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Indira Singh Chauhan, Rantidev Shukla, Shagun Krishna, Savita Sekhri, Umesh Kaushik, Sabitha Baby, Chiranjib Pal, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shyam Sundar, Neeloo Singh
Rab proteins form the largest branch of the Ras superfamily. Rab proteins are key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport and membrane trafficking. Although RabGTPases are well-recognized targets in human diseases but are under-explored therapeutically in the Leishmania parasite. Using a quantitative cytofluorimetric assay, we analyzed the composition and organization of Rab6GTPase protein which was found to be primarily localized on the parasite subpellicular membrane and flagellum due to its association with kinesin motor proteins in the cytoskeletal microtubules...
September 22, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Takunori Satoh, Yuri Nakamura, Akiko K Satoh
SNAREs (SNAP receptors) are the key components of protein complexes that drive membrane fusion. Here, we report the function of a SNARE, Syntaxin 5 (Syx5), in the development of photoreceptors in Drosophila In wild-type photoreceptors, Syx5 localizes to cis-Golgi, along with cis-Golgi markers: Rab1 and GM130. We observed that Syx5-deficient photoreceptors show notable accumulation of these cis-Golgi markers accompanying drastic accumulation of vesicles between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi cisternae...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Satoshi Shibata, Tsubasa Kawanai, Takayuki Hara, Asuka Yamamoto, Taro Chaya, Yasunori Tokuhara, Chinami Tsuji, Manabu Sakai, Taro Tachibana, Shinobu Inagaki
The function of ARHGEF10, a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RhoA with proposed roles in various diseases, is poorly understood. To understand the precise function of this protein, we raised a monoclonal antibody against ARHGEF10 and determined its localization in HeLa cells. ARHGEF10 was found to localize to vesicles containing Rab6 (of which there are three isoforms, Rab6a, Rab6b and Rab6c), Rab8 (of which there are two isoforms, Rab8a and Rab8b), and/or the secretion marker neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Venus in a Rab6-dependent manner...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Shizuka Kobayashi, Yamato Hida, Hiroyoshi Ishizaki, Eiji Inoue, Miki Tanaka-Okamoto, Miwako Yamasaki, Taisuke Miyazaki, Masahiro Fukaya, Isao Kitajima, Yoshimi Takai, Masahiko Watanabe, Toshihisa Ohtsuka, Toshiya Manabe
Synaptic efficacy is determined by various factors, including the quantal size, which is dependent on the amount of neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic terminal. It is essential for stable synaptic transmission that the quantal size is kept within a constant range and that synaptic efficacy during and after repetitive synaptic activation is maintained by replenishing release sites with synaptic vesicles. However, the mechanisms for these fundamental properties have still been undetermined...
September 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Stephen M Ostrowski, Kachael Johnson, Matthew Siefert, Sam Shank, Luigi Sironi, Benjamin Wolozin, Gary E Landreth, Assem G Ziady
Evidence suggests that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Statin action in patients with AD, as in those with heart disease, is likely to be at least partly independent of the effects of statins on cholesterol. Statins can alter cellular signaling and protein trafficking through inhibition of isoprenylation of Rho, Cdc42, and Rab family GTPases. The effects of statins on protein isoprenylation in vivo, particularly in the central nervous system, are poorly studied...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Sufang Yang, Alexander Dizhoor, David J Wilson, Grazyna Adamus
PURPOSE: Autoantibodies (AAbs) with different retinal specificities were reported in cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) and autoimmune retinopathy (AR). The goal was to identify the small retinal proteins of apparent molecular mass of 23-kDa often recognized by patients' AAbs. METHODS: Sera specific for a 23-kDa retinal protein of 173 patients were investigated retrospectively by Western blotting and double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. A proteomic analysis revealed new 23-kDa protein candidates, including guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs), heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and Rab6A GTPase (Rab6A)...
May 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Takunori Satoh, Yuri Nakamura, Akiko K Satoh
Selective membrane transport pathways are essential for cells in situ to construct and maintain a polarized structure comprising multiple plasma membrane domains, which is essential for their specific cellular functions. Genetic screening in Drosophila photoreceptors harboring multiple plasma membrane domains enables the identification of genes involved in polarized transport pathways. Our genome-wide high-throughput screening identified a Rab6-null mutant with a rare phenotype characterized by a loss of 2 apical transport pathways with an intact basolateral transport...
