painful flexible flatfoot. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Indresh Kumar Pandey, Mookan Natarajan, Hemlata Faujdar, Firasat Hussain, Matthias Stein, Sandeep Kaur-Ghumaan
The mono-substituted complex [Fe2(CO)5(μ-naphthalene-2-thiolate)2(P(PhOMe-p)3)] was prepared taking after the structural principles from both [NiFe] and [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. Crystal structures are reported for this complex and the all carbonyl analogue. The bridging naphthalene thiolates resemble μ-bridging cysteine amino acids. One of the naphthyl moieties forms π-π stacking interactions with the terminal bulky phosphine ligand in the crystal structure and in calculations. This interaction stabilizes the reduced and protonated forms during electrocatalytic proton reduction in the presence of acetic acid and hinders the rotation of the phosphine ligand...
March 19, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Didier Roulin, Raphaël Girardet, Rafael Duran, Steven Hajdu, Alban Denys, Nermin Halkic, Nicolas Demartines, Emmanuel Melloul
The specific management and outcome of acute biliary pancreatitis in elderly patients is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly compared to younger patients after acute biliary pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with acute biliary pancreatitis between January 2006 and December 2012. Elderly patients (≥ 70 years) were compared to younger patients (< 70 years) in a case-control study. Comorbidities were assessed according to the Charlson score...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Xin-Yu Tian, Chun-Hong Liu, De-Xiang Wang, Xiu-Li Ji, Hui Shi, Chun-Yan Zheng, Meng-Shuang Xie, Wei Xiao
Background: The interpretation of spirometry varies on different reference values. Older people are usually underrepresented in published predictive values. This study aimed at developing spirometric reference equations for elderly Chinese in Jinan aged 60-84 years and to compare them to previous equations. Methods: The project covered all of Jinan city, and the recruitment period lasted 9 months from January 1, 2017 to September 30, 2017, 434 healthy people aged 60-84 years who had never smoked (226 females and 208 males) were recruited to undergo spirometry...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Kenneth B Bader
Histotripsy is a form of therapeutic ultrasound that liquefies tissue mechanically via acoustic cavitation. Bubble expansion is paramount in the efficacy of histotripsy therapy, and the cavitation dynamics are strongly influenced by the medium elasticity. In this study, an analytic model to predict histotripsy-induced bubble expansion in a fluid was extended to include the effects of medium elasticity. Good agreement was observed between the predictions of the analytic model and numerical computations utilizing highly nonlinear excitations (shock-scattering histotripsy) and purely tensile pulses (microtripsy)...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
May A Beydoun, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Hind A Beydoun, Greg A Dore, Jose A Canas, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
The role of dairy foods and related nutrients in cardiometabolic health aetiology is poorly understood. We investigated longitudinal associations between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with key dairy product exposures. We used prospective data from a bi-racial cohort of urban adults (30-64 years at baseline (n 1371)), the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS), in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2013). The average of two 24-h dietary recalls measured 4-10 d apart was computed at baseline (V1) and follow-up (V2) waves...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Zilun Li, Henghui Yin, Mian Wang, Ridong Wu, Chenshu Liu, Chen Yao, Guangqi Chang
PURPOSE: To report the use of the octopus endograft technique to treat a patient with a ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old man was diagnosed with a contained rupture of a 9-cm type V TAAA. The presence of an occluded superior mesenteric artery (SMA), a stenotic celiac trunk, an enlarged inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), and rich collaterals with the SMA and celiac trunk made endovascular repair with the octopus endograft technique appear feasible...
April 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Alireza Mojtahedi, Sohail Contractor, Piotr S Kisza
Bullet embolization to the right heart through the vasculature is seen infrequently in cases presenting with penetrating trauma. Patients with unstable hemodynamic status are managed operatively. For a patient with stable hemodynamic parameters, diagnostic evaluation such as computed tomography angiogram, echocardiogram, or angiography could be performed to select the best treatment option. Endovascular treatment is employed infrequently in these cases but can be a viable option for select patients. We present a case of a bullet embolus to the right ventricle treated successfully with endovascular approach and discuss the technical aspects of this approach...
January 1, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
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