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Kelly Barford, Austin Keeler, Lloyd McMahon, Kathryn McDaniel, Chan Choo Yap, Christopher D Deppmann, Bettina Winckler
The development of the peripheral nervous system relies on long-distance signaling from target organs back to the soma. In sympathetic neurons, this long-distance signaling is mediated by target derived Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) interacting with its axonal receptor, TrkA. This ligand receptor complex internalizes into what is commonly referred to as the signaling endosome which is transported retrogradely to the soma and dendrites to mediate survival signaling and synapse formation, respectively. The molecular identity of signaling endosomes in dendrites has not yet been determined...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janelle L Harris, Keyur Dave, Jeffrey Gorman, Kum Kum Khanna
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 5T4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with limited expression in normal adult tissues and expression in some solid tumours. It is unclear whether 5T4 is preferentially expressed by stem or differentiated cell types. Modes of 5T4 regulation are unknown despite its ongoing development as a cancer immunotherapy target. Our aims were to clarify the differentiation status of 5T4 expressing cells in breast cancer and to understand the mechanism underlying 5T4 membrane presentation...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
A Covarrubias-Pinto, A I Acuña, G Boncompain, E Pápic, P V Burgos, F Perez, M A Castro
Ascorbic acid (Asc) is an antioxidant molecule essential for physiological functions. The concentration of extracellular Asc increases during synaptic transmission and renal reabsorption. These phenomena induce an increase of the Sodium-dependent-Vitamin-C-transporter 2 (SVCT2) at plasma membrane (PM) localization, as we previously demonstrated in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate intracellular SVCT2 trafficking kinetics in response to Asc. We observed two peaks of SVCT2 localization and function at the PM (at 5-10min, "acute response", and 30-60min, "post-acute response") when cells were incubated with Asc...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wenjie Dong, Xinai Wu
Background: Rab11 family-interacting protein 2 (Rab11-FIP2) can interact with MYO5B and plays an important role in regulating plasma membrane recycling. However, little is known about the clinical significance of DUSP2 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In this study, we investigated Rab11-FIP2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 125 patients with colorectal cancer. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Jenny Chia, Jade Louber, Isabelle Glauser, Shirley Taylor, Greg T Bass, Steve K Dower, Paul A Gleeson, Anne M Verhagen
The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has a pivotal role in albumin and IgG homeostasis. Internalized IgG captured by FcRn under acidic endosomal conditions is recycled to the cell surface where exocytosis and a shift to neutral pH promote extracellular IgG release. Although a similar mechanism is proposed for FcRn-mediated albumin intracellular trafficking and recycling, this pathway is less well defined, but is relevant to the development of therapeutics exploiting FcRn to extend the half-life of short-lived plasma proteins...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Steve L Halaby, J Christopher Fromme
The Golgi complex is the central membrane and protein sorting station in eukaryotic cells. Activation of ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) GTPases is essential for vesicle formation via recruitment of cargo adaptors and coat proteins necessary for Golgi trafficking. Arf activation is spatially and temporally regulated by distinct guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) at different Golgi compartments. The yeast Arf-GEF Sec7 is a conserved and essential activator of Arf1 at the trans-Golgi network. Sec7 contains a highly conserved regulatory region, the HUSbox, with an unknown mechanistic role...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tomoaki Sobajima, Shin-Ichiro Yoshimura, Tomomi Maeda, Haruhiko Miyata, Eiji Miyoshi, Akihiro Harada
Cholesterol, which is endocytosed to the late endosome (LE)/lysosome, is delivered to other organelles through vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism of cholesterol transport from recycling endosomes (REs) to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) through RELCH/KIAA1468, which is newly identified in this study as a Rab11-GTP- and OSBP-binding protein. After treating cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol to induce OSBP relocation from the cytoplasm to the TGN, REs accumulated around the TGN area, but this accumulation was diminished in RELCH- or OSBP-depleted cells...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Jing Shi, Ran Xiong, Tao Zhou, Peiyi Su, Xihe Zhang, Xusheng Qiu, Hongmei Li, Sunan Li, Changqing Yu, Bin Wang, Chan Ding, Thomas E Smithgall, Yong-Hui Zheng
