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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792512/use-of-t2mr-in-invasive-candidiasis-with-and-without-candidemia
#1
Ioannis M Zacharioudakis, Fainareti N Zervou, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The mortality associated with invasive candidiasis remains unacceptably high. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay is a novel US FDA-approved molecular diagnostic assay for the diagnosis of candidemia that can rapidly detect the five most commonly isolated Candida spp. In clinical trials, T2MR has exhibited good clinical sensitivity and specificity. Potential benefits from the adoption of T2MR technology in the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for invasive candidiasis can arise from timely diagnosis of disease, increased case detection, tailored therapy and decrease in empiric antifungal treatment...
May 24, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784839/clonal-spread-in-candida-glabrata-bloodstream-isolates-and-fluconazole-resistance-affected-by-prolonged-exposure-a-12-year-single-center-study-in-belgium
#2
Berdieke Goemaere, Katrien Lagrou, Isabel Spriet, Marijke Hendrickx, Pierre Becker
Candida glabrata is a major cause of candidemia in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by a high-level of fluconazole resistance. In the present study, acquisition of antifungal resistance and potential clonal spread of C. glabrata were explored at a single center over a 12-year period by analyzing 187 independent clinical C. glabrata bloodstream isolates. One strain was found to be micafungin resistant due to a mutation in the FKS2 gene. Fluconazole resistance remained stable throughout the period and was observed in 20 (10...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762868/candidemia-in-children-epidemiology-prevention-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Elpis Mantadakis, Zoe Dorothea Pana, Theoklis Zaoutis
Candidemia is the leading cause of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized children. The highest rates of candidemia have been recorded in neonates and infants <1 year of age. Candidemia is more frequent in neonates and young infants than in adults, and is associated with better clinical outcomes, but higher inpatient costs. Over the last 10 years, a declining trend has been noted in the incidence of pediatric candidemia in the US and elsewhere due to the hospital-wide implementation of central-line insertion and maintenance bundles that emphasize full sterile barrier precautions, chlorhexidine skin preparation during line insertion, meticulous site and tubing care, and daily discussion of catheter necessity...
May 15, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755705/appropriate-duration-of-intravenous-treatment-of-candidemia-and-timing-of-step-down-to-oral-therapy-in-non-neutropenic-patients
#4
REVIEW
Rita Wilson Dib, Ray Hachem, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Issam Raad
In this review, we have analyzed the available literature pertaining to the total duration of intravenous (IV) therapy and the appropriate timing of step down to oral therapy in the management of candidemia. Overview of the guidelines and literature seem to indicate that a minimum of 14 days of antifungal therapy is required in the treatment of candidemia without deeply seated infection. However, this was never based on evidence. Furthermore, step down to oral therapy seems to be dependent on the clinical stability criteria of the patient with candidemia after 4 to 7 days of IV therapy...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755472/the-elusive-anti-candida-vaccine-lessons-from-the-past-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#5
REVIEW
Gloria Hoi Wan Tso, Jose Antonio Reales-Calderon, Norman Pavelka
Candidemia is a bloodstream fungal infection caused by Candida species and is most commonly observed in hospitalized patients. Even with proper antifungal drug treatment, mortality rates remain high at 40-50%. Therefore, prophylactic or preemptive antifungal medications are currently recommended in order to prevent infections in high-risk patients. Moreover, the majority of women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) throughout their lifetime and many of them suffer from recurrent VVC (RVVC) with frequent relapses for the rest of their lives...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753529/candidemia-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-12-year-retrospective-cohort-study-in-reunion-island
#6
G Hoarau, S Picot, J Lemant, J Peytral, P Poubeau, P Zunic, C Mohr, X Coueffe, P Gerardin, E Antok
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the epidemiology of Candida bloodstream infection in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Reunion Island. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study and evaluated 63 candidemia episodes, which occurred between January 2004 and December 2015 in the ICU of a University Hospital in St-Pierre. RESULTS: The incidence rate of candidemia in the ICU was estimated at 7.6%. Candida albicans was the most common yeast pathogen species recovered (54%), followed by Candida glabrata (17%), Candida tropicalis (12%) and Candida parapsilosis (10%)...
May 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753321/influence-of-pathogen-and-focus-of-infection-on-procalcitonin-values-in-sepsis-patients-with-bacteremia-or-candidemia
#7
Daniel O Thomas-Rüddel, Bernhard Poidinger, Matthias Kott, Manfred Weiss, Konrad Reinhart, Frank Bloos
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) serum concentrations to diagnose Gram-negative bacteremia and the association of PCT serum concentrations with more specific pathogens and the focus of infection. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the prospectively collected patient-level dataset from a cluster randomized quality improvement trial was performed. The trial included sepsis patients with organ dysfunction treated in the participating intensive care units from 2011 to 2015...
