keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Synaptic vesicle

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645175/perturbation-to-cholesterol-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-confers-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-sensitivity-to-neonatal-mice
#1
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Joseph G Potian, Joseph J McArdle, Padmamalini Baskaran
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) cleaves SNAP25 at the motor nerve terminals (MNT) and inhibits stimulus evoked acetylcholine release (SEAR). This causes skeletal muscle paralysis. However, younger neonatal mice (<P7; less than 7 days old) are resistant to the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. That is, in vivo injection of BoNT/A at the innervations of Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in the hindlimbs inhibited the toe spread reflex within 24 hours following BoNT/A injection in adult mouse and in older (> P7) neonatal mice younger than 7 days-age remained unaffected by BoNT/A injection...
June 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642492/segregation-of-glutamatergic-and-cholinergic-transmission-at-the-mixed-motoneuron-renshaw-cell-synapse
#2
Boris Lamotte d'Incamps, Gardave S Bhumbra, Joshua D Foster, Marco Beato, Philippe Ascher
In neonatal mice motoneurons excite Renshaw cells by releasing both acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate. These two neurotransmitters activate two types of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) (the homomeric α7 receptors and the heteromeric α*ß* receptors) as well as the two types of glutamate receptors (GluRs) (AMPARs and NMDARs). Using paired recordings, we confirm that a single motoneuron can release both transmitters on a single post-synaptic Renshaw cell. We then show that co-transmission is preserved in adult animals...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642137/overexpression-cdc42-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-in-developmental-brain-of-rats
#3
Xi Fang, Shiyong Li, Qiang Han, Yilin Zhao, Jie Gao, Jing Yan, Ailin Luo
Nowadays many children receive operations with general anesthesia. Isoflurane is a commonly-used general anesthetic. Numbers of studies demonstrated that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficiency in young rats, however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) played an important role in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics in neuron, which closely linked to synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation. Meanwhile, cdc42 also involved in many neurodegenerative diseases...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637871/phosphorylation-at-serine-31-targets-tyrosine-hydroxylase-to-vesicles-for-transport-along-microtubules
#4
Ana Jorge-Finnigan, Rune Kleppe, Kunwar Jung-Kc, Ming Ying, Michael Marie, Ivan Rios-Mondragon, Michael F Salvatore, Jaakko Saraste, Aurora Martinez
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine into L-Dopa, which is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines, particularly dopamine in dopaminergergic neurons. Low dopamine levels and death of the dopaminergic neurons are hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), where α-synuclein is also a key player. TH is highly regulated, notably by phosphorylation of several Ser/Thr residues in the N-terminal tail. However, the functional role of TH phosphorylation at the Ser31 site (THpSer31) remains unclear...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636662/differential-regulation-of-polarized-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-and-synapse-stability-in-neural-circuit-rewiring-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Naina Kurup, Dong Yan, Karina Kono, Yishi Jin
Neural circuits are dynamic, with activity-dependent changes in synapse density and connectivity peaking during different phases of animal development. In C. elegans, young larvae form mature motor circuits through a dramatic switch in GABAergic neuron connectivity, by concomitant elimination of existing synapses and formation of new synapses that are maintained throughout adulthood. We have previously shown that an increase in microtubule dynamics during motor circuit rewiring facilitates new synapse formation...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635948/munc13-1-and-munc18-1-together-prevent-nsf-dependent-de-priming-of-synaptic-vesicles
#6
Enqi He, Keimpe Wierda, Rhode van Westen, Jurjen H Broeke, Ruud F Toonen, L Niels Cornelisse, Matthijs Verhage
Synaptic transmission requires a stable pool of release-ready (primed) vesicles. Here we show that two molecules involved in SNARE-complex assembly, Munc13-1 and Munc18-1, together stabilize release-ready vesicles by preventing de-priming. Replacing neuronal Munc18-1 by a non-neuronal isoform Munc18-2 (Munc18-1/2SWAP) supports activity-dependent priming, but primed vesicles fall back into a non-releasable state (de-prime) within seconds. Munc13-1 deficiency produces a similar defect. Inhibitors of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) or interfering peptides, prevent de-priming in munc18-1/2SWAP or munc13-1 null synapses, but not in CAPS-1/2 null, another priming-deficient mutant...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634303/structural-characterization-of-the-rabphilin-3a-snap25-interaction
#7
Cristina Ferrer-Orta, María Dolores Pérez-Sánchez, Teresa Coronado-Parra, Cristina Silva, David López-Martínez, Jesús Baltanás-Copado, Juan Carmelo Gómez-Fernández, Senena Corbalán-García, Núria Verdaguer
Membrane fusion is essential in a myriad of eukaryotic cell biological processes, including the synaptic transmission. Rabphilin-3A is a membrane trafficking protein involved in the calcium-dependent regulation of secretory vesicle exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structures and biochemical analyses of Rabphilin-3A C2B-SNAP25 and C2B-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) complexes, revealing how Rabphilin-3A C2 domains operate in cooperation with PIP2/Ca(2+) and SNAP25 to bind the plasma membrane, adopting a conformation compatible to interact with the complete SNARE complex...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631873/roles-of-afadin-in-functional-differentiations-of-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapse
#8
Xiaoqi Geng, Tomohiko Maruo, Kenji Mandai, Irwan Supriyanto, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Akira Mizoguchi, Yoshimi Takai, Masahiro Mori
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse has a complex structure and is implicated in learning and memory. In this synapse, the mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. We have recently shown using transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and serial block face-scanning electron microscopy that atypical puncta adherentia junctions are formed in the afadin-deficient mossy fiber synapse and that the complexity of postsynaptic spines and mossy fiber boutons, the number of spine heads, the area of postsynaptic densities and the density of synaptic vesicles docked to active zones are decreased in the afadin-deficient synapse...