The primate lentiviral accessory protein Nef downregulates CD4 and MHC-I from the cell surface via independent endosomal trafficking pathways to promote viral pathogenesis. In addition, Nef antagonizes a novel restriction factor, SERINC5 (Ser5), to increase viral infectivity. To explore the molecular mechanism of Ser5 antagonism by Nef, we determined how Nef affects Ser5 expression and intracellular trafficking in comparison with CD4 and MHC-I. We confirm that Nef excludes Ser5 from HIV-1 virions by downregulating its cell surface expression via similar functional motifs required for CD4-downregulation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Maren Mönnich, Louise Borgeskov, Loretta Breslin, Lis Jakobsen, Michaela Rogowski, Canan Doganli, Jacob M Schrøder, Johanne B Mogensen, Louise Blinkenkjær, Lea M Harder, Emma Lundberg, Stefan Geimer, Søren T Christensen, Jens S Andersen, Lars A Larsen, Lotte B Pedersen
The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center in animal cells and comprises a mother and daughter centriole surrounded by pericentriolar material. During formation of primary cilia, the mother centriole transforms into a basal body that templates the ciliary axoneme. Ciliogenesis depends on mother centriole-specific distal appendages, whereas the role of subdistal appendages in ciliary function is unclear. Here, we identify CEP128 as a centriole subdistal appendage protein required for regulating ciliary signaling...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
C T H Jonker, R Galmes, T Veenendaal, C Ten Brink, R E N van der Welle, N Liv, J de Rooij, A A Peden, P van der Sluijs, C Margadant, J Klumperman
Recycling endosomes maintain plasma membrane homeostasis and are important for cell polarity, migration, and cytokinesis. Yet, the molecular machineries that drive endocytic recycling remain largely unclear. The CORVET complex is a multi-subunit tether required for fusion between early endosomes. Here we show that the CORVET-specific subunits Vps3 and Vps8 also regulate vesicular transport from early to recycling endosomes. Vps3 and Vps8 localise to Rab4-positive recycling vesicles and co-localise with the CHEVI complex on Rab11-positive recycling endosomes...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Jingwei Bian, Suli Zhang, Ming Yi, MingmingYue, Huirong Liu
The internalization of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. Decreased receptor internalization is closely related to cardiovascular diseases induced by the abnormal activation of AT 1 R, such as hypertension. However, the mechanism behind reduced AT 1 R internalization is not fully understood. This review focuses on four parts of the receptor internalization process (the combination of agonists and receptors, receptor phosphorylation, endocytosis, and recycling) and summarizes the possible mechanisms by which AT 1 R internalization is reduced based on these four parts of the process...
February 6, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Hao Xu, Yuan Yuan, Wenqian Wu, Min Zhou, Qian Jiang, Linjun Niu, Jiayin Ji, Nianli Liu, Longzhen Zhang, Xia Wang
Hypoxia plays a key role in tumour cell survival, invasion, and metastasis. An increasing number of studies have attempted to characterize the tumour response to hypoxia and to identify predictive markers of disease. Here we show that hypoxia increases tumour cell invasion and migration by the modulation of Rab11, an important molecule for vesicular trafficking. In our study, we found that Rab11, together with the activation of Rac1, could stimulate invasion and migration of cervical cancer cell lines HeLa/SiHa in hypoxia...
September 2017: Journal of Biosciences
Anika L Dzierlenga, Nathan J Cherrington
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remodels the expression and function of genes and proteins that are critical for drug disposition. This study sought to determine whether disruption of membrane protein trafficking pathways in human NASH contributes to altered localization of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). A comprehensive immunoblot analysis assessed the phosphorylation, membrane translocation, and expression of transporter membrane insertion regulators, including several protein kinases (PK), radixin, MARCKS, and Rab11...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Chien-Ting Wu, Hsin-Yi Chen, Tang K Tang
Primary cilia play essential roles in signal transduction and development. The docking of preciliary vesicles at the distal appendages of a mother centriole is an initial/critical step of ciliogenesis, but the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that myosin-Va mediates the transportation of preciliary vesicles to the mother centriole and reveal the underlying mechanism. We also show that the myosin-Va-mediated transportation of preciliary vesicles is the earliest event that defines the onset of ciliogenesis...
