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Synaptic vesicle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145394/unc-16-jip3-regulates-early-events-in-synaptic-vesicle-protein-trafficking-via-lrk-1-lrrk2-and-ap-complexes
#1
Bikash Choudhary, Madhushree Kamak, Neena Ratnakaran, Jitendra Kumar, Anjali Awasthi, Chun Li, Ken Nguyen, Kunihiro Matsumoto, Naoki Hisamoto, Sandhya P Koushika
JIP3/UNC-16/dSYD is a MAPK-scaffolding protein with roles in protein trafficking. We show that it is present on the Golgi and is necessary for the polarized distribution of synaptic vesicle proteins (SVPs) and dendritic proteins in neurons. UNC-16 excludes Golgi enzymes from SVP transport carriers and facilitates inclusion of specific SVPs into the same transport carrier. The SVP trafficking roles of UNC-16 are mediated through LRK-1, whose localization to the Golgi is reduced in unc-16 animals. UNC-16, through LRK-1, also enables Golgi-localization of the μ-subunit of the AP-1 complex...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138279/the-secreted-neurotrophin-sp%C3%A3-tzle-3-promotes-glial-morphogenesis-and-supports-neuronal-survival-and-function
#2
Jaeda C Coutinho-Budd, Amy E Sheehan, Marc R Freeman
Most glial functions depend on establishing intimate morphological relationships with neurons. Significant progress has been made in understanding neuron-glia signaling at synaptic and axonal contacts, but how glia support neuronal cell bodies is unclear. Here we explored the growth and functions of Drosophila cortex glia (which associate almost exclusively with neuronal cell bodies) to understand glia-soma interactions. We show that cortex glia tile with one another and with astrocytes to establish unique central nervous system (CNS) spatial domains that actively restrict glial growth, and selective ablation of cortex glia causes animal lethality...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134778/the-axonal-endoplasmic-reticulum-one-organelle-many-functions-in-development-maintenance-and-plasticity
#3
REVIEW
Alejandro Luarte, Víctor Hugo Cornejo, Francisca Bertin, Javiera Gallardo, Andrés Couve
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is highly conserved in eukaryotes and neurons. Indeed, the localization of the organelle in axons has been known for nearly half a century. However, the relevance the axonal ER is only beginning to emerge. In this review we discuss the structure of the ER in axons, examining the role of ER-shaping proteins and highlighting reticulons. We analyze the multiple functions of the ER and their potential contribution to axonal physiology. First we examine the emerging roles of the axonal ER in lipid synthesis, protein translation, processing, quality control and secretory trafficking of transmembrane proteins...
November 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124768/the-peripheral-nervous-system-of-the-ascidian-tadpole-larva-types-of-neurons-and-their-synaptic-networks
#4
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiuyan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Physical and chemical cues from the environment are used to direct animal behaviour through a complex network of connections originating in exteroceptors. In chordates, mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) must signal to the motor circuits of the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of pathways that integrate and regulate the output to motor neurons; ultimately these drive contraction of the tail and limb muscles. We used serial-section electron microscopy to reconstruct PNS neurons and their hitherto unknown synaptic networks in the tadpole larva of a sibling chordate, the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124566/zinc-potentiates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-nitric-oxide-production-in-cultured-primary-rat-astrocytes
#5
Mitsuaki Moriyama, Shunsuke Fujitsuka, Kenji Kawabe, Katsura Takano, Yoichi Nakamura
Zn(2+) plays a crucial role in the CNS where it accumulates in synaptic vesicles and is released during neurotransmission. Synaptically released Zn(2+) is taken up by neurons and astrocytes. The majority of previous work has focused on neuronal damage caused by excess Zn(2+). However, its effect on astrocyte function is not well understood. We examined the effect of extracellularly applied Zn(2+) on nitric oxide (NO) production in primary cultured rat astrocytes, which were experimentally activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
November 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124105/measuring-brain-synaptic-vesicle-protein-2a-with-positron-emission-tomography-and-18-f-ucb-h
#6
Mohamed Ali Bahri, Alain Plenevaux, Joël Aerts, Christine Bastin, Guillaume Becker, Joël Mercier, Anne Valade, Tim Buchanan, Nathalie Mestdagh, Didier Ledoux, Alain Seret, André Luxen, Eric Salmon
Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2A was measured with fluorine-18 UCB-H ([(18)F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in healthy volunteers (two young participants and two seniors). Input function was measured by arterial blood sampling (arterial input function) and derived from PET images using carotid activity (image-derived input function). Logan graphical analysis was used to estimate regional synaptic vesicle protein 2A distribution volume...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123471/vglut2-trafficking-is-differentially-regulated-by-adaptor-proteins-ap-1-and-ap-3
#7
Haiyan Li, Magda S Santos, Chihyung K Park, Yuriy Dobry, Susan M Voglmaier
Release of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate by synaptic vesicle exocytosis depends on glutamate loading into synaptic vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). The two principal isoforms, VGLUT1 and 2, exhibit a complementary pattern of expression in adult brain that broadly distinguishes cortical (VGLUT1) and subcortical (VGLUT2) systems, and correlates with distinct physiological properties in synapses expressing these isoforms. Differential trafficking of VGLUT1 and 2 has been suggested to underlie their functional diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120672/an-electrostatic-and-probabilistic-simulation-model-to-describe-neurosecretion-at-the-synaptic-scale
#8
A E Macias-Medri, Jacinto A Liendo, Ricardo J Silva
A hybrid simulation model (macro-molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo method) is proposed to reproduce neurosecretion and exocytosis. A theory has been developed for vesicular dynamics based on quasi-static electric interactions and a simple transition-state model for the vesicular fusion. Under the non-equilibrium electric conditions in an electrolytic fluid, it is considered that the motion of each synaptic vesicle is influenced by electrostatic forces exerted by the membranes of the synaptic bouton, other vesicles, the intracellular and intravesicular fluids, and external elements to the neuron...