June 20, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627368/photoactivation-of-erk-creb-vmat2-pathway-attenuates-mpp-induced-neuronal-injury-in-a-cellular-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Xiaotong Gu, Lei Liu, Qi Shen, Da Xing
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) pumps dopamine from cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles for subsequent release, and the deficits of VMAT2 has been implicated in the dopaminergic neuronal cell loss which is considered as a typical pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI), a potent noninvasive physiotherapy approach, is capable of penetrating into nerve tissue to exert beneficial effects such as promoting nerve regeneration and ATP production. In the present study, we demonstrated that LPLI protects against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity via upregulation of VMAT2 in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells...
June 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625517/reduced-tdp-43-expression-improves-neuronal-activities-in-a-drosophila-model-of-perry-syndrome
#10
Yuka Hosaka, Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Changxu Cui, Taku Arano, Yuzuru Imai, Nobutaka Hattori
Parkinsonian Perry syndrome, involving mutations in the dynein motor component dynactin or p150(Glued), is characterized by TDP-43 pathology in affected brain regions, including the substantia nigra. However, the molecular relationship between p150(Glued) and TDP-43 is largely unknown. Here, we report that a reduction in TDP-43 protein levels alleviates the synaptic defects of neurons expressing the Perry mutant p150(G50R) in Drosophila. Dopaminergic expression of p150(G50R), which decreases dopamine release, disrupts motor ability and reduces the lifespan of Drosophila...
June 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624432/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-and-vesicular-zinc-in-central-nervous-system-function
#11
REVIEW
Brendan B McAllister, Richard H Dyck
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) is the sole mechanism responsible for concentrating zinc ions within synaptic vesicles in a subset of the brain's glutamatergic neurons. This vesicular zinc can then be released into the synaptic cleft in an activity-dependent fashion, where it can exert many signaling functions. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the localization and function of ZnT3 and vesicular zinc in the central nervous system. We begin by reviewing the fundamentals of zinc homeostasis and transport, and the discovery of ZnT3...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623313/inhibition-of-calpains-protects-mn-induced-neurotransmitter-release-disorders-in-synaptosomes-from-mice-involvement-of-snare-complex-and-synaptic-vesicle-fusion
#12
Can Wang, Bin Xu, Zhuo Ma, Chang Liu, Yu Deng, Wei Liu, Zhao-Fa Xu
Overexposure to manganese (Mn) could disrupt neurotransmitter release via influencing the formation of SNARE complex, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. A previous study demonstrated that SNAP-25 is one of substrate of calpains. The current study investigated whether calpains were involved in Mn-induced disorder of SNARE complex. After mice were treated with Mn for 24 days, Mn deposition increased significantly in basal nuclei in Mn-treated and calpeptin pre-treated groups. Behaviorally, less time spent in the center of the area and decreased average velocity significantly in an open field test after 24 days of Mn exposure...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608000/crhr1-mediates-the-up-regulation-of-synapsin-i-induced-by-nesfatin-1-through-erk-1-2-signaling-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#13
Zheng Chen, Ya-Yun Xu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
The anorexigenic molecule nesfatin-1 has recently been taken as a potential mood regulator, but the potential mechanisms remain unknown. Results of our previous study have demonstrated that nesfatin-1 could induce anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats, accompanied by the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the imbalanced mRNA expression of synaptic vesicle proteins. To explore the potential neurobiological mechanism underlying the effect of nesfatin-1 on the synaptic plasticity, the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of nesfatin-1 in the present study...