January 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Anna G Hauswirth, Kevin J Ford, Tingting Wang, Richard D Fetter, Amy Tong, Graeme W Davis
Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity stabilizes information transfer at synaptic connections in organisms ranging from insect to human. By analogy with principles of engineering and control theory, the molecular implementation of PHP is thought to require postsynaptic signaling modules that encode homeostatic sensors, a set point, and a controller that regulates transsynaptic negative feedback. The molecular basis for these postsynaptic, homeostatic signaling elements remains unknown. Here, an electrophysiology-based screen of the Drosophila kinome and phosphatome defines a postsynaptic signaling platform that includes a required function for PI3K-cII, PI3K-cIII and the small GTPase Rab11 during the rapid and sustained expression of PHP...
January 5, 2018: ELife
Ljerka Karleuša, Hana Mahmutefendić, Maja Ilić Tomaš, Gordana Blagojević Zagorac, Pero Lučin
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) extensively rearrange the cellular membrane system to develop assembly compartment (AC), but the earliest events in this process are poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that murine CMV (MCMV) infection restrains endosomal trafficking of cargo molecules that travel along the recycling (TfR and MHC-I) and the late endosomal (EGFR, M6PR, Lamp1) circuit. Internalized cargo accumulates in Arf6-, Rab5-, Rab22A-, and Rab11-positive and Rab35-, Rab8-, and Rab10-negative juxtanuclear endosomes, suggesting the disruption of Arf/Rab regulatory cascade at the stage of sorting endosomes and the endosomal recycling compartment...
December 22, 2017: Virology
Falko Riedel, Antonio Galindo, Nadine Muschalik, Sean Munro
Originally identified in yeast, transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes are Rab GTPase exchange factors that share a core set of subunits. TRAPPs were initially found to act on Ypt1, the yeast orthologue of Rab1, but recent studies have found that yeast TRAPPII can also activate the Rab11 orthologues Ypt31/32. Mammals have two TRAPP complexes, but their role is less clear, and they contain subunits that are not found in the yeast complexes but are essential for cell growth. To investigate TRAPP function in metazoans, we show that Drosophila melanogaster have two TRAPP complexes similar to those in mammals and that both activate Rab1, whereas one, TRAPPII, also activates Rab11...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Sandip K Basu, Sook Lee, Jacqueline Salotti, Srikanta Basu, Krisada Sakchaisri, Zhen Xiao, Vijay Walia, Christopher J Westlake, Deborah K Morrison, Peter F Johnson
The precise characteristics that distinguish normal and oncogenic RAS signaling remain obscure. Here we show that oncogenic RAS and BRAF induce perinuclear re-localization of several RAS pathway proteins, including the kinases CK2 and p-ERK1/2 and the signaling scaffold KSR1. This spatial reorganization requires endocytosis, the kinase activities of MEK-ERK and CK2, and the presence of KSR1. CK2α co-localizes with KSR1 and Rab11, a marker of recycling endosomes, whereas p-ERK associates predominantly with a distinct KSR1-positive endosomal population...
December 19, 2017: Cancer Research
Saul S Siller, Himanshu Sharma, Shuai Li, June Yang, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Holly Colognato, Bernadette C Holdener, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru
Multiciliated cells of the airways, brain ventricles, and female reproductive tract provide the motive force for mucociliary clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and ovum transport. Despite their clear importance to human biology and health, the molecular mechanisms underlying multiciliated cell differentiation are poorly understood. Prior studies implicate the distal appendage/transition fiber protein CEP164 as a central regulator of primary ciliogenesis; however, its role in multiciliogenesis remains unknown...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Alex E Clark, Maite Sabalza, Philip L S M Gordts, Deborah H Spector
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the top viral cause of birth defects worldwide, and current therapies have high toxicity. We previously published that the mTOR-independent autophagy-inducing disaccharide trehalose inhibits HCMV replication in multiple cell types. Here, we examine the mechanism of inhibition and introduce the autophagy inducer SMER28 as an additional inhibitor of HCMV acting through a different mechanism. We find that trehalose induces vacuolation and acidification of vacuoles, and that debris, including debris consistent in appearance with abnormal virions, is present in multivesicular bodies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
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