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Candidemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100311/the-evaluation-of-three-different-bottles-in-bactec-9240-automated-blood-culture-system-and-direct-identification-of-candida-species-to-shorten-the-turnaround-time-of-blood-culture
#1
Egemen Gokbolat, Yasemin Oz, Selma Metintas
Candida spp. are the most common causes of fungemia. Rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are very important for appropriate management of candidemia. At present, blood culture is the essential diagnostic test despite it has a long detection time and low sensitivity rate. We aimed to investigate the ways to shorten the turnaround time from blood culture collection to final identification in candidemia. Sixty clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida were included and the Plus Aerobic/F, Peds Plus/F and Mycosis IC/F (MICF) bottles were used with BACTEC 9240 blood culture instrument...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081316/evaluation-of-epidemiological-characteristics-and-risk-factors-affecting-mortality-in-patients-with-candidemia
#2
Fatma Yılmaz Karadağ, Pınar Ergen, Özlem Aydın, Arzu Doğru, Berrin Tanıdır, Mustafa Haluk Vahaboğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to determine epidemiologic characters of patients with candidemia and to evaluate risk factors that can affect mortality rates among these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted to the İstanbul Medeniyet University Göztepe Training Hospital between 2009 and 2011 who had a positive blood culture for Candida spp. during hospitalization were studied retrospectively for demographic characteristics and risk factors...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069658/scy-078-is-fungicidal-in-time-kill-studies-against-candida-species
#3
Bernard Scorneaux, David Angulo, Katyna Borroto-Esoda, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Michael Peel, Stephen Wring
SCY-078 is an orally bioavailable ß-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor (GSI) and the first-in-class of structurally novel triterpine antifungals in clinical development for treating candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In vitro susceptibility by broth micro-dilution, antifungal carry-over, and time-kill dynamics were determined for 3 reference (ATCC) strains (C. albicans 90028, C. parapsilosis 90018, and C. tropicalis 750), a Quality Control (QC) strain (C krusei 6258), and 4 other strains (C. albicans MYA-2732, 64124, 76485 and C...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011902/ecil-6-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis-aspergillosis-and-mucormycosis-in-leukemia-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#4
Frederic Tissot, Samir Agrawal, Livio Pagano, Georgios Petrikkos, Andreas H Groll, Anna Skiada, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Thierry Calandra, Claudio Viscoli, Raoul Herbrecht
The European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL) provides recommendations for diagnostic strategies and prophylactic, pre-emptive or targeted therapy strategies for various types of infection in patients with hematological malignancies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Meetings are held every two years since 2005 and evidence-based recommendations are elaborated after evaluation of the literature and discussion among specialists of nearly all European countries. In this manuscript, the ECIL group presents the 2015-update of the recommendations for the targeted treatment of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis and mucormycosis...
December 23, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995055/recurrent-episodes-of-candidemia-due-to-candida-glabrata-candida-tropicalis-and-candida-albicans-with-acquired-echinocandin-resistance
#5
Marine Grosset, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Cendrine Godet, Catherine Kauffmann-Lacroix, France Cazenave-Roblot
Mixed fungal infection and acquired echinocandin resistance of Candida spp. remain infrequent. In this study we have reported the case of a patient hospitalized for tuberculosis who experienced multiple infections due to three common Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis). Furthermore, consecutive isolates from blood cultures and heart valve were found resistant to azoles (C. tropicalis) and to echinocandin with either novel (C. tropicalis) or previously described (C. albicans) missense mutations in the Fks gene...