July 2, 2016: Fly
Melanie J Harriff, Elham Karamooz, Ansen Burr, Wilmon F Grant, Elizabeth T Canfield, Michelle L Sorensen, Luis F Moita, David M Lewinsohn
Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells, present in high frequency in airway and other mucosal tissues, have Th1 effector capacity positioning them to play a critical role in the early immune response to intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MR1 is a highly conserved Class I-like molecule that presents vitamin B metabolites to MAIT cells. The mechanisms for loading these ubiquitous small molecules are likely to be tightly regulated to prevent inappropriate MAIT cell activation...
March 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Rujun Ma, Jiaqi Zhang, Xiaohui Liu, Ling Li, Honglin Liu, Rong Rui, Ling Gu, Qiang Wang
Rab GTPases have been reported to define the identity and transport routes of vesicles. Rab6 is one of the most extensively studied Rab proteins involved in regulating organelle trafficking and integrity maintenance. However, to date, the function of Rab6 in mammalian oocytes has not been addressed. Here we report severe disorganization of endoplasmic reticulum upon specific knockdown of Rab6a in mouse oocytes. In line with this finding, intracellular Ca(2+) stores are accordingly reduced in Rab6a-depleted oocytes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tomohide Uno, Masayuki Furutani, Chihiro Watanabe, Katsuhiko Sakamoto, Yuichi Uno, Kengo Kanamaru, Hiroshi Yamagata, Akira Mizoguchi, Makio Takeda
In eukaryotic cells, Rab guanosine triphosphate-ases serve as key regulators of membrane-trafficking events, such as exocytosis and endocytosis. Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 control the regulatory secretory pathway of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cDNAs of Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 from B. mori were inserted into a plasmid, transformed into Escherichia coli, and then subsequently purified. We then produced antibodies against Rab3, Rab6, and Rab27 of Bombyx mori in rabbits and rats for use in western immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry...
July 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Donglei Zhang, Jyoti Dubey, Sandhya P Koushika, Christopher Rongo
Retrograde transport is a critical mechanism for recycling certain membrane cargo. Following endocytosis from the plasma membrane, retrograde cargo is moved from early endosomes to Golgi followed by transport (recycling) back to the plasma membrane. The complete molecular and cellular mechanisms of retrograde transport remain unclear. The small GTPase RAB-6.2 mediates the retrograde recycling of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) subunit GLR-1 in C. elegans neurons. Here we show that RAB-6.2 and a close paralog, RAB-6...
2016: PloS One
Nozomi Iwanami, Yuri Nakamura, Takunori Satoh, Ziguang Liu, Akiko K Satoh
Polarized membrane trafficking is essential for the construction and maintenance of multiple plasma membrane domains of cells. Highly polarized Drosophila photoreceptors are an excellent model for studying polarized transport. A single cross-section of Drosophila retina contains many photoreceptors with 3 clearly differentiated plasma membrane domains: a rhabdomere, stalk, and basolateral membrane. Genome-wide high-throughput ethyl methanesulfonate screening followed by precise immunohistochemical analysis identified a mutant with a rare phenotype characterized by a loss of 2 apical transport pathways with normal basolateral transport...
February 2016: PLoS Genetics
Giuseppina Sannino, Lorenza Pasqualini, Eugenia Ricciardelli, Patricia Montilla, Laura Soverchia, Barbara Ruggeri, Silvia Falcinelli, Alessandra Renzi, Colleen Ludka, Thomas Kirchner, Thomas G P Grünewald, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Massimo Ubaldi, Gary Hardiman
Stress arises from an external demand placed on an organism that triggers physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses in order to cope with that request. It is thus an adaptive response useful for the survival of an organism. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize global changes in gene expression in the hippocampus in response to acute stress stimuli, by employing a mouse model of short-term restraint stress. In our experimental design mice were subjected to a one time exposure of restraint stress and the regulation of gene expression in the hippocampus was examined 3, 12 and 24 hours thereafter...