November 9, 2017: Network: Computation in Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119595/depolarization-induced-synaptic-vesicle-hyperacidification-a-new-path-regarding-dopamine-release
#9
Farnoosh Ghorbani, Mahsa Mayeli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118709/piccolo-promotes-vesicle-replenishment-at-a-fast-central-auditory-synapse
#10
Tanvi Butola, Carolin Wichmann, Tobias Moser
Piccolo and Bassoon are the two largest cytomatrix of the active zone (CAZ) proteins involved in scaffolding and regulating neurotransmitter release at presynaptic active zones (AZs), but have long been discussed as being functionally redundant. We employed genetic manipulation to bring forth and segregate the role of Piccolo from that of Bassoon at central auditory synapses of the cochlear nucleus-the endbulbs of Held. These synapses specialize in high frequency synaptic transmission, ideally poised to reveal even subtle deficits in the regulation of neurotransmitter release upon molecular perturbation...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111973/otoferlin-acts-as-a-ca-2-sensor-for-vesicle-fusion-and-vesicle-pool-replenishment-at-auditory-hair-cell-ribbon-synapses
#11
Nicolas Antoine Michalski, Juan D Goutman, Sarah Marie Auclair, Jacques Boutet de Monvel, Margot Tertrais, Alice Emptoz, Alexandre Parrin, Sylvie Nouaille, Marc Guillon, Martin Sachse, Danica Ciric, Amel Bahloul, Jean-Pierre Hardelin, Roger Bryan Sutton, Paul Avan, Shyam S Krishnakumar, James E Rothman, Didier Dulon, Saaid Safieddine, Christine Petit
Hearing relies on rapid, temporally precise, and sustained neurotransmitter release at the ribbon synapses of sensory cells, the inner hair cells (IHCs). This process requires otoferlin, a six C2-domain, Ca(2+)-binding transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles. To decipher the role of otoferlin in the synaptic vesicle cycle, we produced knock-in mice (Otof(Ala515,Ala517/Ala515,Ala517)) with lower Ca(2+)-binding affinity of the C2C domain. The IHC ribbon synapse structure, synaptic Ca(2+) currents, and otoferlin distribution were unaffected in these mutant mice, but auditory brainstem response wave-I amplitude was reduced...
November 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111118/hsp90-and-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-enable-the-catalytic-activity-of-clostridial-neurotoxins-inside-nerve-terminals
#12
Marco Pirazzini, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Giulia Zanetti, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum (BoNTs) and tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of Clostridial neurotoxins (CNT), the etiologic agents of botulism and tetanus. CNT are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol, where its substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and, once delivered on the cytosolic side of the endosome membrane, it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to be active...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106499/autism-related-neuroligin-4-knockout-impairs-intracortical-processing-but-not-sensory-inputs-in-mouse-barrel-cortex
#13
Petr Unichenko, Jenq-Wei Yang, Sergei Kirischuk, Sergei Kolbaev, Werner Kilb, Matthieu Hammer, Dilja Krueger-Burg, Nils Brose, Heiko J Luhmann
Neuroligin-4 (Nlgn4) is a cell adhesion protein that regulates synapse organization and function. Mutations in human NLGN4 are among the causes of autism spectrum disorders. In mouse, Nlgn4 knockout (KO) perturbs GABAergic synaptic transmission and oscillatory activity in hippocampus, and causes social interaction deficits. The complex profile of cellular and circuit changes that are caused by Nlgn4-KO is still only partly understood. Using Nlgn4-KO mice, we found that Nlgn4-KO increases the power in the alpha frequency band of spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex under urethane anesthesia in vivo...