December 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934838/a-high-yield-dna-extraction-method-for-medically-important-candida-species-a-comparison-of-manual-versus-qiacube-based-automated-system
#6
P Das, P Pandey, A Harishankar, M Chandy, S Bhattacharya
The prognosis of infected individuals with candidemia depends on rapid and precise diagnosis which enables optimising treatment. Three fungal DNA extraction protocols have been compared in this study for medically important Candida species. The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted by physical, chemical and automated protocols was compared using NanoDrop ND-2000 spectrophotometer. It was found that the yield and purity (260/230) ratio of extracted DNA was significantly high in the physical treatment-based protocol as compared to chemical based or automated protocol...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926862/vav-proteins-are-key-regulators-of-card9-signaling-for-innate-antifungal-immunity
#7
Susanne Roth, Hanna Bergmann, Martin Jaeger, Assa Yeroslaviz, Konstantin Neumann, Paul-Albert Koenig, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Lesley Vanes, Vinod Kumar, Melissa Johnson, Mauricio Menacho-Márquez, Bianca Habermann, Victor L Tybulewicz, Mihai Netea, Xosé R Bustelo, Jürgen Ruland
Fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The innate immune system senses fungal pathogens through Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), which signal through the conserved immune adaptor Card9. Although Card9 is essential for antifungal defense, the mechanisms that couple CLR-proximal events to Card9 control are not well defined. Here, we identify Vav proteins as key activators of the Card9 pathway. Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3 cooperate downstream of Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle to engage Card9 for NF-κB control and proinflammatory gene transcription...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919901/safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-cd101-iv-a-novel-echinocandin-in-healthy-adults
#8
Taylor Sandison, Voon Ong, Jonathan Lee, Dirk Thye
CD101 IV is a novel echinocandin with distinctive pharmacokinetic properties that is being developed as a once-weekly treatment for candidemia and invasive candidiasis. CD101 has potent in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy against a broad range of Candida and Aspergillus species. The primary objective of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation studies in healthy adults was to determine the safety and tolerability of CD101 IV. Sequential cohorts of 8 subjects (n=6, active; n=2, placebo) were administered single (50, 100, 200, 400 mg) or multiple once-weekly (100 mg ×2, 200 mg ×2, 400 mg ×3) doses of CD101 IV infused over 1 hour...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919891/structure-activity-relationships-of-a-series-of-echinocandins-and-the-discovery-of-cd101-a-highly-stable-and-soluble-echinocandin-with-distinctive-pharmacokinetic-properties
#9
Kenneth D James, Christopher P Laudeman, Navdeep B Malkar, Radha Krishnan, Karen Polowy
Echinocandins are first-line therapy for candidemia and invasive candidiasis. They are generally safe with few drug interactions, but the stability and pharmacokinetic properties of currently approved echinocandins are such that each was developed for daily intravenous infusion. We sought to discover a novel echinocandin with properties that would enable more flexible dosing regimens, alternate routes of delivery, and expanded utility. Derivatives of known echinocandin scaffolds were generated, and an iterative process of design and screening led to the discovery of CD101, a novel echinocandin that has since demonstrated improved chemical stability and pharmacokinetics...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884707/polyclonal-anti-candida-antibody-improves-phagocytosis-and-overall-outcome-in-zebrafish-model-of-disseminated-candidiasis
#10
Audrey C Bergeron, Sarah E Barker, Kimberly M Brothers, Brinda C Prasad, Robert T Wheeler
Fungal infections are a major cause of animal and plant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective biological therapeutics could complement current antifungal drugs, but understanding of their in vivo mechanisms has been hampered by technical barriers to intravital imaging of host-pathogen interactions. Here we characterize the fungal infection of zebrafish as a model to understand the mechanism-of-action for biological antifungal therapeutics through intravital imaging of these transparent animals. We find that non-specific human IgG enhances phagocytosis by zebrafish phagocytes in vivo...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884125/epidemiology-of-and-risk-factors-for-neonatal-candidemia-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-western-china
#11
Jichang Chen, Yongjiang Jiang, Ba Wei, Yanling Ding, Shaolin Xu, Peixu Qin, Jinjian Fu
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and clinical characteristics of neonatal candidemia are poorly understood in western China. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of neonatal candidemia in the Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2015. Electronic databases were reviewed and data on Candida species were isolated from blood cultures and candidemia incidence, risk factors, and mortality were extracted...