May 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746596/the-hyr1-protein-from-the-fungus-candida-albicans-is-a-cross-kingdom-immunotherapeutic-target-for-acinetobacter-bacterial-infection
#8
Priya Uppuluri, Lin Lin, Abdullah Alqarihi, Guanpingsheng Luo, Eman G Youssef, Sondus Alkhazraji, Nannette Y Yount, Belal A Ibrahim, Michael Anthony Bolaris, John E Edwards, Marc Swidergall, Scott G Filler, Michael R Yeaman, Ashraf S Ibrahim
Different pathogens share similar medical settings and rely on similar virulence strategies to cause infections. We have previously applied 3-D computational modeling and bioinformatics to discover novel antigens that target more than one human pathogen. Active and passive immunization with the recombinant N-terminus of Candida albicans Hyr1 (rHyr1p-N) protect mice against lethal candidemia. Here we determine that Hyr1p shares homology with cell surface proteins of the multidrug resistant Gram negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii including hemagglutinin (FhaB) and outer membrane protein A (OmpA)...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744261/antimicrobial-stewardship-without-infectious-disease-physician-for-patients-with-candidemia-a-before-and-after-study
#9
Minoru Murakami, Hirokazu Komatsu, Masahide Sugiyama, Yuhei Ichikawa, Kyoko Ide, Rumi Tsuchiya, Kenji Kunieda, Akiko Magishi, Gaku Akiyama, Fumihide Miura, Kunihiko Okada, Masaya Ikezoe
Background: Little is known about the effects of antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) without infectious disease physician (IDP) on clinical outcome in patients with candidemia. Methods: We conducted a before and after study involving patients with hospital-acquired candidemia at a tertiary hospital without IDPs. The AST consisted of physicians, pharmacists, nurse, microbiologist, and administrative staff. A candidemia care bundle was developed based on the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guideline...
May 2018: Journal of General and Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743306/reduction-in-the-percentage-of-clusters-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-parapsilosis-causing-candidemia-in-a-general-hospital-in-madrid-spain
#10
Pilar Escribano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Patricia Muñoz, Emilio Bouza, Jesús Guinea
The presence of clusters in units with a high incidence of candidemia suggests the need for prevention of candidemia. We analyzed the percentage of patients involved in clusters and its evolution over a large period of time in a tertiary hospital.We studied 432 patients admitted to Gregorio Marañón Hospital with candidemia caused by Candida albicans (n=276) or Candida parapsilosis (n=156) between January 2007 and December 2014. Incident isolates were genotyped. A cluster was defined as a group of ≥2 patients infected by an identical genotype; we considered clusters to be "tracking clusters" when the patients involved in the cluster were admitted to the same ward within a period of 24 months...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743305/five-year-national-surveillance-of-invasive-candidiasis-species-distribution-and-azole-susceptibility-from-the-china-hospital-invasive-fungal-surveillance-net-chif-net-study
#11
Meng Xiao, Zi-Yong Sun, Mei Kang, Da-Wen Guo, Kang Liao, Sharon C-A Chen, Fanrong Kong, Xin Fan, Jing-Wei Cheng, Xin Hou, Meng-Lan Zhou, Ying Li, Shu-Ying Yu, Jing-Jing Huang, He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu
Data on the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis (IC) and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates in China are still limited. Here we report surveillance for IC from the China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) Study. Sixty-five tertiary hospitals collected 8,829 Candida isolates from August 1, 2009 to July 31, 2014. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization -time of flight mass spectrometry supplemented by rDNA sequencing was used to define species, and fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disk diffusion method...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742466/systematic-clinical-management-of-patients-with-candidemia-improves-survival
#12
Rita Murri, Francesca Giovannenze, Marta Camici, Riccardo Torelli, Giulio Ventura, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Roberto Cauda, Massimo Fantoni
OBJECTIVES: . Taking into account the significant morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs related to Candidemia, our objective is to define if improving appropriateness in candidemia management was associated with better clinical outcomes. METHODS: . A prospective observational monocentric cohort study was conducted. Adherence to five main elements was examined: appropriate selection of initial therapy; follow-up blood culture; echocardiography; ophthalmological examination; and removal of a central venous catheter...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738604/five-year-profile-of-candidemia-at-an-indian-trauma-center-high-rates-of-candida-auris-blood-stream-infections
#13
Purva Mathur, Fahmi Hasan, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Rajesh Malhotra, Kamini Walia, Anuradha Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a potentially fatal infection with varied distribution of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility profiles. The recent emergence of Candida auris in invasive candidiasis is a cause for concern. This study describes the profile of candidemia at an Indian tertiary care hospital and reports the emergence of Candida auris. METHODS: All patients diagnosed as having candidemia between 2012 to 2017 were studied. The isolates were identified using conventional methods, VITEK 2 and by the MALDI-TOF MS...