February 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Wilhelm W Just, Johan Peränen
In this review article, we summarize current knowledge on peroxisome biogenesis/functions and the role that small GTPases may play in these processes. Precise intracellular distribution of cell organelles requires their regulated association to microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. In this respect, RhoGDP/RhoGTP favor binding of peroxisomes to microtubules and actin filaments. In its GTP-bound form, RhoA activates a regulatory cascade involving Rho kinaseII and non-muscle myosinIIA. Such interactions frequently depend on phosphoinositides (PIs) of which PI4P, PI(4,5)P2, and PI(3,5)P2 were found to be present in the peroxisomal membrane...
May 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Bishnu K Shrestha, Hari Sharan Karki, Donald E Groth, Nootjarin Jungkhun, Jong Hyun Ham
Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R...
2016: PloS One
Joseph Fogerty, Kristin Denton, Brian D Perkins
The photoreceptor outer segment is a specialized primary cilium, and anchoring of the basal body at the apical membrane is required for outer segment formation. We hypothesized that basal body localization and outer segment formation would require the microtubule motor dynein 1 and analyzed the zebrafish cannonball and mike oko mutants, which carry mutations in the heavy chain subunit of cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dync1h1) and the p150(Glued) subunit of Dynactin (dctn1a). The distribution of Rab6, a player in the post-Golgi trafficking of rhodopsin, was also examined...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shu Zhu, Maoxiang Zhang, Jason E Davis, William H Wu, Kristen Surrao, Hong Wang, Guangyu Wu
The amphipathic helix 8 in the membrane-proximal C-terminus is a structurally conserved feature of class A seven transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Mutations of this helical motif often cause receptor misfolding, defective cell surface transport and dysfunction. Surprisingly, we demonstrated here that a single point mutation at Lys308 in helix 8 markedly enhanced the steady-state surface density of the angiotensin II type 1a receptor (AT1aR). Consistent with the enhanced cell surface expression, Lys308 mutation significantly augmented AT1aR-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 activation, inositol phosphate production, and vascular smooth muscle cell migration...
December 2015: Cellular Signalling
Sabine Bardin, Stéphanie Miserey-Lenkei, Ilse Hurbain, Daniela Garcia-Castillo, Graça Raposo, Bruno Goud
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Rab6 is one of the most conserved Rab GTPaes throughout evolution and the most abundant Rab protein associated with the Golgi complex. The two ubiquitous Rab isoforms, Rab6A and Rab6A', that are generated by alternative splicing of the RAB6A gene, regulate several transport steps at the Golgi level, including retrograde transport between endosomes and Golgi, anterograde transport between Golgi and the plasma membrane, and intra-Golgi and Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum transport...
December 2015: Biology of the Cell
Julian Gambarte Tudela, Anahi Capmany, Maryse Romao, Cristian Quintero, Stephanie Miserey-Lenkei, Graca Raposo, Bruno Goud, Maria Teresa Damiani
Given their obligate intracellular lifestyle, Chlamydia trachomatis ensure that they have access to multiple host sources of essential lipids by interfering with vesicular transport. These bacteria hijack Rab6-, Rab11- and Rab14-controlled trafficking pathways to acquire sphingomyelin from the Golgi complex. Another important source of sphingolipids, phospholipids and cholesterol are multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Despite their participation in chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial replication, the molecular mechanisms mediating the interaction between MVBs and chlamydial inclusions remain unknown...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Cell Science
Johannes Egerer, Denise Emmerich, Björn Fischer-Zirnsak, Wing Lee Chan, David Meierhofer, Beyhan Tuysuz, Katrin Marschner, Sascha Sauer, Francis A Barr, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak
Gerodermia osteodysplastica is a hereditary segmental progeroid disorder affecting skin, connective tissues, and bone that is caused by loss-of-function mutations in GORAB. The golgin, RAB6-interacting (GORAB) protein localizes to the Golgi apparatus and interacts with the small GTPase RAB6. In this study, we used different approaches to shed more light on the recruitment of GORAB to this compartment. We show that GORAB best colocalizes with trans-Golgi markers and is rapidly displaced upon Brefeldin A exposition, indicating a loose association with Golgi membranes...
October 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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