July 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103807/kinetics-of-releasable-synaptic-vesicles-and-their-plastic-changes-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#14
Mitsuharu Midorikawa, Takeshi Sakaba
Hippocampal mossy fiber boutons (hMFBs) are presynaptic terminals displaying various forms of synaptic plasticity. The presynaptic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity still remain poorly understood. Here, we have combined high temporal resolution measurements of presynaptic capacitance and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) to measure the kinetics of exocytosis. In addition, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy was employed to directly visualize dynamics of single synaptic vesicles adjacent to the plasma membrane at high spatial resolution...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100107/order-and-disorder-in-the-physiological-membrane-binding-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#15
REVIEW
Giuliana Fusco, Maximo Sanz-Hernandez, Alfonso De Simone
α-Synuclein (αS) is a neuronal protein that localises predominantly at the presynaptic terminals, and whose fibrillar aggregates are the major constituents of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease. In vivo αS is partitioned between water-soluble and membrane-bound states, and this highly regulated equilibrium influences its biological behaviour under both physiological and pathological conditions. Here we discuss the sequence and structural determinants underlying the transition between the unstructured cytosolic and partially structured membrane-bound states of αS...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094061/fm1-43-photoconversion-and-electron-microscopy-analysis-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#16
Nadezhda S Sabeva, Maria Bykhovskaia
We developed a protocol for photoconversion of endocytic marker FM1-43 followed by electron microscopy analysis of synaptic boutons at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. This protocol allows detection of stained synaptic vesicle even when release rates are very low, such as during the spontaneous release mode. The preparations are loaded with the FM1-43 dye, pre-fixed, treated and illuminated to photoconvert the dye, and then processed for conventional electron microscopy. This procedure enables clear identification of stained synaptic vesicles at electron micrographs...
September 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089485/functional-mapping-of-brain-synapses-by-the-enriching-activity-marker-synaptozip
#17
Mattia Ferro, Jacopo Lamanna, Maddalena Ripamonti, Gabriella Racchetti, Alessandro Arena, Sara Spadini, Giovanni Montesano, Riccardo Cortese, Vincenzo Zimarino, Antonio Malgaroli
Ideally, elucidating the role of specific brain circuits in animal behavior would require the ability to measure activity at all involved synapses, possibly with unrestricted field of view, thus even at those boutons deeply located into the brain. Here, we introduce and validate an efficient scheme reporting synaptic vesicle cycling in vivo. This is based on SynaptoZip, a genetically encoded molecule deploying in the vesicular lumen a bait moiety designed to capture upon exocytosis a labeled alien peptide, Synbond...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084181/altered-synaptic-membrane-retrieval-after-strong-stimulation-of-cerebellar-granule-neurons-in-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-cgkii-knockout-mice
#18
Andrea Collado-Alsina, Franz Hofmann, José Sánchez-Prieto, Magdalena Torres
The nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) signaling pathway regulates the clustering and the recruitment of proteins and vesicles to the synapse, thereby adjusting the exoendocytic cycle to the intensity of activity. Accordingly, this pathway can accelerate endocytosis following large-scale exocytosis, and pre-synaptic cGK type II (cGKII) plays a major role in this process, controlling the homeostatic balance of vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis. We have studied synaptic vesicle recycling in cerebellar granule cells from mice lacking cGKII under strong and sustained stimulation, combining imaging techniques and ultrastructural analyses...
October 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083305/single-molecule-force-spectroscopy-of-protein-membrane-interactions
#19
Lu Ma, Yiying Cai, Yanghui Li, Junyi Jiao, Zhenyong Wu, Ben O'Shaughnessy, Pietro De Camilli, Erdem Karatekin, Yongli Zhang
Many biological processes rely on protein-membrane interactions in the presence of mechanical forces, yet high resolution methods to quantify such interactions are lacking. Here, we describe a single-molecule force spectroscopy approach to quantify membrane binding of C2 domains in Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) and Extended Synaptotagmin-2 (E-Syt2). Syts and E-Syts bind the plasma membrane via multiple C2 domains, bridging the plasma membrane with synaptic vesicles or endoplasmic reticulum to regulate membrane fusion or lipid exchange, respectively...
October 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081736/human-ipsc-derived-cerebellar-neurons-from-a-patient-with-ataxia-telangiectasia-reveal-disrupted-gene-regulatory-networks
#20
Sam P Nayler, Joseph E Powell, Darya P Vanichkina, Othmar Korn, Christine A Wells, Refik Kanjhan, Jian Sun, Ryan J Taft, Martin F Lavin, Ernst J Wolvetang
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genetic disorder caused by loss of function of the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase and is characterized by a predisposition to cancer, pulmonary disease, immune deficiency and progressive degeneration of the cerebellum. As animal models do not faithfully recapitulate the neurological aspects, it remains unclear whether cerebellar degeneration is a neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative phenotype. To address the necessity for a human model, we first assessed a previously published protocol for the ability to generate cerebellar neuronal cells, finding it gave rise to a population of precursors highly enriched for markers of the early hindbrain such as EN1 and GBX2, and later more mature cerebellar markers including PTF1α, MATH1, HOXB4, ZIC3, PAX6, and TUJ1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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