May 8, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725811/genetic-diversity-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-parapsilosis-sensu-stricto-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-turkish-patients
#14
Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Somayeh Sharifynia, Yasemin Öz, Müge Aslan, Nuray Gündoğdu, Ayşe Serin, Haleh Rafati, Faezeh Mohammadi, Dilek Yeşim-Metin, Aylin Döğen, Macit Ilkit, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto is an emerging cause of hospital-acquired Candida infections, predominantly in southern Europe, South America, and Asia. We investigated the genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility profile of 170 independent C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains obtained from patients with candidemia who were treated at the Ege University Hospital in Izmir, Turkey, between 2006 and 2014. The identity of each strain was confirmed via PCR amplification and digestion of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene...
May 3, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719235/glucose-homeostasis-is-important-for-immune-cell-viability-during-candida-challenge-and-host-survival-of-systemic-fungal-infection
#15
Timothy M Tucey, Jiyoti Verma, Paul F Harrison, Sarah L Snelgrove, Tricia L Lo, Allison K Scherer, Adele A Barugahare, David R Powell, Robert T Wheeler, Michael J Hickey, Traude H Beilharz, Thomas Naderer, Ana Traven
To fight infections, macrophages undergo a metabolic shift whereby increased glycolysis fuels antimicrobial inflammation and killing of pathogens. Here we demonstrate that the pathogen Candida albicans turns this metabolic reprogramming into an Achilles' heel for macrophages. During Candida-macrophage interactions intertwined metabolic shifts occur, with concomitant upregulation of glycolysis in both host and pathogen setting up glucose competition. Candida thrives on multiple carbon sources, but infected macrophages are metabolically trapped in glycolysis and depend on glucose for viability: Candida exploits this limitation by depleting glucose, triggering rapid macrophage death...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712651/resistance-to-echinocandins-in-candida-can-be-detected-by-performing-the-etest-directly-on-blood-culture-samples
#16
María Ángeles Bordallo-Cardona, Laura Judith Marcos-Zambrano, Carlos Sánchez-Carrillo, Emilio Bouza, Patricia Muñoz, Pilar Escribano, Jesús Guinea
Background: We examined the rapid evaluation of susceptibility to echinocandins in Candida spp. using the Etest performed directly on positive blood cultures and anidulafungin-containing agar plates. Methods: We prospectively collected 80 positive blood cultures (Bactec™-FX system, Becton-Dickinson, Cockeysville, Maryland, USA) with echinocandin-susceptible Candida spp (n=60) and echinocandin-intermediate C. parapsilosis (n=20) from patients with candidemia. Additionally, blood culture bottles of nonfungemic/bacteremic patients were spiked with 35 echinocandin-resistant Candida spp...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704397/association-of-the-hypha-related-protein-pra1-and-zinc-transporter-zrt1-with-biofilm-formation-by-the-pathogenic-yeast-candida-albicans
#17
Sanae Kurakado, Rika Arai, Takashi Sugita
Bloodstream infection by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is a major health problem. Candidemia is often associated with medical devices, which can act as substrates for biofilm development. Biofilm-related infections are relatively difficult to treat because of their resistance to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanism of biofilm formation. Dimorphism is a major contributor to biofilm formation in C. albicans. To address whether the hypha-related proteins Pra1 (pH-regulated antigen) and Zrt1 (zinc transporter) are responsible for biofilm formation, we investigated the ability of pra1 and zrt1 deletion mutants to form biofilms...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696003/multilocus-sequence-typing-reveals-a-new-cluster-of-closely-related-candida-tropicalis-genotypes-in-italian-patients-with-neurological-disorders
#18
Fabio Scordino, Letterio Giuffrè, Giuseppina Barberi, Francesca Marino Merlo, Maria Grazia Orlando, Domenico Giosa, Orazio Romeo
Candida tropicalis is a pathogenic yeast that has emerged as an important cause of candidemia especially in elderly patients with hematological malignancies. Infections caused by this species are mainly reported from Latin America and Asian-Pacific countries although recent epidemiological data revealed that C. tropicalis accounts for 6-16.4% of the Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Italy by representing a relevant issue especially for patients receiving long-term hospital care. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695056/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-argentina
#19
Fernando O Riera, Juan P Caeiro, David W Denning
The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686548/evaluating-predictors-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-patients-with-and-without-candidemia-on-micafungin
#20
Amy Carr, Peter Colley, Mezgebe Berhe, Hoa L Nguyen
Numerous risk factors have been linked to invasive candidiasis; however, they are nonspecific and often trigger empiric antifungal therapy in a large number of patients. Identification of more precise predictors could promote judicious use of empiric echinocandins. In this retrospective review, 127 patients with blood cultures positive for Candida spp. were compared to a randomly selected cohort of 134 patients on empiric micafungin for ≥3 days and with blood cultures negative for Candida spp. Factors associated with candidemia included total parenteral nutrition (TPN; 26...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
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