June 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607047/numbers-of-presynaptic-ca-2-channel-clusters-match-those-of-functionally-defined-vesicular-docking-sites-in-single-central-synapses
#14
Takafumi Miki, Walter A Kaufmann, Gerardo Malagon, Laura Gomez, Katsuhiko Tabuchi, Masahiko Watanabe, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Alain Marty
Many central synapses contain a single presynaptic active zone and a single postsynaptic density. Vesicular release statistics at such "simple synapses" indicate that they contain a small complement of docking sites where vesicles repetitively dock and fuse. In this work, we investigate functional and morphological aspects of docking sites at simple synapses made between cerebellar parallel fibers and molecular layer interneurons. Using immunogold labeling of SDS-treated freeze-fracture replicas, we find that Cav2...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605677/glucose-metabolism-in-nerve-terminals
#15
REVIEW
Ghazaleh Ashrafi, Timothy A Ryan
Nerve terminals in the brain carry out the primary form of intercellular communication between neurons. Neurotransmission, however, requires adequate supply of ATP to support energetically demanding steps, including the maintenance of ionic gradients, reversing changes in intracellular Ca(2+) that arise from opening voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, as well recycling synaptic vesicles. The energy demands of the brain are primarily met by glucose which is oxidized through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603484/evolutionary-divergence-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-complexin-accounts-for-functional-disparities-between-vertebrate-and-invertebrate-complexins
#16
Rachel T Wragg, Daniel A Parisotto, Zhenlong Li, Mayu S Terakawa, David Snead, Ishani Basu, Harel Weinstein, David Eliezer, Jeremy S Dittman
Complexin is a critical presynaptic protein that regulates both spontaneous and calcium-triggered neurotransmitter release in all synapses. Although the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is highly conserved and required for all known complexin functions, the remainder of the protein has profoundly diverged across the animal kingdom. Striking disparities in complexin inhibitory activity are observed between vertebrate and invertebrate complexins but little is known about the source of these differences or their relevance to the underlying mechanism of complexin regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601995/harmful-impact-on-presynaptic-glutamate-and-gaba-transport-by-carbon-dots-synthesized-from-sulfur-containing-carbohydrate-precursor
#17
Tatiana Borisova, Mariia Dekaliuk, Natalia Pozdnyakova, Artem Pastukhov, Marina Dudarenko, Arsenii Borysov, Sandor G Vari, Alexander P Demchenko
Carbon nanoparticles that may be potent air pollutants with adverse effects on human health often contain heteroatoms including sulfur. In order to study in detail their effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, artificially produced carbon dots (CDs) with well-controlled composition that allows fluorescence detection may be of great use. Having been prepared from different types of organic precursors, CDs expose different atoms at their surface suggesting a broad variation of functional groups...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600320/limited-distal-organelles-and-synaptic-function-in-extensive-monoaminergic-innervation
#18
Juan Tao, Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
Organelles such as neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and mitochondria travel down axons to supply synaptic boutons. DCV distribution among en passant boutons in small axonal arbors is mediated by circulation with bidirectional capture. However, it is not known how organelles are distributed in extensive arbors associated with volume transmission and neuromodulation by monoamines and neuropeptides and mammalian dopamine neuron vulnerability. Therefore, we studied presynaptic organelle distribution in Drosophila octopamine neurons that innervate ∼20 muscles with ∼1500 boutons...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596722/unique-structural-features-of-membrane-bound-c-terminal-domain-motifs-modulate-complexin-inhibitory-function
#19
David Snead, Alex L Lai, Rachel T Wragg, Daniel A Parisotto, Trudy F Ramlall, Jeremy S Dittman, Jack H Freed, David Eliezer
Complexin is a small soluble presynaptic protein that interacts with neuronal SNARE proteins in order to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. While the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is required for both the inhibition of spontaneous fusion and the facilitation of synchronous fusion, the disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) of complexin is specifically required for its inhibitory function. The CTD of worm complexin binds to membranes via two distinct motifs, one of which undergoes a membrane curvature dependent structural transition that is required for efficient inhibition of neurotransmitter release, but the conformations of the membrane-bound motifs remain poorly characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595534/a-review-of-levetiracetam-in-neonates
#20
Amit Agrawal, Anita Banergee
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and are associated with various neurological sequelae. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines for the management of neonatal seizures and currently used drugs such as phenobarbital, and phenytoin have limited efficacy and potential toxicities. Newer second line anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, has been used in refractory neonatal seizures despite limited data and off-label use...
June 6, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
keyword
keyword
14324
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"