November 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872072/pharmacokinetics-of-anidulafungin-in-critically-ill-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-with-suspected-or-proven-invasive-fungal-infections
#12
R J M Brüggemann, V Middel-Baars, D W de Lange, A Colbers, A R J Girbes, P Pickkers, E L Swart
Echinocandins, such as anidulafungin are first line treatment for candidemia or invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. There is conflicting data on the pharmacokinetic properties of anidulafungin in ICU patients. Adult ICU patients (from 3 hospitals) receiving anidulafungin for suspected or proven fungal infections were included. Patient were considered evaluable when a pharmacokinetic curve on day 3 could be completed. 23 out of 36 patients (7 female, 16 male) were evaluable. Median (range) age and bodyweight were 66 (28-88) yr and 76 (50-115) kg...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862414/epidemiology-and-cost-implications-of-candidemia-a-6-year-analysis-from-a-developing-country
#13
Aysegul Ulu Kilic, Emine Alp, Fatma Cevahir, Zeynep Ture, Nuran Yozgat
Surveillance of candidemia is essential to monitor trends in species distribution and change in the incidence and antifungal resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal utilization and costs. A 6-year retrospective analysis of the data belonging to patients with candidemia hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 was performed. The annual usage of fluconazole and caspofungin and the usage of these antifungals in different units were described in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days...
November 9, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859978/breakthrough-fungemia-due-to-candida-fermentati-with-fks1p-mutation-under-micafungin-treatment-in-a-cord-blood-transplant-recipient
#14
Takaaki Konuma, Shunsuke Takahashi, Tomohiko Kiyuna, Yuta Miharu, Masato Suzuki, Hiroko Shibata, Seiko Kato, Satoshi Takahashi, Arinobu Tojo
The prophylactic use of antifungal drugs in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients has revealed that the rate of non-albicans candidemia has increased. We herein report the case of a patient with adult T-cell leukemia who developed candidemia due to Candida fermentati during micafungin treatment after cord blood transplantation. The isolate was identified on day 47 by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene. The sequencing of the hot spot region of fks1p of isolate revealed naturally occurring amino acid substitutions, which conferred reduced echinocandin susceptibility...
November 15, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850329/690-discontinuation-of-micafungin-therapy-utilizing-a-validated-clinical-predication-rule-for-candidemia
#15
Gabrielle Gibson, Mollie Gowan, Paul Juang, Scott Micek, Marin Kollef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850307/668-impact-of-candida-colonization-to-predict-candidemia-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#16
Daniel Kett, Roland Schein, Cynthia Cely, Luis Rosario, Sameer Bajaj, Rajan Garg, Andrew Quartin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837513/t2-magnetic-resonance-for-fungal-diagnosis
#17
Fainareti N Zervou, Ioannis M Zacharioudakis, Jaclynn Kurpewski, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Rapid diagnostic methods for fungal infections are long awaited and are expected to improve outcomes through early initiation of targeted antifungal therapy. T2Candida panel is a novel qualitative diagnostic platform that was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for diagnosis of candidemia with a mean time to species identification of less than 5 h. T2Candida panel is performed on the fully automated T2Dx instrument in whole blood K2EDTA specimens and is able to detect 5 Candida spp...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837497/the-changing-epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-infections
#18
David A Enoch, Huina Yang, Sani H Aliyu, Christianne Micallef
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are an emerging problem worldwide with invasive candidiasis and candidemia responsible for the majority of cases. This is predominantly driven by the widespread adoption of aggressive immunosuppressive therapy among certain patient populations (e.g., chemotherapy, transplants) and the increasing use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters (CVCs). The use of new immune modifying drugs has also opened up an entirely new spectrum of patients at risk of IFIs. While the epidemiology of candida infections has changed in the last decade, with a gradual shift from C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832392/epidemiology-and-mortality-of-candidemia-both-related-and-unrelated-to-the-central-venous-catheter-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
S Arias, O Denis, I Montesinos, S Cherifi, V Y Miendje Deyi, F Zech
Our objective was to compare mortality, epidemiology, and morbidity in hospitalized patients with candidemia which was both related and unrelated to the central venous catheter (CVC). This was a monocentric, retrospective cohort study of candidemia. The sample consisted of 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed nosocomial candidemia hospitalized between 2006 and 2013 in a tertiary care public hospital. We included 65 (63.1 %) patients (24 in the CVC-positive group, 41 in the CVC-negative group). Demographic data and risk factors were recorded using a structured case report form...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812015/understanding-the-antifungal-mechanism-of-ag-zno-core-shell-nanocomposites-against-candida-krusei
#20
Bhaskar Das, Md Imran Khan, R Jayabalan, Susanta K Behera, Soon-Il Yun, Suraj K Tripathy, Amrita Mishra
In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
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